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Carmen Sarcinelli, Gabriella Fiorentino, Elio Pizzo, Simonetta Bartolucci, Danila Limauro
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous thiol peroxidases that are involved in the reduction of peroxides. It has been reported that prokaryotic Prxs generally show greater structural robustness than their eukaryotic counterparts, making them less prone to inactivation by overoxidation. This difference has inspired the search for new antioxidants from prokaryotic sources that can be used as possible therapeutic biodrugs. Bacterioferritin comigratory proteins (Bcps) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus that belong to the Prx family have recently been characterized...
2016: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
Me-Hea Park
The high metabolic rate of harvested asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) causes rapid deterioration. To extend shelf life, we investigated the effect of sucrose treatment on asparagus during storage. Asparagus spears were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 20 h. Cellular respiration decreased, but other processes were unaltered by exogenous sucrose. The overall appearance of asparagus treated with 3% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 18 days was rated as good and excellent, unlike that of untreated spears...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Delphine Cerveau, Alexandra Kraut, Henrik U Stotz, Martin J Mueller, Yohann Couté, Pascal Rey
Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-dependent peroxidases for which chaperone and signaling roles have been reported in various types of organisms in recent years. In plants, the peroxidase function of the two typical plastidial 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys PRX A and B) has been highlighted while the other functions, particularly in ROS-dependent signaling pathways, are still elusive notably due to the lack of knowledge of interacting partners. Using an ex vivo approach based on co-immunoprecipitation of leaf extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and mutant plants lacking 2-Cys PRX expression followed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, 158 proteins were found associated with 2-Cys PRXs...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Li-Xue Zhao, Jun-Rong Du, Hong-Jing Zhou, Dong-Ling Liu, Man-Xia Gu, Fang-Yi Long
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are proposed to function as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and contribute to post-ischemic neuroinflammation and brain injury by activating Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 at the acute and subacute phases after ischemic stroke. However, there are few studies concerning the inflammatory profiles of six distinct subtypes of Prxs (Prx1-Prx6). Our previous study demonstrated that the protective effect of ligustilide (LIG) against cerebral ischemia was associated with inhibition of neuroinflammatory response and Prx/TLR4 signaling in rats...
2016: PloS One
Giuseppe Maltese, Paraskevi-Maria Psefteli, Benedetta Rizzo, Salil Srivastava, Luigi Gnudi, Giovanni E Mann, Richard C M Siow
Vascular ageing in conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, is associated with the activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and diminished expression of antioxidant defences mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The anti-ageing hormone klotho promotes longevity and protects against cardiovascular and renal diseases. Klotho has been shown to activate Nrf2 and attenuate oxidative damage in neuronal cells, however, the mechanisms by which it protects against vascular smooth muscle cell VSMC dysfunction elicited by Angiotensin II (AngII) remain to be elucidated...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Nan Liu, Ling Xue, Yi Guan, Qing Zhao Li, Fu Yuan Cao, Shu Lan Pang, Wei Jun Guan
Silicosis is one of the most serious occupational diseases in China and dates back to centuries ago. In this study, we successfully established a rat model of silicosis by intratracheal silica injection for 28 days and determined hydroxyproline levels to evaluate collagen metabolism in lung homogenates. Oxidative stress status was evaluated by detecting catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Expression levels of peroxiredoxins (Prx I and Prx VI) were detected by Western blotting. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) levels in rat serum and lung tissue were analyzed by ELISA, and SP-A and Prx expression levels in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry...
August 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Xiao-Jing Shi, Lina Ding, Wenjuan Zhou, Yage Ji, Junwei Wang, Huimin Wang, Yongcheng Ma, Guozhong Jiang, Kai Tang, Yu Ke, Wen Zhao, Hong-Min Liu
AIMS: Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is an aggressive malignancy and the most common solid tumor of gastrointestinal tract all over the world, with high incidence in Asia. The current study was designed to investigate the anticancer efficacy and mechanism which is involved in the action of a natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid, JDA-202, targeting EC. RESULTS: We found that an anti-oxidant protein peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) was upregulated in human EC tissues as well as in EC cell lines...
September 21, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Jie Wang, Qi Liu, Jia Feng, Jun-Ping Lv, Shu-Lian Xie
Severe eutrophication and harmful cyanobacterial blooms of freshwater ecosystems is a persistent environmental topic in recent decades. Pyrogallol (polyphenol) was confirmed to exhibit one of the most intensive inhibitory effects on the Microcystis aeruginosa. In this study, the expression of genes, release of microcystins (MCs) and antioxidant system of pyrogallol on Microcystis aeruginosa TY001 were investigated. The results revealed that the expression of stress response genes (prx, ftsH, grpE and fabZ) and DNA repair genes (recA and gyrB) were up-regulated...
September 16, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Suet-Hui Ow, Pei-Jou Chua, Boon-Huat Bay
Peroxiredoxin I to VI (PRX I-VI), a family of highly conserved antioxidants, has been implicated in numerous diseases. There have been reports that PRXs are expressed aberrantly in a variety of tumors, implying that they could play an important role in carcinogenesis. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs have been reported to modulate expression of PRXs. In addition, the use of epigenetic regulators, such as histone deacetylases, has been demonstrated to restore PRX to normal levels, indicating that the reversible nature of epigenetics can be exploited for future treatments...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Elisabet Einarsdottir, Lena Hafrén, Eira Leinonen, Mahmood F Bhutta, Erna Kentala, Juha Kere, Petri S Mattila
To identify genetic risk factors of childhood otitis media (OM), a genome-wide association study was performed on Finnish subjects, 829 affected children, and 2118 randomly selected controls. The most significant and validated finding was an association with an 80 kb region on chromosome 19. It includes the variants rs16974263 (P = 1.77 × 10(-7), OR = 1.59), rs268662 (P = 1.564 × 10(-6), OR = 1.54), and rs4150992 (P = 3.37 × 10(-6), OR = 1.52), and harbors the genes PLD3, SERTAD1, SERTAD3, HIPK4, PRX, and BLVRB, all in strong linkage disequilibrium...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carlos A Tairum, Melina Cardoso Santos, Carlos A Breyer, R Ryan Geyer, Cecilia J Nieves, Stephanie Portillo-Ledesma, Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta, José Carlos Toledo, Marcos H Toyama, Ohara Augusto, Luis E S Netto, Marcos A de Oliveira
Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs) reduce hydroperoxides with extraordinary rates due to an active site composed of a catalytic triad, containing a peroxidatic cysteine (CP), an Arg, and a Thr (or Ser). 2-Cys Prx are involved in processes such as cancer; neurodegeneration and host-pathogen interactions. During catalysis, 2-Cys Prxs switch between decamers and dimers. Analysis of 2-Cys Prx structures in the fully folded (but not locally unfolded) form revealed a highly conserved, non-conventional hydrogen bond (CH-π) between the catalytic triad Thr of a dimer with an aromatic residue of an adjacent dimer...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sungsu Kim, Jason C Maynard, Yo Sasaki, Amy Strickland, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy, Alma L Burlingame, Jeffrey Milbrandt
UNLABELLED: Schwann cells (SCs), ensheathing glia of the peripheral nervous system, support axonal survival and function. Abnormalities in SC metabolism affect their ability to provide this support and maintain axon integrity. To further interrogate this metabolic influence on axon-glial interactions, we generated OGT-SCKO mice with SC-specific deletion of the metabolic/nutrient sensing protein O-GlcNAc transferase that mediates the O-linked addition of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties to Ser and Thr residues...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lianqin Li
Peroxiredoxin (PRX) defines a family that provides antioxidant defense in different cell types by removing reactive oxygen species (ROS) through conserved active cysteines, with the support of other types of antioxidants such as thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, and glutathione peroxidase. By regulation of intracellular ROS levels, the mammalian PRXs influence a variety of reproductive processes including gamete maturation, fertilization, and embryo development. Experimental mice lacking PRXs developed normally, but some showed accelerated decrease in fertility with aging, suggesting that deficiency of PRXs did not have lethal consequences for reproduction...
September 13, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Myung-Chul Chung, Farhang Alem, Sarah G Hamer, Aarthi Narayanan, Konstantin Shatalin, Charles Bailey, Evgeny Nudler, Ramin M Hakami
BACKGROUND: Using Bacillus anthracis as a model gram-positive bacterium, we investigated the effects of host protein S-nitrosylation during bacterial infection. B. anthracis possesses a bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) that is important for its virulence and survival. However, the role of S-nitrosylation of host cell proteins during B. anthracis infection has not been determined. METHODS: Nitrosoproteomic analysis of human small airway epithelial cells (HSAECs) infected with toxigenic B...
September 7, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ana M Sánchez-Riego, Alejandro Mata-Cabana, Carla V Galmozzi, Francisco J Florencio
NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is a bimodular enzyme composed of an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase and a thiioredoxin domain extension in the same protein. In plants, NTRC has been described to be involved in the protection of the chloroplast against oxidative stress damage through reduction of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) as well as through other functions related to redox enzyme regulation. In cyanobacteria, the Anabaena NTRC has been characterized in vitro, however, nothing was known about its in vivo function...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kodai Kusakisako, Remil Linggatong Galay, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Hiroki Maeda, Melbourne Rio Talactac, Naotoshi Tsuji, Masami Mochizuki, Kozo Fujisaki, Tetsuya Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that feed on vertebrate blood that contains iron. Ticks also concentrate host blood with iron; this concentration of the blood leads to high levels of iron in ticks. The host-derived iron reacts with oxygen in the tick body and this may generate high levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). High levels of H2O2 cause oxidative stress in organisms and therefore, antioxidant responses are necessary to regulate H2O2...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
A Barone, M Otero-Losada, A M Grangeat, G Cao, F Azzato, A Rodríguez, J Milei
BACKGROUND: In-stent restenosis and poor re-endothelization usually follow percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, even using drug-eluting stents, due to inflammation and oxidative stress. Medical ozone has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and has not been evaluated in this context. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether ozonotherapy might reduce restenosis following bare metal stents implantation in relation to the redoxin system in pigs. METHODS: Twelve male Landrace pigs (51±9kg) underwent percutaneous transluminal circumflex coronary arteries bare metal stent implantation under heparine infusion and fluoroscopical guidance, using standard techniques...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Bing Han, Shin Hye-Jun, In Seon Bak, Yesol Bak, Jeong Ye-Lin, Taeho Kwon, Park Young-Ho, Sun Hu-Nan, Kim Cheol-Hee, Yu Dae-Yeul
Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I), an antioxidant enzyme, has multiple functions in human cancer. However, the role of Prx I in hepatic tumorigenesis has not been characterized. Here we investigated the relevance and underlying mechanism of Prx I in hepatic tumorigenesis. Prx I increased in tumors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients that aligned with overexpression of oncogenic H-ras. Prx I also increased in H-rasG12V transfected HCC cells and liver tumors of H-rasG12V transgenic (Tg) mice, indicating that Prx I may be involved in Ras-induced hepatic tumorigenesis...
August 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Xuhong Chen, Wenfeng Xiong, Chengjun Li, Shanshan Gao, Xiaowen Song, Wei Wu, Bin Li
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large group of enzymes having both detoxification roles conferring insecticide resistance and specialist metabolic functions. Tribolium castaneum GST Delta 1 (TcGSTd1) has been found playing crucial role in insecticide resistance and biological processes in insect species. However, the regulatory system of TcGSTd1 has still rarely been known. Comparing the transcriptome profile of RNAi treated larvae (ds-TcGSTd1) and control larvae of T. canstaneum by using RNA-sequencing, we obtained 14,284,085 sequence reads aligned with 13,275 genes...
November 15, 2016: Gene
Blaise L Tardy, Shereen Tan, Henk H Dam, Hirotaka Ejima, Anton Blencowe, Greg G Qiao, Frank Caruso
Supramolecular polymers with monomers bound together by secondary interactions, such as polyrotaxanes (PRXs), consisting of alpha cyclodextrin (αCD) threaded onto poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), have attracted interest as a result of their ability to overcome physical limitations present in conventional, covalently structured polymers. Herein, we describe the formation of pH-responsive supramolecular assemblies from carboxyethylester bearing αCD and PEG PRXs. These PRXs were formed using PEG of Mw 20 kDa and a threading degree of 28%...
August 25, 2016: Nanoscale
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