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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226215/multiple-functions-and-regulation-of-mammalian-peroxiredoxins
#1
Sue Goo Rhee, In Sup Kil
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) constitute a major family of peroxidases, with mammalian cells expressing six Prx isoforms (PrxI to PrxVI). Cells produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at various intracellular locations where it can serve as a signaling molecule. Given that Prxs are abundant and possess a structure that renders the cysteine (Cys) residue at the active site highly sensitive to oxidation by H2O2, the signaling function of this oxidant requires extensive and highly localized regulation. Recent findings on the reversible regulation of PrxI through phosphorylation at the centrosome and on the hyperoxidation of the Cys at the active site of PrxIII in mitochondria are described in this review as examples of such local regulation of H2O2 signaling...
February 2, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219939/peroxiredoxin-1-prx1-is-a-dual-function-enzyme-by-possessing-cys-independent-catalase-like-activity
#2
Cen-Cen Sun, Wei-Ren Dong, Tong Shao, Jiang-Yuan Li, Jing Zhao, Li Nie, Li-Xin Xiang, Guan Zhu, Jian-Zhong Shao
Peroxiredoxin (Prx) was previously known as a Cys-dependent thioredoxin. However, we unexpected observed that Prx1 from the green spotted puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis (TnPrx1) was able to reduce H2O2 in a manner independent on the Cys peroxidation and reductants. This study aimed to validate the novel function for Prx1, delineate the biochemical features and explore its antioxidant role in cells. We have confirmed that Prx1 from the puffer fish and humans truly possesses a catalase-like activity that is independent of Cys residues and reductants, but dependent on iron...
February 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197170/glutathionylation-of-pea-chloroplast-2-cys-prx-and-mitochondrial-prx-iif-affects-their-structure-and-peroxidase-activity-and-sulfiredoxin-deglutathionylates-only-the-2-cys-prx
#3
Aingeru Calderón, Alfonso Lázaro-Payo, Iván Iglesias-Baena, Daymi Camejo, Juan J Lázaro, Francisca Sevilla, Ana Jiménez
Together with thioredoxins (Trxs), plant peroxiredoxins (Prxs), and sulfiredoxins (Srxs) are involved in antioxidant defense and redox signaling, while their regulation by post-translational modifications (PTMs) is increasingly regarded as a key component for the transduction of the bioactivity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Among these PTMs, S-glutathionylation is considered a protective mechanism against overoxidation, it also modulates protein activity and allows signaling. This study explores the glutathionylation of recombinant chloroplastic 2-Cys Prx and mitochondrial Prx IIF from Pisum sativum...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195483/development-of-oromucosal-dosage-forms-by-combining-electrospinning-and-inkjet-printing
#4
Mirja Palo, Karin Kogermann, Ivo Laidmäe, Andres Meos, Maren Preis, Jyrki Heinämäki, Niklas Sandler
Printing technology has been shown to enable flexible fabrication of solid dosage forms for personalized drug therapy. Several methods can be applied for tailoring the properties of the printed pharmaceuticals. In this study, the use of electrospun fibrous substrates in the fabrication of inkjet-printed dosage forms was investigated. A single-drug formulation with lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and a combination drug system containing LH and piroxicam (PRX) for oromucosal administration were prepared. The LH was deposited on the electrospun and cross-linked gelatin substrates by inkjet printing, whereas PRX was incorporated within the substrate fibers during electrospinning...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187133/an-atlas-of-peroxiredoxins-created-using-an-active-site-profile-based-approach-to-functionally-relevant-clustering-of-proteins
#5
Angela F Harper, Janelle B Leuthaeuser, Patricia C Babbitt, John H Morris, Thomas E Ferrin, Leslie B Poole, Jacquelyn S Fetrow
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs or Prdxs) are a large protein superfamily of antioxidant enzymes that rapidly detoxify damaging peroxides and/or affect signal transduction and, thus, have roles in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Prx superfamily members are widespread across phylogeny and multiple methods have been developed to classify them. Here we present an updated atlas of the Prx superfamily identified using a novel method called MISST (Multi-level Iterative Sequence Searching Technique). MISST is an iterative search process developed to be both agglomerative, to add sequences containing similar functional site features, and divisive, to split groups when functional site features suggest distinct functionally-relevant clusters...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133506/activation-of-the-nrf2-keap-1-pathway-in-short-term-iodide-excess-in-thyroid-in-rats
#6
Tingting Wang, Xue Liang, Iruni Roshanie Abeysekera, Umar Iqbal, Qi Duan, Gargi Naha, Laixiang Lin, Xiaomei Yao
Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups of varying iodide intake: normal iodide; 10 times high iodide; and 100 times high iodide on Days 7, 14, and 28. Insignificant changes were observed in thyroid hormone levels (p > 0.05). Urinary iodine concentration and iodine content in the thyroid glands increased after high consumption of iodide from NI to 100 HI (p < 0.05). The urinary iodine concentration of the 100 HI group on Days 7, 14, and 28 was 60-80 times that of the NI group. The mitochondrial superoxide production and expressions of Nrf2, Srx, and Prx 3 all significantly increased, while Keap 1 significantly decreased in the 100 HI group when compared to the NI or 10 HI group on Days 7, 14, and 28 (p < 0...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130833/potentiating-bioactivity-of-bmp-2-by-polyelectrolyte-complexation-with-sulfonated-polyrotaxanes-to-induce-rapid-bone-regeneration-in-a-mouse-calvarial-defect
#7
Masahiko Terauchi, Takasuke Inada, Tomoki Kanemaru, Go Ikeda, Asato Tonegawa, Kei Nishida, Yoshinori Arisaka, Atsushi Tamura, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Nobuhiko Yui
Bone reconstruction is a challenging issue in the regeneration of surgically removed bone and disease-related bone defects. Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has received considerable attention as a bone regeneration inducer, a high dose of BMP-2 is typically required due to its short life-time under in vivo conditions. We have proposed a method to enhance the osteogenetic differentiation ability of BMP-2 in vitro that is based on supramolecular polyelectrolyte complexation with sulfonated polyrotaxanes (PRXs) consisting of sulfopropyl ether (SPE)-modified α-cyclodextrins threaded along a poly(ethylene glycol) chain capped with terminal bulky stopper molecules...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126553/korean-red-ginseng-improves-testicular-ineffectiveness-in-aging-rats-by-modulating-spermatogenesis-related-molecules
#8
Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, Kyu-Min Cha, Ji-Hoon Ryu, Sang-Ho Lee, Min-Sik Jeong, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Young-Joo Lee, Hee-Won Song, Su-Nam Kim, Jin-Chul Kim, Si-Kwan Kim
Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is known to rejuvenate testicular effectiveness and the sperm maturation process by regulating redox proteins in aged rats. This study was performed to investigate the effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRG-WE) on the expression level of spermatogenesis-related key biomolecules and sex hormone receptors as well as enzymes regulating oxidation, histone deacetylation, and growth-related activities in aged rat testis. KRG-WE (200mg/kg) mixed with a regular pellet diet was administered to 12-month-old rats for 6months (KRG-AC), whereas the young (YC, 2months) and aged (AC, 12months) controls received the vehicle only...
January 23, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126370/the-role-of-sulfenic-acids-in-cellular-redox-signaling-reconciling-chemical-kinetics-and-molecular-detection-strategies
#9
David E Heppner, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger, Albert van der Vliet
The reversible oxidation of protein cysteine residues is well recognized as an important regulatory mechanism in redox-dependent cell signaling. Cysteine oxidation is diverse in nature and involves various post-translational modifications (sulfenic acids, disulfides, etc.) and the specific functional or structural impact of these specific oxidative events is still poorly understood. The proximal product of protein cysteine oxidation by biological reactive oxygen species (ROS) is sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH), and experimental evidence is accruing for the formation of Cys-SOH as intermediate in protein cysteine oxidation in various biological settings...
February 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076409/an-efficient-antioxidant-system-in-a-long-lived-termite-queen
#10
Eisuke Tasaki, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura, Yoshihito Iuchi
The trade-off between reproduction and longevity is known in wide variety of animals. Social insect queens are rare organisms that can achieve a long lifespan without sacrificing fecundity. The extended longevity of social insect queens, which contradicts the trade-off, has attracted much attention because it implies the existence of an extraordinary anti-aging mechanism. Here, we show that queens of the termite Reticulitermes speratus incur significantly lower oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipid and have higher activity of antioxidant enzymes than non-reproductive individuals (workers and soldiers)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064445/a-panel-of-autoantibodies-against-multiple-tumor-associated-antigens-for-detecting-gastric-cancer
#11
Isamu Hoshino, Matsuo Nagata, Nobuhiro Takiguchi, Yoshihiro Nabeya, Atsushi Ikeda, Sana Yokoi, Akiko Kuwajima, Masatoshi Tagawa, Kazuyuki Matsushita, Yajima Satoshi, Shimada Hideaki
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and effective diagnosis is extremely important for good outcome. We assessed the diagnostic potential of an autoantibody panel that may provide a novel tool for the early detection of gastric cancer. We analyzed data from patients with gastric cancer and normal controls in a test and validation cohorts. Autoantibody levels were measured against a panel of six tumor-associated antigens [TAAs; p53, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), HCC-22-5, peroxiredoxin VI (Prx VI), KM-HN-1, and p90 TAA (CYP2A)] via ELISA...
January 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063347/disruption-of-redox-catalytic-functions-of-peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin-complex-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv-using-small-interface-binding-molecules
#12
Arun Bahadur Gurung, Amit Kumar Das, Atanu Bhattacharjee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has distinctive ability to detoxify various microbicidal superoxides and hydroperoxides via a redox catalytic cycle involving thiol reductants of peroxiredoxin (Prx) and thioredoxin (Trx) systems which has conferred on it resistance against oxidative killing and survivability within host. We have used computational approach to disrupt catalytic functions of Prx-Trx complex which can possibly render the pathogen vulnerable to oxidative killing in the host. Using protein-protein docking method, we have successfully constructed the Prx-Trx complex...
December 31, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018406/structural-evolutionary-and-functional-analysis-of-the-class-iii-peroxidase-gene-family-in-chinese-pear-pyrus-bretschneideri
#13
Yunpeng Cao, Yahui Han, Dandan Meng, Dahui Li, Qing Jin, Yi Lin, Yongping Cai
Peroxidases (PRXs) are widely existed in various organisms and could be divided into different types according to their structures and functions. Specifically, the Class III Peroxidase, a plant-specific multi-gene family, involves in many physiological processes, such as the metabolism of auxin, the extension and thickening of cell wall, as well as the formation of lignin. By searching the pear genome database, 94 non-redundant PRXs from Pyrus bretschneideri (PbPRXs) were identified. Subsequently, analysis of phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, and microsynteny was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987036/characterization-of-a-bacterioferritin-comigratory-protein-family-1-cys-peroxiredoxin-from-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus
#14
Anamika Singh, Narender Kumar, Prabhat P S Tomar, Sumit Bhose, Dilip Kumar Ghosh, Partha Roy, Ashwani K Sharma
To defend against the lethality of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), nature has armed microorganisms with a range of antioxidant proteins. These include peroxiredoxin (Prx) super family proteins which are ubiquitous cysteine-based non-heme peroxidases. The phytopathogenic bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLA), an etiological agent of citrus plants diseases, posses many genes for defense against oxidative stress. The bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP), a member of Prxs, is part of an oxidative stress defense system of CLA...
December 16, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895468/increased-localized-delivery-of-piroxicam-by-cationic-nanoparticles-after-intra-articular-injection
#15
Sung Rae Kim, Myoung Jin Ho, Sang Hyun Kim, Ha Ra Cho, Han Sol Kim, Yong Seok Choi, Young Wook Choi, Myung Joo Kang
Piroxicam (PRX), a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is prescribed to relieve postoperative and/or chronic joint pain. However, its oral administration often results in serious gastrointestinal adverse effects including duodenal ulceration. Thus, a novel cationic nanoparticle (NP) was explored to minimize the systemic exposure and increase the retention time of PRX in the joint after intra-articular (IA) injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic clusters with endogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial cavity...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877888/lysosomal-ph-inducible-supramolecular-dissociation-of-polyrotaxanes-possessing-acid-labile-n-triphenylmethyl-end-groups-and-their-therapeutic-potential-for-niemann-pick-type-c-disease
#16
Atsushi Tamura, Kei Nishida, Nobuhiko Yui
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. We have previously reported that biocleavable polyrotaxanes (PRXs) composed of β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs) threaded onto a linear polymer capped with bulky stopper molecules via intracellularly cleavable linkers show remarkable cholesterol reducing effects in NPC disease patient-derived fibroblasts owing to the stimuli-responsive intracellular dissociation of PRXs and subsequent β-CD release from the PRXs. Herein, we describe a series of novel acid-labile 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl group-modified PRXs (HEE-PRXs) bearing terminal N-triphenylmethyl (N-Trt) groups as a cleavable component for the treatment of NPC disease...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858147/evolution-and-function-of-the-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-peroxiredoxin-a-2-cys-like-enzyme-with-a-single-cys-residue
#17
Taylor Gonchoroski, Veridiana G Virginio, Claudia E Thompson, Jéssica A Paes, Cláudio X Machado, Henrique B Ferreira
The minimal genome of the mollicute Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, encodes a limited repertoire of antioxidant enzymes that include a single and atypical peroxiredoxin (MhPrx), whose evolution and function were studied here. MhPrx has only one catalytic cysteine, in contrast with some of its possible ancestors (2-Cys peroxiredoxins), which have two. Although it is more similar to 2-Cys orthologs, MhPrx can still function with a single peroxidatic cysteine (CysP), using non-thiolic electron donors to reduce it...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832933/a-plant-cell-expressed-recombinant-anti-tnf-fusion-protein-is-biologically-active-in-the-gut-and-alleviates-immune-mediated-hepatitis-and-colitis
#18
Yaron Ilan, Svetlana Gingis-Velitski, Ami Ben Ya'aco, Yehudit Shabbat, Lidya Zolotarov, Einat Almon, Yoseph Shaaltiel
: The orally administered BY-2 plant cell-expressed recombinant anti-TNF fusion protein (PRX-106) (n=6) consists of the soluble form of the human TNF receptor (TNFR) fused to the Fc component of a human antibody IgG1 domain. AIM: To evaluate the immune modulatory effect of the oral administration of plant cells expressing PRX-106. METHODS: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce immune hepatitis was orally treated with cells expressing PRX-106 containing 0...
November 4, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818591/oral-administration-of-a-non-absorbable-plant-cell-expressed-recombinant-anti-tnf-fusion-protein-induces-immunomodulatory-effects-and-alleviates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#19
Yaron Ilan, Ami Ben Ya'acov, Yehudit Shabbat, Svetlana Gingis-Velitski, Einat Almon, Yoseph Shaaltiel
AIM: To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of oral administration of PRX-106 in the high-fat diet model. METHODS: For 22 wk, C57BL/6 HFD-fed mice received daily oral treatments with BY-2 cells expressing recombinant anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha fusion protein (PRX-106). Mice were followed for serum liver enzyme and triglyceride levels, liver histology and intrahepatic and systemic FACS. RESULTS: The orally administered non-absorbable PRX-106 was biologically active...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786251/ovariectomy-upregulated-the-expression-of-peroxiredoxin-1-5-in-osteoblasts-of-mice
#20
Juan Du, Wei Feng, Jing Sun, Cuijie Kang, Norio Amizuka, Minqi Li
Peroxiredoxin (PRX), a family of peroxidases, is associated with various biological processes such as the detoxification of oxidants and cell apoptosis. Besides, the anti-apoptosis effect of estrogen results partially from its anti-oxidant function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of PRXs in ovariectomy (OVX) mice and the related anti-oxidative mechanism of estrogen. Eight-week-old mice were subjected to ovariectomy. MC3T3-E1 cells were pretreatment with 17b-estradiol and N-acetyl cysteine followed by oxidative injury induced with H2O2...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
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