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Adolescent heart

F F Chen, S Y Chang, D Q Hou, A Y Gao, Z X Zhu, Z C Yu, N X Lin, J Mi
Objective: To describe the status of cardiovascular health (CVH) of children and adolescents aged 6-16 years in Beijing during 2017-2018. Methods: The school-based Cardiovascular and Bone Health Promotion Program(SCVBH) was conducted from November 2017 to January 2018. 15 391 children and adolescents aged 6-16 years were selected from grade 1 to 4 in 8 primary schools, grade 1 in 21 middle schools and senior grade 1 in one twelve-year education school in Dongcheng, Fangshan, Miyun and Haidian Districts of Beijing by using a cluster sampling method...
November 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Andrea Ronchi, Iacopo Panarese, Gabriella Aquino, Antonio Gambardella, Franco Franco, Immacolata Cozzolino
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a mesenchymal neoplasm usually affecting adolescents and young adults, with one third of cases occuring in the first two decades of life. SS is characterized by the specific balanced chromosomal translocation t(X;18)(p11;q11), resulting in the fusion of SYT gene on chromosome 18 with SSX1, SSX2 or SSX4 gene on chromosome X. SS predominantly arises in the soft tissue around large joints of the lower extremities. Other sites include head and neck, thorax, heart or pericardium, abdomen and pelvis...
November 12, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Melissa Suzanne Burroughs Peña, Katrina Swett, Robert C Kaplan, Krista Perreira, Martha Daviglus, Mayank M Kansal, Jianwen Cai, Aida L Giachello, Marc D Gellman, Eric J Velazquez, Carlos J Rodriguez
Objective: To describe the relationship of household secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and cardiac structure and function. Methods: Participants (n=1069; 68 % female; age 45-74 years) without history of tobacco use, coronary artery disease or severe valvular disease were included. Past childhood (starting at age <13 years), adolescent/adult and current exposure to household SHS was assessed. Survey linear regression analyses were used to model the relationship of SHS exposure and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, adjusting for covariates (age, sex, study site, alcohol use, physical activity and education)...
2018: Open Heart
Klara Meierer, Alexandre Hudon, Marc Sznajder, Marie-France Leduc, Danielle Taddeo, Olivier Jamoulle, Jean-Yves Frappier, Chantal Stheneur
The purpose of our study is to establish if the proportion of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa that have a history of excess weight has increased over a 10-year period and to study how different premorbid weight groups vary in terms of clinical characteristics. We performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of all new patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, restrictive and binge/purge subtypes, in 2004 and 2014 at the Adolescent Medicine Clinic of Sainte-Justine University Health Centre (n = 172)...
November 5, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ann Marie Ruhe, Imran Qureshi, David Procaccini
DiGeorge Syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome) is a chromosomal disorder associated with both congenital heart malformations and schizophrenia, which is often treatment-resistant and may warrant treatment with clozapine. Clozapine-induced myocarditis (CIM) is a rare complication of clozapine therapy, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.015% to 3%. Fulminant CIM has a nonspecific presentation in both adult and pediatric populations and a mortality rate approaching 50%. Few cases of pediatric CIM have been documented in the literature...
November 2018: The mental health clinician
Fabrice Jollant, Géraldine Voegeli, Nolan C Kordsmeier, Jessica M Carbajal, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Gustavo Turecki, Ricardo Cáceda
OBJECTIVE: Psychological pain lies at the heart of human experience. However, it may also be abnormally intense and/or prolonged in pathological states, with negative outcomes. A simple and reliable measure of psychological pain for clinical use would be useful. In this study, we present a preliminary validation of a simple visual analog scale jointly measuring psychological and physical pain. METHODS: Two samples of adult (non elderly) depressed patients and healthy controls were independently recruited in two locations in Canada and the USA (N = 48/46 and 20/200, respectively)...
October 31, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Andreza L Gomes, Vanessa A Mendonça, Tatiane Dos Santos Silva, Crislaine K V Pires, Liliana P Lima, Alcilene M Silva, Ana Cristina R Camargos, Camila D C Neves, Ana C R Lacerda, Hércules R Leite
BACKGROUND: Previous studies speculated that the Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) is a maximal test in children and adolescents, however comparison between ISWT with cardiopulmonary exercise test has not yet performed. Furthermore, there is no regression equation available in the current literature to predict oxygen peak consumption (VO2 peak) in this population. This study aimed to assesses and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the ISWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise (CEPT) and to develop and validate a regression equation to predict VO2 peak in healthy sedentary adolescent boys...
2018: PloS One
Roberta M Kato, Yoon-Chul Kim, Biswas Joshi, Shirleen Loloyan, Choo Phei Wee, Ziyue Wu, Winston Tran, Thomas G Keens, Michael C K Khoo, Krishna S Nayak, Sally L Davidson Ward
RATIONALE: The use of real-time magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation during sleep related respiratory events can lead to better understanding of airway dynamics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dynamic anatomy of the upper airway during central apnea. METHODS: The study included obese adolescents who snore and were otherwise healthy. Subjects underwent an overnight baseline polysomnogram. Subjects slept during a 24-minute real-time upper airway MRI scan wearing a full facemask attached to a pneumotach...
October 29, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Durva Vahia, Adam Kelly, Harry Knapman, Craig A Williams
PURPOSE: When exposed to the same external load, players receive different internal loads, resulting in varied adaptations in fitness. In adult soccer, internal training load is measured using heart rate (HR) and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) scales, but these have been underutilized in youth soccer. This study investigated the in-season variation in correlation between HR and sRPE estimations of training load for adolescent soccer players. METHOD: Fifteen male professional adolescent players were monitored for 7 months...
October 28, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
João Paulo Heinzmann-Filho, Letiane Bueno Zanatta, Fernanda Maria Vendrusculo, Juliana Severo da Silva, Mailise Fatima Gheller, Natália Evangelista Campos, Margareth da Silva Oliveira, Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli, Andréia da Silva Gustavo, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio
OBJECTIVE: To compare the values of measured maximum heart rate (HRmax) and maximum heart rate estimated by different equations during the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in obese adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years old, with obesity (BMI Z-score>2.0) were included. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected, followed by CPET, recording HRmax. The highest heart rate reached at peak exercise was considered as HRmax...
July 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Thomas B Fay, Martin A Alpert
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. It is most commonly encountered in children and adolescents, but may persist into adulthood. A variety of psychostimulant and non-psychostimulant medications have proven to be successful in reducing inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in those with ADHD. Psychostimulants used to treat ADHD include methylphenidate and related drugs and various amphetamine preparations...
October 25, 2018: Cardiology in Review
Amri Hammami, Morten B Randers, Sofien Kasmi, Mohamed Razgallah, Zouhaier Tabka, Karim Chamari, Ezdine Bouhlel
Purpose: The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the health-related physical fitness profile of untrained adolescent boys in comparison to adolescent soccer players, (2) determine the intensity and enjoyment of 6 v 6 and 4 v 4 small-sided games, and (3) evaluate the health-related effects of a short-period of soccer training in the untrained group. Methods: Forty-one adolescent boys (untrained, n  = 24: age = 15.9 ± 0.6 years; trained, n  = 17: age = 15...
April 2018: Journal of Sport and Health Science
Chloe Park, Abigail Fraser, Laura D Howe, Siana Jones, George Davey Smith, Debbie A Lawlor, Nish Chaturvedi, Alun D Hughes
Unlike in older people, it has been suggested that elevated blood pressure (BP) in young people is because of high cardiac output accompanied by normal total peripheral resistance (TPR)-a hyperkinetic/hyperdynamic circulation. We investigated this in a large, United Kingdom-based birth cohort of adolescents. The study was conducted on 2091 17-year-old participants in the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children)-a prospective population-based birth cohort study. BP measurement and echocardiography were performed, and heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and TPR were calculated...
November 2018: Hypertension
Carlos Ac Hossri, Isabela Pm Alves de Souza, Joana St de Oliveira, Luiz E Mastrocola
BACKGROUND: Oxygen-uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is an objective measure of functional capacity that does not require a maximal effort but is considerably dependent on anthropometric variables and requires the generation of an appropriate reference value in children. This study aimed to establish normal reference values for OUES/kg in children with and without congenital heart diseases. Besides that, reference values are presented secondarily for OUES per body surface area (OUES/BSA)...
October 24, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Catherine Chudleigh, Blanche Savage, Catherine Cruz, Melissa Lim, Georgia McClure, Donna M Palmer, Chris J Spooner, Kasia Kozlowska
Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) emerge when the stress system is activated in response to physical or emotional stress that is either chronic or especially intense. In such cases, the heightened state of physiological arousal and motor activation can be measured through biological markers. Our team have integrated the use of biological markers of body state - respiratory rate, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measurements - as a way of helping families to understand how physical symptoms can signal activation of the body's stress systems...
October 25, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Hailu K Alemayehu, Desy Salvadego, Miriam Isola, Gabriella Tringali, Roberta De Micheli, Mara Caccavale, Alessandro Sartorio, Bruno Grassi
Obese adolescents (OB) have an increased O2 cost of exercise, attributable in part to an increased O2 cost of breathing. In a previous work a short (3-week) program of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) slightly reduced in OB the O2 cost of high-intensity cycling and improved exercise tolerance. We hypothesized that during treadmill walking the effects of RMET would be more pronounced than those observed during cycling. Sixteen OB (age 16.0 ± 0.8 years; body mass [BM] 127.7 ± 14.2 kg; body mass index 40...
October 2018: Physiological Reports
Monireh-Sadat Mousavi, Gholamhossein Riazi, Alireza Imani, Sogol Meknatkhah, Nahid Fakhraei, Shahriar Pooyan, Nahid Tofigh
Multiple adult health problems are associated with adolescent stress. As the brain discriminates physical and psychological stressors by activation of different neural networks, we hypothesized that behavioral and physiological performance would be modulated differently based on the nature of the stressors. Thus, we studied the comparative effects of adolescent repeated physical and psychological stresses on adult cognitive performance, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and heart rate in female rats. The aim was to differentiate disparate potency of chronic psychological and physical stresses leading to long-term behavioral and physiological alterations...
October 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Tao Zhang, Jie Xu, Shengxu Li, Lydia A Bazzano, Jiang He, Paul K Whelton, Wei Chen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to characterise longitudinal profiles of BMI from childhood and to examine the impact of level-independent childhood BMI trajectories on adult type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2449 adults (1613 white and 836 black) who had their BMI measured between four and 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years) and fasting glucose measured in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BMI at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using growth-curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively...
October 20, 2018: Diabetologia
Ulrich Krause, Matthias J Müller, Yannic Wilberg, Matthias Pietzka, David Backhoff, Wolfgang Ruschewski, Thomas Paul
Aims: Non-transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) as used in small patients and in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not been compared with transvenous systems with respect to safety and efficacy yet. Aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of and to identify contributing factors for appropriate and inappropriate ICD discharges in patients with non-transvenous and transvenous ICD. Methods and results: Single centre analysis of all paediatric and CHD patients who had received an ICD since 1995...
October 17, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
H Borgeraas, L H Barstad, R Størdal Lund, J M Fredheim, J K Hertel, J Hjelmesæth
Objectives: Early obesity onset is a risk factor for specific comorbidities in adulthood, but whether this relationship is present in men and women with severe obesity is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether obesity onset in childhood or adolescence, as compared with adulthood, is associated with higher odds of comorbidities in men and women with severe obesity. Methods: A cross-sectional study of treatment-seeking men and women with severe obesity attending a tertiary care centre in Norway, from 2006 to 2017, was performed...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
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