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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231135/changes-in-food-intake-in-australia-comparing-the-1995-and-2011-national-nutrition-survey-results-disaggregated-into-basic-foods
#1
Bradley Ridoutt, Danielle Baird, Kathryn Bastiaans, Gilly Hendrie, Malcolm Riley, Peerasak Sanguansri, Julie Syrette, Manny Noakes
As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary...
May 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218656/-cocoa%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-chocolate-%C3%A2-science%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-gastronomy-the%C3%A2-second%C3%A2-annual%C3%A2-workshop%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-research%C3%A2-institute%C3%A2-on%C3%A2-nutrition%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-food%C3%A2-security%C3%A2-insa-%C3%A2-9%C3%A2-november%C3%A2-2016
#2
Malen Massot-Cladera, Francisco Pérez-Cano, Rafael Llorach, Mireia Urpi-Sarda
The Research Institute on Nutrition and Food Security at the University of Barcelona (INSA-UB) was founded in 2005 by twenty-two research groups from the Faculties of Pharmacy and Food Science; Biology; Chemistry; and Geography and History, as well as other UB-affiliated centers and hospitals [...].
February 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208630/cocoa-and-grape-seed-byproducts-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-proanthocyanidins
#3
María De La Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Jorge Joven, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207305/heavy-metal-presence-in-two-different-types-of-ice-cream-artisanal-ice-cream-italian-gelato-and-industrial-ice-cream
#4
D Conficoni, L Alberghini, E Bissacco, M Ferioli, V Giaccone
Ice cream, a popular product worldwide, is usually a milk-based product with other types of ingredients (fruit, eggs, cocoa, dried fruit, additives, and others). Different materials are used to obtain the desired taste, texture, consistency, and appearance of the final product. This study surveyed ice cream products available in Italy for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin, and arsenic). The differences between artisanal and industrial ice cream were also investigated because of the importance in the Italian diet and the diffusion of this ready-to-eat food...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207258/procyanidin-a2-and-its-degradation-products-in-raw-fermented-and-roasted-cocoa
#5
Cédric De Taeye, Gilles Caullet, Victor Jos Eyamo Evina, Sonia Collin
Cocoa is known as an important source of flavan-3-ols, but their fate "from the bean to the bar" is not yet clear. Here, procyanidin A2 found in native cocoa beans (9-13 mg/kg) appeared partially epimerized into A2(E1) through fermentation, whereas a second epimer (A2(E2)) emerged after roasting. At m/z 575, dehydrodiepicatechin A was revealed to be the major HPLC peak before fermentation, whereas F1, a marker of well-conducted fermentations, becomes the most intense after roasting. RP-HPLC-ESI(-)-HRMS/MS analysis performed on a procyanidin A2 model medium after 12 h at 90 °C revealed many more degradation products than those identified in fermented cocoa, including the last epimer of A2, A2 open structure intermediates (m/z 577), and oxidized A-type dimers (m/z 573)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194790/roasting-conditions-for-preserving-cocoa-flavan-3-ol-monomers-and-oligomers-interesting-behaviour-of-criollo-clones
#6
Cédric De Taeye, Marie Bodart, Gilles Caullet, Sonia Collin
BACKGROUND: Cocoa bean roasting is important for creating the typical chocolate aroma through Maillard reactions, but it is also a key step deleterious to the polyphenol content and profile. RESULTS: Compared to usual roasting at 150 °C, keeping the beans for 30 min at 120 °C or for 1 hour at 90 °C proved much better for preventing strong degradation of native P1, P2, and P3 flavan-3-ols in cocoa (shown for the Forastero, Trinitatio, and Criollo cultivars)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194561/xanthine-alkaloids-occurrence-biosynthesis-and-function-in-plants
#7
Hiroshi Ashihara, Kouichi Mizuno, Takao Yokota, Alan Crozier
Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid found in non-alcoholic beverages such as tea, coffee, and cocoa. It was discovered in tea and coffee in the 1820s, but it was not until 2000 that details of molecular events associated with caffeine biosynthesis began to be unraveled. Reviewed are the occurrence of xanthine alkaloids in the plant kingdom and the elucidation of the caffeine biosynthesis pathway, providing details of the N-methyltransferases, belonging to the motif B' methyltransferase family, which catalyze three steps in the four-step pathway leading from xanthosine to caffeine...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190808/quantification-of-triacylglycerol-molecular-species-in-edible-fats-and-oils-by-gas-chromatographyflame-ionization-detector-using-correction-factors
#8
Kazuaki Yoshinaga, Junji Obi, Toshiharu Nagai, Hiroyuki Iioka, Akihiko Yoshida, Fumiaki Beppu, Naohiro Gotoh
In the present study, the resolution parameters and correction factors (CFs) of triacylglycerol (TAG) standards were estimated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to achieve the precise quantification of the TAG composition in edible fats and oils. Forty seven TAG standards comprising capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and/or linolenic acid were analyzed, and the CFs of these TAGs were obtained against tripentadecanoyl glycerol as the internal standard...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185867/an-experimental-evaluation-of-the-role-of-the-stress-axis-in-mediating-predator-prey-interactions-in-wild-marine-fish
#9
Michael J Lawrence, Erika J Eliason, Jacob W Brownscombe, Kathleen M Gilmour, John W Mandelman, Steven J Cooke
The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, through corticosteroid secretion, is an integral mechanism regulating internal homeostasis when vertebrates are faced with a stressor. However, continued HPI-axis stimulation can produce homeostatic overload, where corticosteroids are detrimental to organismal function. This overload condition may play an important role in mediating predator-prey interactions, because chronically/previously stressed animals may have higher rates of predator-induced mortality...
February 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181242/sensory-profile-and-consumer-acceptability-of-prebiotic-white-chocolate-with-sucrose-substitutes-and-the-addition-of-goji-berry-lycium-barbarum
#10
Janaína Madruga Morais Ferreira, Bruna Marcacini Azevedo, Valdecir Luccas, Helena Maria André Bolini
Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168573/increasing-cocoa-butter-like-lipid-production-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-expression-of-selected-cocoa-genes
#11
Yongjun Wei, Michael Gossing, David Bergenholm, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0), but CB supply is limited. Therefore, CB-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are in great demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which are also mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168314/cocoa-butter-like-lipid-production-ability-of-non-oleaginous-and-oleaginous-yeasts-under-nitrogen-limited-culture-conditions
#12
Yongjun Wei, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN...
February 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168182/associations-of-caffeinated-beverage-consumption-and-screen-time-with-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-korean-high-school-students
#13
Nuri Jun, Aeri Lee, Inkyung Baik
The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was defined as ESS scores of 9 or greater...
January 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142243/neuroprotective-effects-of-bioavailable-polyphenol-derived-metabolites-against-oxidative-stress-induced-cytotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#14
Antonio González-Sarrías, María Ángeles Núñez-Sánchez, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Juan Carlos Espín
Oxidative stress is involved in cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary polyphenols can exert health benefits, but their direct effects on neuronal cells are debatable because most phenolics are metabolized and do not reach the brain as they occur in the dietary sources. Herein, we evaluate the effects of a panel of bioavailable polyphenols and derived metabolites at physiologically relevant conditions against H2O2-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Among the 19 metabolites tested, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and urolithins prevented neuronal apoptosis via attenuation of ROS levels, increased REDOX activity, and decreased oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by preventing the caspase-3 activation via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in SH-SY5Y cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142165/-influence-of-luxury-foodstuffs-on-glaucoma
#15
K K Huber-van der Velden
The term "luxury foodstuffs" refers to foods which are not consumed because of their nutritional value. Classic modern luxury foodstuffs are alcohol, caffeine-containing drinks, cocoa, sugar and tobacco. The following review article examines some of these modern luxury foodstuffs in detail, as well as their influence on glaucoma. Thus, small quantities of alcohol lower high intraocular pressure and have a positive influence on the blood circulation of the optic nerve. In addition, red wine polyphenols exert vasoprotective effects...
February 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142090/chemical-modification-of-the-cocoa-shell-surface-using-diazonium-salts
#16
Flavia Fioresi, Julien Vieillard, Radhouane Bargougui, Nabil Bouazizi, Patrick Nkuigue Fotsing, Emmanuel Djoufac Woumfo, Nicolas Brun, Nadine Mofaddel, Franck Le Derf
The outer portion of the cocoa bean, also known as cocoa husk or cocoa shell (CS), is an agrowaste material from the cocoa industry. Even though raw CS is used as food additive, garden mulch, and soil conditioner or even burnt for fuel, this biomass material has hardly ever been investigated for further modification. This article proposes a strategy of chemical modification of cocoa shell to add value to this natural material. The study investigates the grafting of aryl diazonium salt on cocoa shell. Different diazonium salts were grafted on the shell surface and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy imaging...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111818/dietary-and-nutrition-interventions-for-the-therapeutic-treatment-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
N Campagnolo, S Johnston, A Collatz, D Staines, S Marshall-Gradisnik
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is characterised by unexplained fatigue for at least 6 months accompanied by a diverse but consistent set of symptoms. Diet modification and nutritional supplements could be used to improve patient outcomes, such fatigue and quality of life. We reviewed and discussed the evidence for nutritional interventions that may assist in alleviating symptoms of CFS/ME. METHODS: Medline, Cinahl and Scopus were systematically searched from 1994 to May 2016...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110526/optimization-of-postharvest-conditions-to-produce-chocolate-aroma-from-jackfruit-seeds
#18
Fernanda Papa Spada, Lais Masson Zerbeto, Gabriel Bernardes Cabreira Ragazi, Érika Maria Roel Gutierrez, Miriam Coelho Souza, Jane K Parker, Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca
Jackfruit seeds are an underutilized waste in many tropical countries. This work demonstrates the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying and then roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n = 162), and response surface methodology was used to identify optimum conditions...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110066/bioactive-nutrients-time-for-tolerable-upper-intake-levels-to-address-safety
#19
Allison A Yates, John W Erdman, Andrew Shao, Laurie C Dolan, James C Griffiths
There is increasing interest by consumers, researchers, and regulators into the roles that certain bioactive compounds, derived from plants and other natural sources, can play in health maintenance and promotion, and even prolonging a productive quality of life. Research has rapidly emerged suggesting that a wide range of compounds and mixtures in and from plants (such as fruits and vegetables, tea and cocoa) and animals (such as fish and probiotics) may exert substantial health benefits. There is interest in exploring the possibility of establishing recommended intakes or dietary guidance for certain bioactive substances to help educate consumers...
January 18, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106217/flavanol-concentrations-do-not-predict-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitory-activities-of-four-cocoas-with-different-processing-histories
#20
Caroline M Ryan, Weslie Khoo, Amanda C Stewart, Sean F O'Keefe, Joshua D Lambert, Andrew P Neilson
Cocoa and its constituent bioactives (particularly flavanols) have reported anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activities. One potential mechanism of action is inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4), the enzyme that inactivates incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide. The objective of this study was to determine the DPP4 inhibitory activities of cocoas with different processing histories, and identify processing factors and bioactive compounds that predict DPP4 inhibition...
January 20, 2017: Food & Function
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