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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100511/higher-dietary-flavonoid-intakes-are-associated-with-lower-objectively-measured-body-composition-in-women-evidence-from-discordant-monozygotic-twins
#1
Amy Jennings, Alex MacGregor, Tim Spector, Aedín Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Although dietary flavonoid intake has been associated with less weight gain, there are limited data on its impact on fat mass, and to our knowledge, the contribution of genetic factors to this relation has not previously been assessed. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between flavonoid intakes and fat mass. DESIGN: In a study of 2734 healthy, female twins aged 18-83 y from the TwinsUK registry, intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, polymers, and proanthocyanidins) were calculated with the use of food-frequency questionnaires...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100284/role-of-flavonoids-and-nitrates-in-cardiovascular-health
#2
Julie A Lovegrove, Alex Stainer, Ditte A Hobbs
CVD remain the leading cause of death globally. Effective dietary strategies for their reduction are of high priority. Increasing evidence suggests that phytochemicals, particularly dietary flavonoids and nitrates, are key modulators of CVD risk reduction through impact on multiple risk factors. The aim of this review is to explore the evidence for the impact of flavonoid- and nitrate-rich foods and supplements on CVD risk, with specific reference to their importance as mediators of vascular health and platelet function...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095955/preconditioning-to-reduce-decompression-stress-in-scuba-divers
#3
Peter Germonpré, Costantino Balestra
BACKGROUND: Using ultrasound imaging, vascular gas emboli (VGE) are observed after asymptomatic scuba dives and are considered a key element in the potential development of decompression sickness (DCS). Diving is also accompanied with vascular dysfunction, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Previous studies showed significant intersubject variability to VGE for the same diving exposure and demonstrated that VGE can be reduced with even a single pre-dive intervention. Several preconditioning methods have been reported recently, seemingly acting either on VGE quantity or on endothelial inflammatory markers...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093442/rococo-study-a-real-world-evaluation-of-an-over-the-counter-medicine-in-acute-cough-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-study
#4
S S Birring, J Brew, A Kilbourn, V Edwards, R Wilson, A H Morice
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of CS1002, an over-the-counter cough treatment containing diphenhydramine, ammonium chloride and levomenthol in a cocoa-based demulcent. DESIGN: A multicentre, randomised, parallel group, controlled, single-blinded study in participants with acute upper respiratory tract infection-associated cough. SETTING: 4 general practitioner (GP) surgeries and 14 pharmacies in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged ≥18 years who self-referred to a GP or pharmacist with acute cough of <7 days' duration...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089926/sensory-specific-satiety-is-intact-in-rats-made-obese-on-a-high-fat-high-sugar-choice-diet
#5
Kevin P Myers
Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is the temporary decreased pleasantness of a recently eaten food, which inhibits further eating. Evidence is currently mixed whether SSS is weaker in obese people, and whether such difference precedes or follows from the obese state. Animal models allow testing whether diet-induced obesity causes SSS impairment. Female rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to an obesogenic high-fat, high-sugar choice diet or chow-only control. Tests of SSS involved pre-feeding a single palatable, distinctively-flavored food (cheese- or cocoa-flavored) prior to free choice between both foods...
January 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051942/parental-care-in-a-stressful-world-experimentally-elevated-cortisol-and-brood-size-manipulation-influence-nest-success-probability-and-nest-tending-behavior-in-a-wild-teleost-fish
#6
Dirk A Algera, Lee F G Gutowsky, Aaron J Zolderdo, Steven J Cooke
Parental care is an advantageous reproductive behavior, as the fitness of the caregiver is increased through improving the chances of its offspring's survival. Parental care occurs in a variety of teleost fishes. The body size of parental fish and the size of their brood can affect nest abandonment decisions, where compared with smaller fish with smaller broods, larger fish with larger broods typically invest more energy into reproductive events because they have less future reproductive potential. Although essential for basal metabolism and body maintenance functions, when glucocorticoid hormones (e...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045607/use-of-lignocellulose-biomass-for-endoxylanase-production-by-streptomyces-termitum
#7
Alenir Naves de Sales, Angélica Cristina de Souza, Rondinele de Oliveira Moutta, Viridiana Santana Ferreira-Leitão, Rosane Freitas Schwan, Disney Ribeiro Dias
Actinobacteria isolates from Brazilian Cerrado soil were evaluated for their ability to produce enzymes of the cellulolytic and xylanolytic complex using lignocellulose residual biomass. Preliminary semi-quantitative tests, made in Petri plates containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and beechwood xylan, indicated 11 potential species producing enzymes, all belonging to the genus Streptomyces. The species were subsequently grown in pure substrates in submerged fermentation and analyzed for the production of enzymes endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, endoxylanase and β-xylosidase...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041933/a-risk-assessment-of-dietary-ochratoxin-a-in-the-united-states
#8
Nicole J Mitchell, Chen Chen, Jeffrey D Palumbo, Andreia Bianchini, Jack Cappozzo, Jayne Stratton, Dojin Ryu, Felicia Wu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin (fungal toxin) found in multiple foodstuffs. Because OTA has been shown to cause kidney disease in multiple animal models, several governmental bodies around the world have set maximum allowable levels of OTA in different foods and beverages. In this study, we conducted the first exposure and risk assessment study of OTA for the United States' population. A variety of commodities from grocery stores across the US were sampled for OTA over a 2-year period. OTA exposure was calculated from the OTA concentrations in foodstuffs and consumption data for different age ranges...
