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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494759/time-resolved-dual-transcriptomics-reveal-early-induced-nicotiana-benthamiana-root-genes-and-conserved-infection-promoting-phytophthora-palmivora-effectors
#1
Edouard Evangelisti, Anna Gogleva, Thomas Hainaux, Mehdi Doumane, Frej Tulin, Clément Quan, Temur Yunusov, Kévin Floch, Sebastian Schornack
BACKGROUND: Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection...
May 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486419/impact-of-a-microbial-cocktail-used-as-a-starter-culture-on-cocoa-fermentation-and-chocolate-flavor
#2
Igor Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Leonardo de Figueiredo Vilela, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Cledir Santos, Nelson Lima, Rosane Freitas Schwan
Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization...
May 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476307/isolation-of-organic-compounds-with-high-added-values-from-agro-industrial-solid-wastes
#3
Dimitris P Zagklis, Christakis A Paraskeva
Phenols are organic compounds with high antioxidant activity. Occurring mainly in plants, where they act as pigments or even as part of defense mechanisms against insects and herbivores. Given the positive impact on on human health, their isolation and purification from agricultural products is of particular interest for the production of nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetics supplements. In our study different materials rich in phenolic compounds were used, in order to separate the phenolic content and maximum condensation using physicochemical methods such as solvent extraction, filtration through membranes, adsorption/desorption on resins and vacuum distillation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465837/a-moderate-zinc-deficiency-does-not-alter-lipid-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-the-liver-of-weanling-rats-fed-diets-rich-in-cocoa-butter-or-safflower-oil
#4
Edgar Weigand, Jennifer Egenolf
The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465162/effect-of-caffeine-caffeic-acid-and-their-various-combinations-on-enzymes-of-cholinergic-monoaminergic-and-purinergic-systems-critical-to-neurodegeneration-in-rat-brain-in-vitro
#5
S F Akomolafe, A J Akinyemi, O B Ogunsuyi, S I Oyeleye, G Oboh, O O Adeoyo, Y R Allismith
Caffeine and caffeic acid are two bioactive compounds that are present in plant foods and are major constituent of coffee, cocoa, tea, cola drinks and chocolate. Although not structurally related, caffeine and caffeic acid has been reported to elicit neuroprotective properties. However, their different proportional distribution in food sources and possible effect of such interactions are not often taken into consideration. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of caffeine, caffeic acid and their various combinations on activities of some enzymes [acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO) ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPase), ecto-5(1)-nucleotidase (E-NTDase) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase relevant to neurodegeneration in vitro in rat brain...
April 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460978/pichia-kudrazevii-and-candida-nitrativorans-are-the-most-well-adapted-and-relevant-yeast-species-fermenting-cocoa-in-agneby-tiassa-a-local-ivorian-cocoa-producing-region
#6
Lamine Samagaci, Honoré Ouattara, Sébastien Niamké, Marc Lemaire
Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous and still poorly controlled process that very often leads to end-products of heterogeneous quality. This fermentation is driven by a succession of complex microbial communities where yeasts play key roles during the first stages of the process. In this study, we identified and analyzed the growth dynamics of yeasts involved in cocoa bean fermentation from the Ivorian region called Agneby-Tiassa. The results showed that Pichia kudriazevii and Candida nitrativorans were the dominant yeasts in fermented cocoa from Agneby-Tiassa...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460977/aseptic-artificial-fermentation-of-cocoa-beans-can-be-fashioned-to-replicate-the-peptide-profile-of-commercial-cocoa-bean-fermentations
#7
Warren A John, Neha Kumari, Nina L Böttcher, Kouame Jean Koffi, Sergio Grimbs, Gino Vrancken, Roy N D'Souza, Nikolai Kuhnert, Matthias S Ullrich
