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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778093/bio-detheobromination-of-cocoa-pod-husks-reduction-of-ochratoxin-a-content-without-change-in-nutrient-profile
#1
Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Augustine Ocloo, Sammy T Lowor, Cheetham Mingle, Laud K N-A Okine, Naa Ayikailey Adamafio
BACKGROUND: Utilization of cocoa pod husks (CPH) in animal feed is hindered by the presence of theobromine, which is variably toxic to animals. Treatment of this agro-waste to remove theobromine, while preserving its nutrient content, would allow beneficial use of the millions of metric tonnes discarded annually. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of selected theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi for use as bio-tools in degradation of theobromine in CPH. RESULTS: The candidate fungi assessed in this study were an Aspergillus niger (AnTD) and three Talaromyces spp...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753828/physiological-ultrastructural-biochemical-and-molecular-responses-of-young-cocoa-plants-to-the-toxicity-of-cr-iii-in-soil
#2
Junea Leandro do Nascimento, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Joedson P Barroso, Pedro A O Mangabeira, Dário Ahnert, Artur G R Sousa, José Vitor S Silva, Virupax C Baligar
The objective of this study was to evaluate Cr toxicity in young plants of the CCN 51 Theobroma cacao genotype at different concentrations of Cr3+ in the soil (0, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg kg-1 ) through physiological, ultrastructural, antioxidant and molecular changes. Doses of 400 and 600 mg Cr3+ kg-1 soil severely affected foliar gas exchange, promoted by damages in photosynthetic machinery evidenced by the decrease in CO2 fixation. Decreased expression of psbA and psbO genes, changes in enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation also affected leaf gas exchange...
May 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752495/effects-of-tree-crop-farming-on-land-cover-transitions-in-a-mosaic-landscape-in-the-eastern-region-of-ghana
#3
Kwabena Asubonteng, Karin Pfeffer, Mirjam Ros-Tonen, Jan Verbesselt, Isa Baud
Tree crops such as cocoa and oil palm are important to smallholders' livelihoods and national economies of tropical producer countries. Governments seek to expand tree-crop acreages and improve yields. Existing literature has analyzed socioeconomic and environmental effects of tree-crop expansion, but its spatial effects on the landscape are yet to be explored. This study aims to assess the effects of tree-crop farming on the composition and the extent of land-cover transitions in a mixed cocoa/oil palm landscape in Ghana...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740333/flavonoids-in-kidney-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Félix Vargas, Paola Romecín, Ana I García-Guillén, Rosemary Wangesteen, Pablo Vargas-Tendero, M Dolores Paredes, Noemí M Atucha, Joaquín García-Estañ
This review summarizes the latest advances in knowledge on the effects of flavonoids on renal function in health and disease. Flavonoids have antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antiinflammatory effects, among other therapeutic activities. Many of them also exert renoprotective actions that may be of interest in diseases such as glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and chemically-induced kidney insufficiency. They affect several renal factors that promote diuresis and natriuresis, which may contribute to their well-known antihypertensive effect...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729324/the-development-of-basic-taste-sensitivity-and-preferences-in-children
#5
Frida Felicia Fry Vennerød, Sophie Nicklaus, Nanna Lien, Valérie L Almli
This study aims at understanding how preference and sensitivity to the basic tastes develop in the preschool years, and how the two relate to each other. To expand on the existing literature regarding taste preferences conducted in cross-sectional studies, a longitudinal design was applied with children from age four to six years old. During the springs of 2015, 2016, and 2017, 131 children born in 2011 were tested in their kindergartens. To investigate preferences for sweet, sour and bitter tastes, the children performed ranking-by-elimination procedures on fruit-flavored beverages and chocolates with three taste intensity levels...
May 3, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728963/xanthan-gum-production-by-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-ibsbf-1866-and-1867-from-lignocellulosic-agroindustrial-wastes
#6
Juliana Albuquerque da Silva, Lucas Guimarães Cardoso, Denilson de Jesus Assis, Gleice Valéria Pacheco Gomes, Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto Oliveira, Carolina Oliveira de Souza, Janice Izabel Druzian
This study aimed to evaluate the properties of xanthan gum produced by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 1866 and 1867 from lignocellulosic agroindustrial wastes. XG was produced using an orbital shaker in a culture medium containing coconut shell (CS), cocoa husks (CH), or sucrose (S) minimally supplemented with urea and potassium. The XG production results varied between the CS, CH, and S means, and it was higher with the CH in strains 1866 (4.48 g L-1 ) and 1867 (3.89 g L-1 ). However, there was more apparent viscosity in the S gum (181...
