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Adolescent heart

Ricardo Oliveira, Alan R Barker, Florian Debras, Alexandra O'Doherty, Craig A Williams
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What are the autonomic and vascular components of the baroreflex during hypotension following different exercise intensities in adolescents? What is the main finding and its importance? Hypotension after high-intensity exercise lasted 60 min, whereas following moderate-intensity exercise, blood pressure was restored after 20 min. Stroke volume and peripheral resistance responses were different between intensities. Post both exercise intensities, baroreflex sensitivity was lowered mainly due to the autonomic component, which returned to baseline 60 min post-exercise...
July 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Jessica L Bourdon, Ashlee A Moore, Meridith Eastman, Jeanne E Savage, Laura Hazlett, Scott R Vrana, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay
Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with cardiac morbidity, mortality, and negative psychopathology. Most research concerning genetic influences on HRV has focused on adult populations, with fewer studies investigating the developmental period of adolescence and emerging adulthood. The current study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to resting HRV in a sample of twins using various HRV time domain metrics to assess autonomic function across two different time measurement intervals (2...
July 11, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Cristian Roncada, Julia Andrade, Luísa Carolina Bischoff, Paulo Márcio Pitrez
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of pediatric asthma treatment by nebulizer and metered-dose inhaler with the use of a spacer (MDI-spacer) in rescue techniques for asthmatic patients assisted at pediatric emergency units. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was conducted to identify the most relevant randomized controlled trials comparing the administration of a bronchodilator (β-2 agonist) by two inhalation techniques (nebulization and MDI-spacer) to treat asthma in children at pediatric emergency units...
July 10, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Massimo Stefano Silvetti, Irma Battipaglia, Vincenzo Pazzano, Fabio Anselmo Saputo, Lucilla Ravà, Antonio Ammirati, Camilla Calvieri, Michele Ciani, Fabrizio Drago
BACKGROUND: Alternative right ventricular (RV) sites (RVAPS) have been proposed to prevent or reduce RV pacing-induced left-ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Non-fluoroscopic 3D-electroanatomic mapping systems (EAM) have been developed to guide cardiac catheter navigation and reduce fluoroscopy during electrophysiological procedures or pacemaker implantations. AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the results of EAM-guided permanent pacemaker implantation aiming at RVAPS with conventional fluoroscopic-guided implantation in RV apex (RVA) in children and adolescents...
July 10, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Henning Budde, Davin P Akko, Herbert E Ainamani, Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Roland Weierstall
BACKGROUND: Latest research demonstrates a significant improvement in stress-related symptoms in psychological disorders as a result of exercise training (ET). Controlled clinical trials further validate the significance of ET by demonstrating lower salivary cortisol levels in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after intervention. A significant change in cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels can already be found after an 8-12-week ET program. The proposed study aims to investigate the impact of an 8-week ET on PTSD symptoms and changes in cortisol levels in a juvenile refugee sample from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) at an Ugandan refugee settlement...
July 9, 2018: Trials
Jesús Siquier Coll, Yolanda Collado Martín, Milagros Sánchez Puente, Francisco Javier Grijota Pérez, Mario Pérez Quintero, Ignacio Bartolomé Sánchez, Diego Muñoz Marín
INTRODUCTION: today, the practice of physical activity during adolescence brings important physical-health benefits that help develop a future well-being in later life. OBJECTIVES: the objective of this comparative study was to evaluate the physical condition, body composition and cardiorespiratory capacity among young athletes and sedentary people of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain). METHODS: two hundred and twenty-five male subjects, aged between 12 and 18 years, were divided into two groups: 175 athletes, divided into aerobic group (AEG), anaerobic group (ANAEG) and mixed sports group (MG); and 50 sedentary (SG) or control group...
April 5, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Julia Hock, Anna-Luisa Häcker, Barbara Reiner, Renate Oberhoffer, Alfred Hager, Peter Ewert, Jan Müller
OBJECTIVE: Functional outcome measures are of growing importance in the aftercare of patients with congenital heart disease. This study addresses the functional status with regard to exercise capacity, health-related physical fitness (HRPF) and arterial stiffness in a recent cohort of children, adolescents and young adults with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) after repair. DESIGN: Single-centre, uncontrolled and prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient department of the German Heart Centre Munich; July 2014-January 2018...
July 3, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Bibhuti B Das
Pediatric heart failure (HF) represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. There is an overlapping relationship of HF, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. The goal of treatment of HF in children is to maintain stability, prevent progression, and provide a reasonable milieu to allow somatic growth and optimal development. Current management and therapy for HF in children are extrapolated from treatment approaches in adults. There are significant barriers in applying adult data to children because of developmental factors, age variation from birth to adolescence, and differences in the genetic expression profile and β-adrenergic signaling...
June 28, 2018: Children
Xiu-Xia Luo, Yongsheng Zhu, Yiqian Sun, Quanrong Ge, Jin Su, Hung-Kwan So, Man-Ching Yam, Fang Fang
Objectives: Masked hypertension (MH) is not uncommon in the youth and may increase risks of long-term cardiovascular impairment. However, little is known about the subclinical heart damage in this group of patients. Currently, 3-layer speckle tracking imaging based on two-dimensional echocardiography is feasible to detect the early signs of myocardial damage. We therefore aimed to investigate whether subtle changes of cardiac function occurred in the young MH patients by using advanced quantification with layer-specific speckle tracking...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jessica A Kerr, Alanna N Gillespie, Constantine E Gasser, Fiona K Mensah, David Burgner, Melissa Wake
OBJECTIVE: With the intention to inform future public health initiatives, we aimed to determine the extent to which typical childhood dietary trajectories predict adolescent cardiovascular phenotypes. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. Exposure was determined by a 4 d food diary repeated over eight waves (ages 4-15 years), coded by Australian Dietary Guidelines and summed into a continuous diet score (0-14). Outcomes were adolescent (Wave 8, age 15 years) blood pressure, resting heart rate, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness, retinal arteriole-to-venule ratio...
June 27, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Hiran Thabrew, Philip Ruppeldt, John J Sollers
Children and adolescents with long-term physical conditions are at increased risk of psychological problems, particularly anxiety and depression, and they have limited access to evidence-based treatment for these issues. Biofeedback interventions may be useful for treating symptoms of both psychological and physical conditions. A systematic review of studies of biofeedback interventions that addressed anxiety or depression in this population was undertaken via MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases...
June 26, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Katherine González-Ruíz, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Mikel Izquierdo, Antonio García-Hermoso, María Andrea Dominguez-Sanchez, Rosa Helena Bustos-Cruz, Jorge Cañete García-Prieto, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Felipe Lobelo, Emilio González-Jiménez, Daniel Humberto Prieto-Benavides, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle, Guillermo Perez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of contemporary youth have a high risk of obesity-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although there is consistent evidence for the positive effects of physical activity on several health aspects, most adolescents in Colombia are sedentary. It is, therefore, important to implement strategies that generate changes in lifestyle. The HEPAFIT study aims to examine whether a 6-month exercise program has benefits for hepatic fat content and cardiovascular health outcomes among overweight/obese adolescents from Bogotá, Colombia...
June 25, 2018: Trials
Julian Koenig, Mindy Westlund Schreiner, Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Benjamin Ubani, Bryon Mueller, Michael Kaess, Kathryn R Cullen
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with abnormalities in cortical thickness and autonomic function. Adolescence is a time notable for brain development and MDD onset. In healthy adolescents, greater resting state vagal activity (RVA) is associated with lower cortical thickness. The relationship between brain structural thickness and RVA in adolescents with MDD has not previously been studied. This secondary analysis drew on a sample of 37 non-depressed controls and 53 adolescents with MDD. Resting state heart rate and two indices of RVA (HF-HRV and RMSSD) were recorded during a neuroimaging session...
June 25, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
María Moreno Padilla, María J Fernández-Serrano, Antonio Verdejo García, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
Background: Adolescents with excess weight suffer social stress more frequently than their peers with normal weight. Purpose: To examine the impact of social stress, specifically negative social evaluation, on executive functions in adolescents with excess weight. We also examined associations between subjective stress, autonomic reactivity, and executive functioning. Methods: Sixty adolescents (aged 13-18 years) classified into excess weight or normal weight groups participated...
June 22, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Kevin C Harris, Christine Voss, Kathryn Rankin, Basmina Aminzadah, Ross Gardner, Andrew S Mackie
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with congenital heart disease (CHD) may be at higher risk of acquired cardiovascular disease than the general population due to their underlying physiology and/or surgical sequelae. We sought to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in youth and adults with CHD. METHODS: We assessed cardiovascular health as per the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team (CANHEART) health index in patients with CHD aged 15+ years who attended cardiology outpatient clinics...
June 25, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Xin Yuan, Bin Li, Hansong Sun, Yan Yang, Hong Meng, Liang Xu, Yunhu Song, Jianping Xu
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain with the outcomes of different repair strategies of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) in adolescent and adult patients. The long-term outcomes of reimplantation and Takeuchi repair were compared in this study. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of data collected from patients receiving ALCAPA repair at our institute from January 2005 to December 2016. Short- and long-term outcomes of re-implantation and Takeuchi repair were compared...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Hong-Fang Yang, Xiao-Jing Lin, Xiao-Hui Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 4-week moderate aerobic exercise plus diet control on serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) as well as IGF-1 activity (reflected by molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3) in female obese adolescents and youths, and their possible role on fat loss, and improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine female obese youths (age:18~19 y) and 30 female obese adolescents (age:14~16 y) were recruited and undertook 4-week aerobic exercise such as swimming and jogging (6 days/week, twice a day, 2 h/time with 5 min rest per 30 min exercise) with gradual increase of intensity from low (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 1st week:100~120 beats/min) to moderate (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 2nd -4th weeks:120~140 beats/min) level, combined with a diet intervention (total daily energy intake of 1 400 or 1 600 kcal according to basal metabolism rate) in Shanghai Dianfeng weight loss enclosed camp...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Rainer Schandry, Daniela Lindauer, Matthias Mauz
Low blood pressure is rather widespread among adolescents and frequently accompanied by complaints. Two single-center, double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled trials were performed with adolescent participants in the age range of 14 - 17 y having a systolic blood pressure below 118 mmHg (boys) or 110 mmHg (girls). They received a single dose of 20 drops of a fixed combination of natural D-camphor and an ethanolic extract from fresh Crataegus berries (CCC) or of an ethanolic placebo. The efficacy of CCC (commercial name Korodin) has proven its efficacy in the treatment of low blood pressure in adults of all ages, although related placebo-controlled, double-blind studies for adolescents following European (EU) pediatric regulations are lacking...
June 18, 2018: Planta Medica
Serena Francesca Flocco, Rosario Caruso, Federica Dellafiore, Francesco Pittella, Alessandro Giamberti, Angelo Micheletti, Diana Gabriela Negura, Luciane Piazza, Massimo Chessa
BACKGROUND: The multidisciplinary standardized interventions to educate and support patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are described as "Transition Clinic" (TC). TC represents a key element to deliver care for patients during the transition from childhood to adulthood. So far, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the impact of TC models on the improvement of health perception in adolescent patients with CHD (CHD-specific TC model). For this reason, the aim of this study is assess the impact of the TC model on CHD adolescent patients' health perception outcomes...
June 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
David J Goldberg, Victor Zak, Bryan H Goldstein, Brian W McCrindle, Shaji C Menon, Kurt R Schumacher, R Mark Payne, Jonathan Rhodes, Kimberly E McHugh, Daniel J Penny, Felicia Trachtenberg, Michelle S Hamstra, Marc E Richmond, Peter C Frommelt, Matthew D Files, James L Yeager, Victoria L Pemberton, Mario P Stylianou, Gail D Pearson, Stephen M Paridon
The Fontan operation creates a circulation characterized by elevated central venous pressure and low cardiac output. Over time, these characteristics result in a predictable and persistent decline in exercise performance that is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. A medical therapy that targets the abnormalities of the Fontan circulation might, therefore, be associated with improved outcomes. Udenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, has undergone phase I/II testing in adolescents who have had the Fontan operation and has been shown to be safe and well tolerated in the short term...
July 2018: American Heart Journal
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