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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628315/a-pseudo-hypervalent-sulfur-intermediate-as-an-oxidative-protective-mechanism-in-the-archaea-peroxiredoxin-enzyme-aptpx
#1
Hisham M Dokainish, Daniel J Simard, James W Gauld
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a ubiquitous class of enzymes that have central roles in a number of important physiological processes. Using a multi-scale computational approach we have investigated the mechanism by which the active site cysteine (Cys50) in the typical 2-Cys Prx from Archaea (ApTPx) is oxidized by H2O2 to sulfenic acid. In addition, its further oxidation to give a sulfinic acid or its possible alternate intramolecular reaction to form an experimentally proposed hypervalent sulfurane was examined...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619362/peroxiredoxin-1-from-cuttlefish-sepiella-maindroni-molecular-characterization-of-development-and-its-immune-response-against-vibrio-alginolyticus
#2
Weiwei Song, Changkao Mu, Ronghua Li, Chunlin Wang
The aim of this work was constructive to understand the function of peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family member Peroxiredoxin 1 in Sepiella maindroni (SmPrx1) through molecular mechanisms of reproduction, embryonic development and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus. The full-length cDNA of SmPrx1 was of 1062 bp, contains a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 79bp, a 3' UTR of 359 bp, an open reading frame of 624 bp encoding 207 amino acids. The conserved peroxidase catalytic center "FYPLDFTFVCPTEI" and "GEVCPA" were observed in the sequence of SmPrx1; this indicated that it was a member of 2-Cys Prx...
June 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617594/formation-of-polyrotaxane-particles-via-template-assembly
#3
Blaise L Tardy, Shereen Tan, Henk H Dam, Tomoya Suma, Junling Guo, Greg G Qiao, Frank Caruso
In this study, we report a versatile method to assemble tunable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polyrotaxane (PRX) particles and capsules. By threading α-cyclodextrins (αCDs) onto PEG chains physically adsorbed onto template particles and subsequently dissolving the templates, PRX replica particles and hollow capsules are formed. This approach overcomes issues related to CD steric hindrance, and also reduces the multiple processing steps often associated with PRX-based particle formation. By simple variation of the molecular weight and end-group functionality of the PEG, we show that the rate of particle degradation as well as the stability of the particles can be tuned...
June 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594234/peroxiredoxins-and-redox-signaling-in-plants
#4
Michael Liebthal, Daniel Maynard, Karl-Josef Dietz
SIGNIFICANCE: Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are thiol peroxidases with multiple functions in the antioxidant defense and redox signaling network of the cell. Our progressing understanding assigns both local and global significance to plant Prxs which are grouped in four Prx types. In plants they are localized to the cytosol, mitochondrion, plastid and nucleus. Antioxidant defense is fundamentally connected to redox signaling, cellular communication and acclimation. The thiol-disulfide network is central part of the stress sensing and processing response and integrates information input with redox regulation...
June 8, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587902/involvement-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-gene-mitofusin-2-expression-in-paclitaxel-induced-mechanical-allodynia-in-rats
#5
Yuta Yamashita, Keiichi Irie, Akane Kochi, Nami Kimura, Toshinobu Hayashi, Koichi Matsuo, Takayuki Myose, Kazunori Sano, Takafumi Nakano, Yumi Takase, Yoshihiko Nakamura, Tomomitsu Satho, Kenji Mishima, Kenichi Mishima
Paclitaxel induces peripheral neuropathy, which is dose-limiting and results in loss of quality of life. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy are major concerns in clinical cancer therapy. However, the detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. It has recently been reported that allelic variability in the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) genes, mitofusin 2 (MFN2), Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10), and periaxin (PRX), affected paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in clinical cases...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587524/the-role-of-peroxiredoxins-in-the-transduction-of-h2o2-signals
#6
Sue Goo Rhee, Hyun Ae Woo, Dongmin Kang
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced on stimulation of many cell surface receptors and serves as an intracellular messenger in the regulation of diverse physiological events, mostly by oxidizing cysteine residues of effector proteins. Mammalian cells express multiple H2O2-eliminating enzymes including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and peroxiredoxin (Prx). A conserved cysteine in Prx family members is the site of oxidation by H2O2. Peroxiredoxins possess a high-affinity binding site for H2O2 that is lacking in catalase and glutathione peroxidase and which renders the catalytic cysteine highly susceptible to oxidation, with a rate constant several orders of magnitude greater than that for oxidation of cysteine in most H2O2 effector proteins...