May 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727857/unravelling-the-contribution-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-acetic-acid-bacteria-to-cocoa-fermentation-using-inoculated-organisms
#7
Van Thi Thuy Ho, Graham H Fleet, Jian Zhao
Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of the bean pulp by microorganisms is essential for developing the precursors of chocolate flavour. Currently, the cocoa fermentation is still conducted by an uncontrolled traditional process via a consortium of indigenous species of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Although the essential contribution of yeasts to the production of good quality beans and, typical chocolate character is generally agreed, the roles of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria are less certain...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723102/cardioprotection-by-cocoa-polyphenols-and-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-a-disease-prevention-perspective-on-aging-associated-cardiovascular-risk
#8
Sergio Davinelli, Graziamaria Corbi, Stefano Righetti, Barry Sears, Hector Hugo Olarte, Davide Grassi, Giovanni Scapagnini
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death today. Many of the biochemical alterations associated with the pathophysiology of CVD can be modified by adequate intakes of bioactive nutrients through a correct diet or supplementation. Recently, there has been growing public and clinical interest in cocoa polyphenols (CPs) and omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids. A plethora of nutritional intervention trials and experimental studies demonstrates that consumption of these bioactive food compounds is beneficial to promote cardiovascular health...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714395/cocoa-procyanidins-modulate-transcriptional-pathways-linked-to-inflammation-and-metabolism-in-human-dendritic-cells
#9
Helene L E Midttun, Aina Ramsay, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Andrew R Williams
Foods rich in polyphenols such as procyanidins (PC) have been proposed to have anti-inflammatory properties, and we have previously reported inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in human dendritic cells (DCs) by PC derived from cocoa. To explore the mechanistic basis of this inhibition, here we conducted transcriptomic analysis on DCs cultured with either LPS or LPS combined with oligomeric cocoa PC. Procyanidins suppressed a number of genes encoding cytokines and chemokines such as CXCL1, but also genes involved in the cGMP pathway such as GUCY1A3 (encoding guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-3)...
May 1, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699655/emulsion-droplet-crystallinity-attenuates-early-in-vitro-digestive-lipolysis-and-beta-carotene-bioaccessibility
#10
Samantha M Hart, Xinjie Lois Lin, Surangi H Thilakarathna, Amanda J Wright
The impacts of lipid crystallinity on in vitro digestive lipolysis and bioaccessibility of encapsulated (0.1 wt%) beta-carotene (BC) were investigated for a 15 wt% cocoa butter emulsion prepared as crystalline (i.e. solid emulsions, SE & SE-BC) or undercooled (liquid emulsions, LE & LE-BC) droplets at 25 °C. Particle size distributions (D4,3 ∼0.7 μm), morphology (spherical), polymorphism (beta-V), thermal behavior (peak melting ∼30 °C), zeta potential (∼-44 mV) and BC degradation under accelerated lighting conditions were similarly extensive...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680045/characterization-of-new-flavan-3-ol-derivatives-in-fermented-cocoa-beans
#11
Noémie Fayeulle, Anna Vallverdu-Queralt, Emmanuelle Meudec, Clotilde Hue, Renaud Boulanger, Véronique Cheynier, Nicolas Sommerer
Two series of compounds showing mass signals at m/z 605 and 893 (negative ionization mode) have been detected in fermented cocoa beans. This study objective is to identify these mass signals and characterize their structure in fermented cocoa samples. Our hypothesis is that these signals may correspond to ethyl-bridged flavan-3-ols resulting from flavan-3-ol condensation with acetaldehyde which is a microbial metabolite. Mass spectrometry was used to compare the retention times and mass fragmentation patterns between a model solution using epicatechin and procyanidin dimer B2, the major flavan-3-ols of cocoa, as precursors and extracts of fermented cocoa...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677167/the-role-of-catechins-in-cellular-responses-to-oxidative-stress
#12
REVIEW
Jurga Bernatoniene, Dalia Marija Kopustinskiene
Catechins are polyphenolic compounds—flavanols of the flavonoid family found in a variety of plants. Green tea, wine and cocoa-based products are the main dietary sources of these flavanols. Catechins have potent antioxidant properties, although in some cases they may act in the cell as pro-oxidants. Catechins are reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and metal ion chelators, whereas their indirect antioxidant activities comprise induction of antioxidant enzymes, inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes, and production of the phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidant enzymes...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672527/pure-flavonoid-epicatechin-and-whole-genome-gene-expression-profiles-in-circulating-immune-cells-in-adults-with-elevated-blood-pressure-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial
#13
Diederik Esser, Johanna M Geleijnse, Juri C Matualatupauw, James I Dower, Daan Kromhout, Peter C H Hollman, Lydia A Afman
