keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cocoa

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146359/determination-of-tryptophan-derivatives-in-kynurenine-pathway-in-fermented-foods-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Cemile Yılmaz, Vural Gökmen
This study aimed to develop an analytical method for the determination of tryptophan and its derivatives in kynurenine pathway using tandem mass spectrometry in various fermented food products (bread, beer, red wine, white cheese, yoghurt, kefir and cocoa powder). The method entails an aqueous extraction and reversed phase chromatographic separation using pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column. It allowed quantitation of low ppb levels of tryptophan and its derivatives in different fermented food matrices. It was found that beer samples were found to contain kynurenine within the range of 28...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146253/isolation-and-characterisation-of-theobromine-degrading-filamentous-fungi
#2
Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Augustine Ocloo, Sammy T Lowor, Evelyn Y Bonney, Laud K N A Okine, Naa Ayikailey Adamafio
Strategies for achieving global food security include identification of alternative feedstock for use as animal feed, to contribute towards efforts at increasing livestock farming. The presence of theobromine in cocoa pod husks, a major agro-waste in cocoa-producing countries, hinders its utilisation for this purpose. Cheap treatment of cocoa pod husks to remove theobromine would allow largescale beneficial use of the millions of metric tonnes generated annually. The aim of this study was to isolate theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi that could serve as bioremediation agents for detheobromination of cocoa pod husks...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141542/cocoa-polyphenols-evidence-from-epidemiological-studies
#3
Chisa Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests potential preventive effects of chocolate/cocoa on the risk of cardio vascular disease (CVD). However, cocoa products also contain high levels of sugar and fat, which increase CVD risk factors. Even, the identity of the substance in chocolate/cocoa that has a favorable effect on CVD and CVD risk factors remains unclear, growing evidence from experimental studies suggests that cocoa polyphenols might be a major contributor to cardiovascular-protective effects...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126366/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-potential-for-polyphenol-rich-cocoa-extract-obtained-by-agroindustrial-residue
#4
Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Russany Silva da Costa, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Patrizia Perego, Mara Silvia Pinheiro Arruda, José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior, Attilio Converti, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa
Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract...
November 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121975/the-pocket-4-life-project-bioavailability-and-beneficial-properties-of-the-bioactive-compounds-of-espresso-coffee-and-cocoa-based-confectionery-containing-coffee-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-cross-over-trial
#5
Pedro Mena, Michele Tassotti, Daniela Martini, Alice Rosi, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio
BACKGROUND: Coffee is an important source of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, phenolic compounds (mainly chlorogenic acids), trigonelline, and diterpenes. Several studies have highlighted the preventive effects of coffee consumption on major cardiometabolic diseases, but the impact of coffee dosage on markers of cardiometabolic risk is not well understood. Moreover, the pool of coffee-derived circulating metabolites and the contribution of each metabolite to disease prevention still need to be evaluated in real-life settings...
November 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120362/detection-of-lard-in-cocoa-butter-its-fatty-acid-composition-triacylglycerol-profiles-and-thermal-characteristics
#6
Marliana Azir, Sahar Abbasiliasi, Tengku Azmi Tengku Ibrahim, Yanty Noorzianna Abdul Manaf, Awis Qurni Sazili, Shuhaimi Mustafa
The present study investigates the detection of lard in cocoa butter through changes in fatty acids composition, triacylglycerols profile, and thermal characteristics. Cocoa butter was mixed with 1% to 30% (v/v) of lard and analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results revealed that the mixing of lard in cocoa butter showed an increased amount of oleic acid in the cocoa butter while there was a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid and stearic acids...
November 9, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119922/polyphenols-anti-platelet-nutraceutical
#7
Valeria Ludovici, Jens Barthelmes, Matthias P Nägele, Andreas J Flammer, Isabella Sudano
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a disease progressing over many years. Genetic factors, as well as the exposure to risk factors, are continuously leading to endothelial dysfunction, vascular alterations and, eventually, organ damage, major cardiovascular events and deaths. Oxidative stress, platelet hyperactivity and low-grade inflammation are important modulators in this context, contributing to plaque formation. Since platelet activation plays a critical role in the development and progression of atherothrombotic events, the inhibition of platelet hyperactivity may contribute to decreased atherothrombotic risk...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119920/polyphenols-inflammation
#8
Midori Natsume
BACKGROUND: Polyphenols widely distributed in plants, fruits and vegetables have received considerable attention on account of their physiological functions, including their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some antioxidant components of cacao liquor prepared from fermented and roasted cacao beans, which is a major ingredient of cocoa and chocolate products, have been characterized as flavan-3-ols and procyanidin oligomers Methods: This review focuses on a specific group of (-)-epicatechins and their oligomers, the procyanidins, in cacao products...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119919/polyphenols-and-microvascular-function-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#9
Kirsty A Woodward, Richard Draijer, Dick H J Thijssen, David A Low
BACKGROUND: Polyphenol-rich dietary sources are acknowledged to have potential cardiovascular health benefits, particularly in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: This systematic review sought to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages upon microvascular function, which is of considerable importance in its contribution towards the pathophysiology of microvascular-related complications but also in the future development of (macro-vessel) cardiovascular disease...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111715/environmental-growing-conditions-in-five-production-systems-induce-stress-response-and-affect-chemical-composition-of-cocoa-theobroma-cacao-l-beans
#10
Wiebke Niether, Inga Smit, Laura Armengot, Monika Schneider, Gerhard Gerold, Elke Pawelzik
Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans deriving from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090642/aflatoxins-and-ochratoxin-a-in-different-cocoa-clones-theobroma-cacao-l-developed-in-the-southern-region-of-bahia-brazil
#11
Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira Felício, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues Miranda, Tassia Cavalcante Pires, Eliete da Silva Bispo, Elisa Yoko Hirooka
Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes "witch's broom disease", research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease, however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, Aspergillus for example, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but which can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins...