The fermentation of cocoa beans is essential for the generation of flavour precursors that are required later on to form the flavour components of chocolate. From the many different precursors that are generated, oligopeptides and free amino acids comprise a significant proportion as some of them form Maillard reaction products during the roasting process. Therefore, the diversity of peptides is an important contributing factor to the quality of a fermentation which is in turn controlled by proteolytic activity within the cocoa bean, and is driven by changes in the presence of fermentation by-products as a result of microbial activity outside the bean...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460952/compositional-evaluation-of-selected-agro-industrial-wastes-as-valuable-sources-for-the-recovery-of-complex-carbohydrates
#8
Aleksandra Vojvodić, Draženka Komes, Irena Vovk, Ana Belščak-Cvitanović, Arijana Bušić
Re-utilization of various agro-industrial wastes is of growing importance from many aspects. Considering the variety and complexity of such materials, compositional data and compliant methodology is still undergoing many updates and improvements. Present study evaluated sugar beet pulp (SBP), walnut shell (WS), cocoa bean husk (CBH), onion peel (OP) and pea pods (PP) as potentially valuable materials for carbohydrate recovery. Macrocomponent analyses revealed carbohydrate fraction as the most abundant, dominating in dietary fibres...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457799/dietary-treatment-of-fatty-liver-high-dietary-protein-content-has-an-antisteatotic-and-antiobesogenic-effect-in-mice
#9
Sonia C Garcia Caraballo, Tine M Comhair, Cornelis H C Dejong, Wouter H Lamers, S Eleonore Koehler
Few studies have assessed the effect of changing ratios of dietary macronutrients on fat accumulation in adipose tissue and organs such as the liver in a 3×3 factorial design. We investigated the effects of 7 diets from a single manufacturer containing 11-58 en% protein (casein), 0-81 en% carbohydrates (CHO; sucrose, maltrodextrin-10 and corn starch), and 8-42 en% fat (triheptanoin, olive oil or cocoa butter) in C57BL/6J mice, a good model for diet-induced obesity and fatty liver. The diets were fed for 3weeks to wild-type and hyperlipidemic male and female mice...
April 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450018/interaction-between-natural-antioxidants-derived-from-cinnamon-and-cocoa-in-binary-and-complex-mixtures
#10
Dimas Rahadian Aji Muhammad, Danar Praseptiangga, Davy Van de Walle, Koen Dewettinck
Cinnamon and cocoa are known to be valuable sources of bioactive phytochemicals, mainly the polyphenols. This paper investigates the potential antioxidant activity of cinnamon and cocoa extract and the interaction of their mixtures by various in vitro tests. Moreover, the combination effect of their constituents in a binary mixture was studied. Two representative active compounds of chocolate (epicatechin, catechin) were combined with seven of cinnamon (gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde) in multilevel ratios...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439881/effect-of-cocoa-on-blood-pressure
#11
REVIEW
Karin Ried, Peter Fakler, Nigel P Stocks
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432760/determination-of-ochratoxin-a-in-black-and-white-pepper-nutmeg-spice-mix-cocoa-and-drinking-chocolate-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-fluorescence-detection-collaborative-study
#12
Elena Cubero-Leon, Katrien Bouten, Hamide Senyuva, Joerg Stroka
A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector...
April 22, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425392/an-improved-method-for-the-quantification-of-thiamine-vitamin-b1-in-cocoa-containing-beverage-powders
#13
Frédéric Martin, Liliane Meyer, Konstantinos Zelianos, Esther Campos Gimenez
The purpose of this work was to understand low recoveries of thiamine (vitamin B1) when extracted from cocoa-containing beverage powders fortified with water-soluble vitamin B1, and to develop and validate a new procedure to improve these results. Based on the literature, previous trials have focused on two main factors: pH value prior to paper filtration and the need for solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean up. We demonstrate that by following European Standard EN 14122, recovery of thiamine in cocoa-containing beverage powders is low and dependent on the test portion (86 and 72% for 0...
April 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420000/-epicatechin-suppresses-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-the-activation-of-the-sp1-sirt1-signaling-pathway
#14
Zeng-Xiang Dong, Lin Wan, Ren-Jun Wang, Yuan-Qi Shi, Guang-Zhong Liu, Si-Jia Zheng, Hui-Ling Hou, Wei Han, Xin Hai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Flavonol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is present in high amounts in cocoa and tea products, and has been shown to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the precise mechanism of EPI on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has not yet been determined. In this study, we examined whether EPI could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS: We utilised cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and mice for immunofluorescence, immunochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blot analyses...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419110/cocoa-pulp-in-beer-production-applicability-and-fermentative-process-performance
#15
Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes, Giovani Brandão Mafra de Carvalho, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso da Silva, Gervásio Paulo da Silva, Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado, Ana Paula Trovatti Uetanabaro
This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415017/accelerated-solvent-extraction-method-for-the-quantification-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-cocoa-beans-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#16
Renata França Cassimiro Belo, Júlia Pereira Figueiredo, Carolina Mariana Nunes, Rafael Pissinatti, Scheilla Vitorino Carvalho de Souza, Roberto Gonçalves Junqueira
An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure for use with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was optimized for the determination of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cocoa beans. Plackett-Burman and rotatable central composite design (RCCD) indicated that three variables affected the recoveries of PAHs during the extraction and purification steps: agitation time in the second liquid-liquid partition, weight of silica gel in the column, and volume of hexane for PAH elution from the column...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412765/advanced-value-chain-collaboration-in-ghana-s-cocoa-sector-an-entry-point-for-integrated-landscape-approaches
#17
Howard Deans, Mirjam A F Ros-Tonen, Mercy Derkyi
Value chain analyses have focused mainly on collaboration between chain actors, often neglecting collaboration "beyond the chain" with non-chain actors to tackle food security, poverty and sustainability issues in the landscapes in which these value chains are embedded. Comparing conventional and advanced value chain collaborations involving small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana, this paper analyzes the merits of a more integrated approach toward value chain collaboration. It particularly asks whether advanced value chain collaboration targeting cocoa-producing areas potentially offers an entry point for implementing a landscape approach...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407918/nickel-speciation-in-cocoa-infusions-using-monolithic-chromatography-post-column-id-icp-ms-and-q-tof-ms
#18
Kelly Peeters, Tea Zuliani, Dušan Žigon, Radmila Milačič, Janez Ščančar
Nickel (Ni) is considered to be a potentially harmful element for humans. Its levels in foodstuffs are normally low (below 0.2mgkg(-1)), but sensitive individuals may develop allergy to Ni as a result of dietary consumption. Cocoa contains relatively high Ni concentrations (around 3mgkg(-1)). Ni bioavailability, its role in the flavour of food and its potential impact on human health depends primarily on its chemical species. However, there is a lack of information about Ni speciation in cocoa. In this work Ni species were separated on a weak convective interaction media diethylamine (CIM DEAE) monolithic chromatographic column and quantified by the post-column isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS)...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395822/ultra-stable-self-foaming-oils
#19
Bernard P Binks, Ioannis Marinopoulos
This paper is concerned with the foaming of a range of fats in the absence of added foaming agent/emulsifier. By controlling the temperature on warming from the solid or cooling from the melt, crystals of high melting triglycerides form in a continuous phase of low melting triglycerides. Such crystal dispersions in oil can be aerated to produce whipped oils of high foamability and extremely high stability. The foams do not exhibit drainage and bubbles neither coarsen nor coalesce as they become coated with solid crystals...
May 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389323/an-approach-to-allergy-risk-assessments-for-e-liquid-ingredients
#20
Sandra Costigan, Juan Lopez-Belmonte
Many flavours and fragrances are known allergens. Their selection and inclusion levels in e-liquids must therefore be guided by toxicological principles, taking into account the exposure pattern and inhalation route of exposure. For contact sensitisation, a general, agreed quantitative risk assessment approach to prevent dermal sensitisation exists. Here we propose exposure parameters and safety factors to apply this approach to e-liquid ingredients. Additionally, as a risk management approach for pre-sensitised individuals, we derive a threshold of 0...
April 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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