Cocoa consumption has beneficial cardiometabolic effects, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Epicatechin, the cocoa major monomeric flavan-3-ol, is considered to contribute to these cardio-protective effects. We investigated effects of pure epicatechin supplementation on gene expression profiles of immune cells in humans. In a double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial, 32 (pre)hypertensive subjects aged 30 to 80, received two 4-week interventions, i.e. epicatechin (100mg/day) or placebo with a 4-week wash-out between interventions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659629/characterization-of-cocoa-production-income-diversification-and-shade-tree-management-along-a-climate-gradient-in-ghana
#14
Issaka Abdulai, Laurence Jassogne, Sophie Graefe, Richard Asare, Piet Van Asten, Peter Läderach, Philippe Vaast
Reduced climatic suitability due to climate change in cocoa growing regions of Ghana is expected in the coming decades. This threatens farmers' livelihood and the cocoa sector. Climate change adaptation requires an improved understanding of existing cocoa production systems and farmers' coping strategies. This study characterized current cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient within the cocoa belt of Ghana. The objectives were to 1) compare existing production and income diversification between dry, mid and wet climatic regions, and 2) identify shade trees in cocoa agroforestry systems and their distribution along the climatic gradient...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658565/-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-epicatechin-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia%C3%A2-induced-cardiac-injury-via-activation-of-the-pten-pi3k-akt-pathway
#15
Jia-Wen Li, Xiao-Yun Wang, Xin Zhang, Lei Gao, Li-Feng Wang, Xin-Hua Yin
Flavonol (‑)‑epicatechin (EPI) is primarily contained in green tea (Camellia sinensis) and cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao), and has been demonstrated to be beneficial for the health of the cardiovascular system. However, the effect and the underlying mechanism of EPI on myocardial ischemia induced cardiac injury has not yet been determined. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect whether EPI inhibited myocardial ischemia injury. An in vivo mouse myocardial ischemia model was induced by the ligation of left descending coronary artery for 7 days...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655743/hyperspectral-imaging-for-non-destructive-prediction-of-fermentation-index-polyphenol-content-and-antioxidant-activity-in-single-cocoa-beans
#16
Nicola Caporaso, Martin B Whitworth, Mark S Fowler, Ian D Fisk
The aim of the current work was to use hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the spectral range 1000-2500 nm to quantitatively predict fermentation index (FI), total polyphenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (AA) of individual dry fermented cocoa beans scanned on a single seed basis, in a non-destructive manner. Seventeen cocoa bean batches were obtained and 10 cocoa beans were used from each batch. PLS regression models were built on 170 samples. The developed HSI predictive models were able to quantify three quality-related parameters with sufficient performance for screening purposes, with external validation R2 of 0...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655735/profiling-quantification-and-classification-of-cocoa-beans-based-on-chemometric-analysis-of-carbohydrates-using-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry
#17
Roberto Megías-Pérez, Sergio Grimbs, Roy N D'Souza, Herwig Bernaert, Nikolai Kuhnert
Fifty-six cocoa bean samples from different origins and status of fermentation were analyzed by a validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-TOF-MS) method. The profile of the low molecular weight carbohydrate (LMWC) was analyzed by high resolution and tandem mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides, sugar alcohols and iminosugars. This study provides, for the first time in a large set of samples, a comprehensive absolute quantitative data set for the carbohydrates identified in cocoa beans (fructose, glucose, mannitol, myo-inositol, sucrose, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose)...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652818/beneficial-effects-of-different-flavonoids-on-vascular-and-renal-function-in-l-name-hypertensive-rats
#18
M Dolores Paredes, Paola Romecín, Noemí M Atucha, Francisco O'Valle, Julián Castillo, M Clara Ortiz, Joaquín García-Estañ
BACKGROUND: we have evaluated the antihypertensive effect of several flavonoid extracts in a rat model of arterial hypertension caused by chronic administration (6 weeks) of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats received L-NAME alone or L-NAME plus flavonoid-rich vegetal extracts (Lemon, Grapefruit + Bitter Orange, and Cocoa) or purified flavonoids (Apigenin and Diosmin) for 6 weeks. RESULTS: L-NAME treatment resulted in a marked elevation of blood pressure, and treatment with Apigenin, Lemon Extract, and Grapefruit + Bitter Orange extracts significantly reduced the elevated blood pressure of these animals...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649362/relationship-between-the-physiochemical-properties-of-cocoa-procyanidins-and-their-ability-to-inhibit-lipid-oxidation-in-liposomes
#19
Said Toro Uribe, Luis Javier López-Giraldo, