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Afroditi Despina Lalou, Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, John D Pickard, FMedSci, Eva Nabbanja, Nicole C Keong, Matthew Garnett, Zofia H Czosnyka
OBJECTIVE Normal pressure hydrocephalus is not simply the result of a disturbance in CSF circulation, but often includes cardiovascular comorbidity and abnormalities within the cerebral mantle. In this study, the authors have examined the relationship between the global autoregulation pressure reactivity index (PRx), the profile of disturbed CSF circulation and pressure-volume compensation, and their possible effects on outcome after surgery. METHODS The authors studied a cohort of 131 patients in whom a clinical suspicion of normal pressure hydrocephalus was investigated...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Raúl Cassia, Macarena Nocioni, Natalia Correa-Aragunde, Lorenzo Lamattina
Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxides (Nx O) and ozone (O3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tiina Lipiäinen, Jenni Pessi, Parisa Movahedi, Juha Tapio Koivistoinen, Lauri Kurki, Mari Tenhunen, Jouko Yliruusi, Anne M Juppo, Jukka Heikkonen, Tapio Pahikkala, Clare J Strachan
Raman spectroscopy is widely used for quantitative pharmaceutical analysis, but a common obstacle to its use is sample fluorescence masking the Raman signal. Time-gating provides an instrument-based method for rejecting fluorescence through temporal resolution of the spectral signal, and allows Raman spectra of fluorescent materials to be obtained. An additional practical advantage is that analysis is possible in ambient lighting. This study assesses the efficacy of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for the quantitative measurement of fluorescent pharmaceuticals...
March 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sophie Kelly, Steven M Bishop, Ari Ercole
OBJECTIVES: The pressure-reactivity index (PRx) is defined in terms of the moving correlation coefficient between intracranial pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and is a measure of cerebral autoregulation ability. Plots of PRx against cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) show a U-shaped behaviour: the minimum reflecting optimal cerebral autoregulation (CPPopt). However U-shaped behaviour may also occur by chance. To date there has been no evaluation of the statistical properties of these signals...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Samuel Patrick Klein, Dominike Bruyninckx, Ina Callebaut, Bart Depreitere
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage on the intracranial pressure (ICP) signal measured in the parenchyma and the ventricle as well as the effect on the pressure reactivity index (PRx) calculated from both signals. METHODS:  Ten patients were included in this prospective study. All patients received a parenchymal ICP sensor and an external ventricular drain (EVD) for CSF drainage. ICP signals (ICP-p and ICP-evd) were captured...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Konstantin Hockel, Martin U Schuhmann
OBJECTIVE: A drawback in the use of an external ventricular drain (EVD) originates in the fact that draining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (open system) and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be done at the same time but is considered to be unreliable regarding the ICP trace. Furthermore, with the more widespread use of autoregulation monitoring using blood pressure and ICP signals, the question arises of whether an ICP signal from an open EVD can be used for this purpose. Using an EVD system with an integrated parenchymal ICP probe we compared the different traces of an ICP signal and their derived parameters under opened and closed CSF drainage...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
J Donnelly, M Czosnyka, H Adams, C Robba, L A Steiner, D Cardim, B Cabella, X Liu, A Ercole, P J Hutchinson, D K Menon, M J H Aries, P Smielewski
OBJECTIVES: Retrospective data from patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate that deviation from the continuously calculated pressure reactivity-based "optimal" cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) is associated with worse patient outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between prospectively collected CPPopt data and patient outcome after TBI. METHODS: We prospectively collected intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring data from 231 patients with severe TBI at Addenbrooke's Hospital, UK...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Murad Megjhani, Kalijah Terilli, Andrew Martin, Angela Velazquez, Jan Claassen, David Roh, Sachin Agarwal, Peter Smielewski, Amelia K Boehme, J Michael Schmidt, Soojin Park
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the validity of industry-parameterized vital signs in the generation of pressure reactivity index (PRx) and optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors from 2008 to 2013 in a tertiary care hospital were included. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) and ICP were sampled at 240 Hz (of waveform data) and 0.2 Hz (of parameterized data produced by heuristic industry proprietary algorithms)...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
M Cabeleira, M Czosnyka, X Liu, J Donnelly, P Smielewski
OBJECTIVES: Optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) is a concept that uses the pressure reactivity (PRx)-CPP relationship over a given period to find a value of CPP at which PRx shows best autoregulation. It has been proposed that this relationship be modelled by a U-shaped curve, where the minimum is interpreted as being the CPP value that corresponds to the strongest autoregulation. Owing to the nature of the calculation and the signals involved in it, the occurrence of CPPopt curves generated by non-physiological variations of intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), termed here "false positives", is possible...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
M Moreira, D Fernandes, E Pereira, E Monteiro, R Pascoa, C Dias
OBJECTIVE: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) management has been associated with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in previous literature. We aimed to investigate the relationships between optimal CPP-guided management, ventilation parameters over time and outcome after severe TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of recorded data from 38 patients admitted to the NCCU after severe TBI, managed with optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt)-guided therapy, calculated using pressure reactivity index (PRx)...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Ari Ercole, Peter Smielewski, Marcel J H Aries, Robin Wesselink, Jan Willem J Elting, Joseph Donnelly, Marek Czosnyka, Natasha M Maurits
OBJECTIVE: An 'optimal' cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) can be defined as the point on the CPP scale corresponding to the greatest autoregulatory capacity. This can be established by examining the pressure reactivity index PRx-CPP relationship, which is approximately U-shaped but suffers from noise and missing data. In this paper, we present a method for plotting the whole PRx-CPP relationship curve against time in the form of a colour-coded map depicting the 'landscape' of that relationship extending back for several hours and to display this robustly at the bedside...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Samuel Patrick Klein, Bart Depreitere
INTRODUCTION:  Episodes of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are responsible for the majority of secondary brain injury events and thereby strongly affect long-term outcome. However, not all patients with major episodes of raised ICP suffer a poor outcome. The aim of the current analysis was to identify variables contributing to good outcome in patients suffering episodes of high ICP. METHODS:  Retrospective analysis of 20 severe TBI patients admitted to the University Hospitals Leuven between 2010 and 2014...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Adam M H Young, Joseph Donnelly, Xiuyun Liu, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Melvin Carew, Manuel Cabeleira, Danilo Cardim, Matthew R Garnett, Helen M Fernandes, Christina Haubrich, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson, Shruti Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Computed tomography (CT) of the brain can allow rapid assessment of intracranial pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Frequently in paediatric TBI, CT imaging can fail to display the classical features of severe brain injury with raised intracranial pressure. The objective of this study was to determine early CT brain features that influence intracranial or systemic physiological trends following paediatric TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients (mean age, 10 years; range, 0...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Peter Smielewski, David K Menon, John D Pickard
OBJECTIVE: In nearly 1,000 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients monitored in the years 1992-2014, we identified 18 vegetative state (VS) cases. Our database provided access to continuous computer-recorded signals, which we used to compare primary signals, intracranial pressure (ICP)-derived indices and demographic data between VS patients, patients who survived but who were not VS (S), and patients who died (D). METHOD: Mean values of ICP, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) from the whole monitoring periods were compared between the different outcome groups...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Adam M H Young, Joseph Donnelly, Xiuyun Liu, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Melvin Carew, Manuel Cabeleira, Danilo Cardim, Matthew R Garnett, Helen M Fernandes, Christina Haubrich, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson, Shruti Agrawal
OBJECTIVE:  Although secondary insults such as raised intracranial pressure (ICP) or cardiovascular compromise strongly contribute to morbidity, a growing interest can be noticed in how the pre-hospital management can affect outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of this study was to determine whether pre-hospital co-morbidity has influence on patterns of continuously measured waveforms of intracranial physiology after paediatric TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients (mean age, 10 years; range, 0...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Basil Nourallah, Eric Peter Thelin, Leanne Calviello, Peter Smieleweski, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole, David Menon
Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity has been associated with outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI), but it is unknown how it is affected by trauma severity. Thus, we aimed to explore the relationship between intra-cranial (IC) and extra-cranial (EC) injury burden and cerebrovascular reactivity in TBI patients. We retrospectively included critically ill TBI patients. IC injury burden included detailed lesion and computerized tomography (CT) scoring (ie. Marshall, Rotterdam, Helsinki and Stockholm Scores) on admission...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kei Nishida, Atsushi Tamura, Nobuhiko Yui
Autophagy plays a pivotal role in the development and prevention of numerous diseases, and the induction of autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic approach for intractable diseases. Methylated β-cyclodextrins (Me-β-CDs) are known to destabilize the plasma membrane through the removal of cholesterols via inclusion complexation, which leads to the induction of apoptosis. In this study, the induction of autophagy by Me-β-CDs-threaded acid-labile polyrotaxane (Me-PRX) that can release the threaded Me-β-CDs in response to acidic pH in lysosomes was investigated...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Soo Hyun Hong, Chengchun Min, Yukyung Jun, Doo Jae Lee, Seung Hwa Kim, Joo Hyun Park, Jae Ho Cheong, Yoon Jung Park, Soo-Youl Kim, Sanghyuk Lee, Sang Won Kang
Peroxiredoxin (Prx), a family of ubiquitous thiol peroxidases, functions as a redox signaling regulator that controls cellular H2 O2 in mammalian cells and has recently received attention for being overexpressed in various cancer types. In this study, we show that Prx type II (PrxII) is rather silenced in gastric cancer cells. PrxII expression is severely downregulated in 9 out of the 28 gastric cancer cell lines. Strikingly, PrxII expression is completely lost in three cell lines, MKN28, MKN74 and SNU484. Loss of PrxII expression is due to DNA methyltransferase 1-dependent methylation at the promoter region of the PrxII gene...
February 9, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Li-Shang Dai, Xiao-Min Yu, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Chang-Sheng Li, Sheng-Hui Chu, Saima Kausar, Tian-Tian Wang
Peroxiredoxin (Prx) family members play a key role in host defense against oxidative stress, and modulate immune responses following microbial infection. Here, we cloned and characterized Procambarus clarkii Prx4 (Peroxiredoxin 4) cDNA, a regulator of oxidative stress and its expression analysis upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:C) infection. The cDNA fragment of PcPrx4 was 744 bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 248 amino acid residues. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the PcPrx4 was expressed in all the examined tissues, and it was highest in the hepatopancreas followed by the hemocytes and gill...
January 31, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ratana Charoenwattanasatien, Hideaki Tanaka, Karen Zinzius, Ana K Hochmal, Risa Mutoh, Daisuke Yamamoto, Michael Hippler, Genji Kurisu
Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) are a group of antioxidant enzymes that are found in all organisms, including plants and green algae. The 2-Cys PRX from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrPRX1) is a chloroplast-localized protein that is critical for clearing reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts. CrPRX1 is reduced by thioredoxins or calredoxin (CrCRX), a recently identified calcium-dependent redox protein. The molecular interaction between PRXs and thioredoxin/CrCRX is functionally important, but discussion has been limited owing to a lack of structural information on CrPRX1, especially regarding its oligomeric state...
February 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
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