December 30, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040226/cadmium-uptake-by-cocoa-trees-in-agroforestry-and-monoculture-systems-under-conventional-and-organic-management
#9
A Gramlich, S Tandy, C Andres, J Chincheros Paniagua, L Armengot, M Schneider, R Schulin
Cadmium (Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on Cd uptake by cocoa in a long-term field trial in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia, where cocoa trees are grown in monocultures and in agroforestry systems, both under organic and conventional management...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040177/regulation-of-the-synthesis-of-pulp-degrading-enzymes-in-bacillus-isolated-from-cocoa-fermentation
#10
Honoré G Ouattara, Sylvie Reverchon, Sébastien L Niamke, William Nasser
Pectin degrading enzymes are essential for quality of product from cocoa fermentation. Previously, we studied purified pectate lyases (Pel) produced by Bacillus strains from fermenting cocoa and characterized the cloned pel genes. This study aims to search for biological signals that modulates Pel production and regulators that influence pel gene expression. Strains were grown to the end of exponential phase in media containing various carbon sources. Pel enzymes production in Bacillus was unaffected by simple sugar content variation up to 2%...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035345/high-flavonoid-intake-induces-cognitive-improvements-linked-to-changes-in-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-two-randomised-controlled-trials
#11
Sara Neshatdoust, Caroline Saunders, Sophie M Castle, David Vauzour, Claire Williams, Laurie Butler, Julie A Lovegrove, Jeremy P E Spencer
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have indicated the beneficial impact of dietary flavonoid intake on human cognitive performance. Although the mechanisms that mediate such improvements are currently unclear, animal and human trial data suggest that changes in neurotrophin expression, and related signalling apparatus, may be involved. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the link between changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and changes in human cognitive performance following flavonoid intake. METHODS: The relationship between serum levels of BDNF and age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and cognition at baseline, and following flavonoid intake, was investigated in two distinct randomised, controlled clinical trials...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028594/major-phytopathogens-and-strains-from-cocoa-theobroma-cacao-l-are-differentiated-by-maldi-ms-lipid-and-or-peptide-protein-profiles
#12
Fábio Neves Dos Santos, Alessandra Tata, Kátia Roberta Anacleto Belaz, Dilze Maria Argôlo Magalhães, Edna Dora Martins Newman Luz, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin
Phytopathogens are the main disease agents that promote attack of cocoa plantations in all tropical countries. The similarity of the symptoms caused by different phytopathogens makes the reliable identification of the diverse species a challenge. Correct identification is important in the monitoring and management of these pests. Here we show that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis is able to rapidly and reliably differentiate cocoa phytopathogens, namely Moniliophthora perniciosa, Phytophthora palmivora, P...
December 27, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003203/methylxanthines-enhance-the-effects-of-cocoa-flavanols-on-cardiovascular-function-randomized-double-masked-controlled-studies
#13
Roberto Sansone, Javier I Ottaviani, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Yvonne Heinen, Dorina Noske, Jeremy P Spencer, Alan Crozier, Marc W Merx, Malte Kelm, Hagen Schroeter, Christian Heiss
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanol intake, especially that of (-)-epicatechin, has been linked to beneficial effects on human cardiovascular function. However, cocoa also contains the methylxanthines theobromine and caffeine, which may also affect vascular function. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether an interaction between cocoa flavanols and methylxanthines exists that influences cocoa flavanol-dependent vascular effects. DESIGN: Test drinks that contained various amounts of cocoa flavanols (0-820 mg) and methylxanthines (0-220 mg), either together or individually, were consumed by healthy volunteers (n = 47) in 4 different clinical studies-3 with a randomized, double-masked crossover design and 1 with 4 parallel crossover studies...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994631/evaluation-of-beeswax-influence-on-physical-properties-of-lipstick-using-instrumental-and-sensory-methods
#14
Giedre Kasparaviciene, Arunas Savickas, Zenona Kalveniene, Saule Velziene, Loreta Kubiliene, Jurga Bernatoniene
The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method spectrophotometrically...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989469/targeted-and-untargeted-characterisation-of-free-and-glycosylated-simple-phenols-in-cocoa-beans-using-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry-q-orbitrap
#15
C Barnaba, T Nardin, A Pierotti, M Malacarne, R Larcher
Free simple phenols have positive effects on health and influence the organoleptic profile of cocoa products, contributing towards defining their aroma and nutritional properties. Glycosidically bound simple phenols can be hydrolysed during the production phase to the corresponding free forms, and thus potentially contribute to the final sensory profile. In this work, 60 samples of Forastero cocoa beans from all over the world were analysed, combining on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987169/using-tropgenedb-a-database-containing-data-on-molecular-markers-qtls-maps-genotypes-and-phenotypes-for-tropical-crops
#16
Manuel Ruiz, Guilhem Sempéré, Chantal Hamelin
TropGeneDB ( http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr ) is a web database that manages genomic, genetic, and phenotypic information on tropical crops. It is organized on a crop basis with currently nine public modules: banana, cocoa, coconut, coffee, cotton, oil palm, rice, rubber tree, and sugarcane. TropGeneDB contains data on molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), genetic and physical maps, genotyping and phenotyping studies, and information on genetic resources (geographic origin, parentage, collection). Crop-specific web interfaces have been designed to allow quick consultations as well as personalized complex queries...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973974/short-term-effect-of-dark-chocolate-consumption-on-routine-haemostasis-testing
#17
Martina Montagnana, Elisa Danese, Gian Luca Salvagno, Giuseppe Lippi
This experimental study was designed to investigate the sort-term impact of dark chocolate ingestion on routine haemostasis tests in healthy volunteers. The study population consisted in 15 healthy male volunteers who ingested 50 g of 90% cocoa chocolate within 3-5 min. Blood was drawn early in the morning, immediately before chocolate ingestion and 4 h afterwards, for assessment of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen. A significant increase of triglycerides (1...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960580/prevalence-and-causes-of-visual-impairment-and-blindness-among-cocoa-farmers-in-ghana
#18
Samuel Bert Boadi-Kusi, Rekha Hansraj, Khathutshelo Percy Mashige, Alfred Osafo-Kwaako, Alex Azuka Ilechie, Samuel Abokyi
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among cocoa farmers in Ghana in order to formulate early intervention strategies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using multistage random sampling from four cocoa growing districts in Ghana was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014. A total of 512 cocoa farmers aged 40 years and older were interviewed and examined. The brief interview questionnaire was administered to elicit information on the demographics and socioeconomic details of participants...
February 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934293/fate-of-anthocyanins-through-cocoa-fermentation-emergence-of-new-polyphenolic-dimers
#19
Cédric De Taeye, Victor Jos Eyamo Evina, Gilles Caullet, Nicolas Niemenak, Sonia Collin
Fresh, ripe cocoa beans from Cameroon (German cocoa/Amelonado group and ICS 40/Trinitario group) were subjected to fermentation-like incubations in acetic acid, lactic acid, or both and to natural fermentation. Two naturally fermented samples from Cuba (UF 654/Trinitario group and C 411/Criollo group) were also investigated. Both cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside (found as major anthocyanins in colored beans only) were drastically degraded through fermentation, especially in small beans and in the presence of acetic acid...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933990/automated-enrichment-of-sulfanilamide-in-milk-matrices-by-utilization-of-aptamer-linked-magnetic-particles
#20
Christin Fischer, Constanze Kallinich, Sven Klockmann, Jil Schrader, Markus Fischer
The present work demonstrates the first automated enrichment approach for antibiotics in milk using specific DNA aptamers. First, aptamers toward the antibiotic sulfanilamide were selected and characterized regarding their dissociation constants and specificity toward relevant antibiotics via fluorescence assay and LC-MS/MS detection. The performed enrichment was automated using the KingFisherDuo and compared to a manual approach. Verifying the functionality, trapping was realized in different milk matrices: (i) 0...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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