June 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571485/continuous-autoregulatory-indices-derived-from-multi-modal-monitoring-each-one-is-not-like-the-other
#7
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, David Menon, Peter Smieleweski, Christian Zweifel, Ken Brady, Marek Czosnyka
We assess the relationships between various continuous measures of autoregulatory capacity in an adult TBI cohort. We assessed relationships between autoregulatory indices derived from intracranial pressure (ICP: PRx, PAx, RAC), Transcranial Doppler (TCD: Mx, Sx, Dx), brain tissue-oxygenation (ORx), and spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS resolved: TOx, THx). Relationships between indices were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient, Friedman (KW) test, Principle component analysis (PCA), Agglomerative Hierarchal Clustering (AHC) and K-Means Cluster Analysis (KMCA)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552528/peroxiredoxins-are-required-for-spindle-assembly-chromosome-organization-and-polarization-in-mouse-oocytes
#8
Hyuk-Joon Jeon, Yong Seok Park, Dong-Hyung Cho, Jae-Sung Kim, Eunji Kim, Ho Zoon Chae, Sang-Young Chun, Jeong Su Oh
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are highly conserved antioxidant enzymes and are implicated in multiple biological processes; however, their function in oocyte meiosis has not been studied. Here we show that inhibition of Prx I and II results in spindle defects, chromosome disorganization, and impaired polarization in mouse oocytes. Prx I was specifically localized at the spindle, whereas Prx II was enriched at the oocyte cortex and chromosomes. Inhibition of Prx activity with conoidin A disturbed assembly of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) through Aurora A regulation, leading to defects in spindle formation...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549769/variations-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-following-traumatic-brain-injury-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#9
David E Connor, Ganta V Chaitanya, Prashant Chittiboina, Paul McCarthy, L Keith Scott, Lisa Schrott, Alireza Minagar, Anil Nanda, J Steven Alexander
BACKGROUND: Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has shown great promise in identifying potential markers of injury in neurodegenerative diseases [1-13]. Here we compared CSF proteomes in healthy individuals, with patients diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to characterize molecular biomarkers which might identify these different clinical states and describe different molecular mechanisms active in each disease state. METHODS: Patients presenting to the Neurosurgery service at the Louisiana State University Hospital-Shreveport with an admitting diagnosis of TBI or SAH were prospectively enrolled...
May 13, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536589/the-role-of-polyphenoloxidase-peroxidase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-in-phenolics-accumulation-in-olea-europaea-l-fruits-under-different-water-regimes
#10
Marco Cirilli, Giovanni Caruso, Clizia Gennai, Stefania Urbani, Eleonora Frioni, Maurizio Ruzzi, Maurizio Servili, Riccardo Gucci, Elia Poerio, Rosario Muleo
Olive fruits and oils contain an array of compounds that contribute to their sensory and nutritional properties. Phenolic compounds in virgin oil and olive-derived products have been proven to be highly beneficial for human health, eliciting increasing attention from the food industry and consumers. Although phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oil have been extensively investigated, allowing the identification of the main classes of metabolites and their accumulation patterns, knowledge of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating phenolic metabolism remains scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535004/peroxiredoxin-5-overexpression-enhances-tumorigenicity-and-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-in-gastric-cancer
#11
Bokyung Kim, Yeon Soo Kim, Hye-Mi Ahn, Hyo Jin Lee, Min Kyu Jung, Hyun Yong Jeong, Dong Kyu Choi, Jun Hyeog Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Jin Man Kim, Dong-Seok Lee
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite the advanced surgical resection techniques and anticancer drugs currently available to treat early stage gastric cancer, the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer remains poor. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process for the initiation of tumorigenesis. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can promote cell migration and invasion. Thus, an imbalance of redox homeostasis can result in cancer cells exhibiting EMT properties...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506882/examination-of-the-superoxide-hydrogen-peroxide-forming-and-quenching-potential-of-mouse-liver-mitochondria
#12
Liam Slade, Julia Chalker, Nidhi Kuksal, Adrian Young, Danielle Gardiner, Ryan J Mailloux
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC) and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, it has been found that mitochondria can also serve as sinks for cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, the ROS forming and quenching capacity of liver mitochondria has never been thoroughly examined. Here, we show that mouse liver mitochondria use catalase, glutathione (GSH), and peroxiredoxin (PRX) systems to quench ROS. Incubation of mitochondria with catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (triazole) induced a significant increase in pyruvate or α-ketoglutarate driven O2(-)/H2O2 formation...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497934/cerebral-autoregulation-monitoring-in-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-what-s-the-evidence
#13
Leanne A Calviello, Joseph Donnelly, Frederick A Zeiler, Eric P Thelin, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka
Cerebral autoregulation is conceptualized as a vascular self-regulatory mechanism within the brain. Controlled by elusive relationships between various biophysical processes, it functions to protect the brain against potential damages caused by sudden changes in cerebral perfusion pressures and flow. Following events such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI), autoregulation may be compromised, potentially leading to an unfavorable outcome. In spite of its complexity, autoregulation has been able to be quantified non-invasively within the neuro-critical care setting with the aid of transcranial Doppler...
May 12, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486883/monitoring-of-optimal-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-in-traumatic-brain-injured-patients-using-a-multi-window-weighting-algorithm
#14
Xiuyun Liu, Natasha M Maurits, Marcel J H Aries, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole, Joseph Donnelly, Danilo Cardim, Dong-Joo Kim, Celeste Dias, Manuel Cabeleira, Peter Smieleweski
Methods to identify an autoregulation guided 'optimal' cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) for traumatic brain injury patients (TBI) have been reported through several studies. An important drawback of existing methodology is that CPPopt can be calculated only in approximately 50-60% of the monitoring time. In this study, we hypothesized that the CPPopt yield and the continuity can be improved significantly through application of a multi-window and weighting calculation algorithm, without adversely affecting preservation of its prognostic value...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463730/antioxidant-responses-of-peanut-roots-exposed-to-realistic-groundwater-doses-of-arsenate-identification-of-glutathione-s-transferase-as-a-suitable-biomarker-for-metalloid-toxicity
#15
Eliana Bianucci, Ana Furlan, María Del Carmen Tordable, Luis E Hernández, Ramón O Carpena-Ruiz, Stella Castro
Arsenic (As)-polluted groundwater constitutes a serious problem for peanut plants, as roots can accumulate the metalloid in their edible parts. Characterization of stress responses to As may help to detect potential risks and identify mechanisms of tolerance, being the induction of oxidative stress a key feature. Fifteen-day old peanut plants were treated with arsenate in order to characterize the oxidative stress indexes and antioxidant response of the legume under realistic groundwater doses of the metalloid...
April 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427494/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-peroxiredoxin-genes-in-nnk-induced-v79-cells
#16
Gui Qin Shi, Wen Shan Zhou, Meng Li, Fei Ren, Ya Wei Han
4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent and prevalent nitrosamine procarcinogen found in cigarette smoke. The aim of this work is to study alterations in peroxiredoxin (Prx) expression induced by NNK during carcinogenesis. Characterization of Prx genes from hamster was performed using bioinformatics. V79 cells were induced with different concentrations of NNK (0.1-0.4 mg/mL), and the expression levels of six Prx genes (Prx1-Prx6) were measured by qRT-PCR 24 h following NNK treatment...
March 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410843/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-does-not-prevent-heart-failure-in-experimental-hypertension
#17
H Hernán Gómez Llambí, G Cao, M Donato, D Suárez, G Ottaviano, A Müller, B Buchholz, R Gelpi, M Otero-Losada, J Milei
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to hypertension has been accepted to prevent heart failure (HF) while paradoxically increasing cardiovascular morbi-mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether antihypertensive treatment inhibits LVH, restores beta-adrenergic response and affects myocardial oxidative metabolism. METHODS: Ninety spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were distributed into groups and treated (mg/kg, p.o...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402171/tethered-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-onto-sulfonated-polyrotaxane-based-surfaces-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mc3t3-e1-cells
#18
Yoshinori Arisaka, Nobuhiko Yui
Sulfonated-polyrotaxane (PRX)-coated surfaces with tethered bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were designed for inducing osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells (preosteoblasts). Sulfonated-PRX triblock copolymers composed of sulfopropyl ether-modified α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) threaded onto a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain as a PRX segment and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) at both terminals of the PEG as anchoring segments were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392436/an-oral-administration-of-a-recombinant-anti-tnf-fusion-protein-is-biologically-active-in-the-gut-promoting-regulatory-t-cells-results-of-a-phase-i-clinical-trial-using-a-novel-oral-anti-tnf-alpha-based-therapy
#19
Einat Almon, Tawfik Khoury, Ariel Drori, Svetlana Gingis-Velitski, Sari Alon, Raul Chertkoff, Mordechai Mushkat, Yoseph Shaaltiel, Yaron Ilan
BACKGROUND: An orally administered BY-2 plant cell-expressed recombinant anti-TNF fusion protein (PRX-106) consists of the soluble form of the human TNF receptor (TNFR) fused to the Fc component of a human IgG1 domain. Aim This study aim at determining the safety and the immune modulatory effect of an oral administration of PRX-106 in humans. METHODS: Three different doses (2, 8 or 16mg/day) of PRX-106 were orally administered for five consecutive days in 14 healthy volunteered participants...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375740/experimentally-dissecting-the-origins-of-peroxiredoxin-catalysis
#20
Kimberly J Nelson, Arden Perkins, Amanda E D Van Swearingen, Steven Hartman, Andrew E Brereton, Derek Parsonage, Freddie R Salsbury, P Andrew Karplus, Leslie B Poole
AIMS: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous cysteine-based peroxidases involved in oxidant defense and signal transduction. Despite much study, the precise roles of conserved residues remain poorly defined. In this study, we carried out extensive functional and structural characterization of 10 variants of such residues in a model decameric bacterial Prx. RESULTS: Three active site proximal mutations of Salmonella typhimurium AhpC, T43V, R119A, and E49Q, lowered catalytic efficiency with hydrogen peroxide by 4-5 orders of magnitude, but did not affect reactivity toward their reductant, AhpF...
April 4, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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