November 1, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078038/influence-of-supraphysiological-cortisol-manipulation-on-predator-avoidance-behaviours-and-physiological-responses-to-a-predation-threat-in-a-wild-marine-teleost-fish
#12
Michael J Lawrence, Erika J Eliason, Jacob W Brownscombe, Kathleen M Gilmour, John W Mandelman, Lee F G Gutowsky, Steven J Cooke
The stress axis in teleost fish attempts to maintain internal homeostasis in the face of allostatic loading. However, stress axis induction has been associated with a higher predation rate in fish. To date, the physiological and behavioural factors associated with this outcome are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of experimental cortisol elevation on anti-predator behaviour and physiological responses to predator presence. We hypothesized that semi-chronic cortisol elevation would increase susceptibility to predation by increasing stress-induced risk taking behaviours...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072604/do-preschools-offer-healthy-beverages-to-children-a-nationwide-study-in-poland
#13
Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak, Anna Harton
BACKGROUND: Children's beverage consumption patterns have received increased attention in light of the obesity epidemic in this group. In day care centers (DCCs), children spend up to 10 h a day, and typically consume half to three quarters of their daily food intake. The purpose of the study was to investigate what beverages are typically served to children in preschools in Poland, and to evaluate the practices associated with adding sugar and other sweetening agents to beverages. METHODS: Direct interviews with preschools staff were conducted with a questionnaire regarding offered beverages and adding sugar and other sweetening agents...
October 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048566/deciphering-the-theobroma-cacao-self-incompatibility-system-from-genomics-to-diagnostic-markers-for-self-compatibility
#14
Claire Lanaud, Olivier Fouet, Thierry Legavre, Uilson Lopes, Olivier Sounigo, Marie Claire Eyango, Benoit Mermaz, Marcos Ramos Da Silva, Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano, Xavier Argout, Gabor Gyapay, Herman Ebai Ebaiarrey, Kelly Colonges, Christine Sanier, Ronan Rivallan, Géraldine Mastin, Nicholas Cryer, Michel Boccara, Jean-Luc Verdeil, Ives Bruno Efombagn Mousseni, Karina Peres Gramacho, Didier Clément, Zoe Wilson
Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038146/use-of-metabolomics-in-improving-assessment-of-dietary-intake
#15
REVIEW
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly evolving to integrate nutrition with complex metabolomics data to discover new biomarkers of nutritional exposure and status. CONTENT: The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the measurement techniques, study designs, and statistical approaches used in nutrition metabolomics, as well as to describe the current knowledge from epidemiologic studies identifying metabolite profiles associated with the intake of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034240/dark-chocolate-opportunity-for-an-alliance-between-medical-science-and-the-food-industry
#16
Ivan M Petyaev, Yuriy K Bashmakov
Dark chocolate (DC) was originally introduced in human nutrition as a medicinal product consumable in a liquid form. Century-long efforts of food industry transformed this hardly appealing product into a valuable modern culinary delight with clear predominance of confectionery brands of DC on the market. However, current epidemiological data as well as multiple experimental and clinical observations reveal that DC consumption may have a profound effect on cardiovascular, central nervous systems, hemostasis, and lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033932/from-cocoa-to-chocolate-the-impact-of-processing-on-in-vitro-antioxidant-activity-and-the-effects-of-chocolate-on-antioxidant-markers-in-vivo
#17
REVIEW
Carla D Di Mattia, Giampiero Sacchetti, Dino Mastrocola, Mauro Serafini
Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032689/characterization-and-degradation-of-pectic-polysaccharides-in-cocoa-pulp
#18
Esther Meersman, Nore Struyf, Clare Kyomugasho, Zahra Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Jihan Santanina Santiago, Eline Baert, Sami Hemdane, Gino Vrancken, Kevin J Verstrepen, Christophe M Courtin, Marc Hendrickx, Jan Steensels
Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027929/procyanidin-b2-protects-neurons-from-oxidative-nitrosative-and-excitotoxic-stress
#19
Taylor C Sutcliffe, Aimee N Winter, Noelle C Punessen, Daniel A Linseman
The aberrant generation of oxygen and nitrogen free radicals can cause severe damage to key cellular components, resulting in cell apoptosis. Similarly, excitotoxicity leads to protease activation and mitochondrial dysfunction, which subsequently causes cell death. Each of these factors play critical roles in the neuronal cell death underlying various neurodegenerative diseases. Procyanidin B2 (PB2) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound found in high concentrations in cocoa, apples, and grapes. Here, we examine the neuroprotective effects of PB2 in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) exposed to various stressors...
October 13, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023393/flavanol-rich-cocoa-powder-interacts-with-lactobacillus-rhamnossus-lgg-to-alter-the-antibody-response-to-infection-with-the-parasitic-nematode-ascaris-suum
#20
Saebyeol Jang, Sukla Lakshman, Ethiopia Beshah, Yue Xie, Aleksey Molokin, Bryan T Vinyard, Joseph F Urban, Cindy D Davis, Gloria I Solano-Aguilar
Consumption of the probiotic bacteria LactobacillusrhamnosusLGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP) or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A. suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti-A...
October 12, 2017: Nutrients
keyword
keyword
1101
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"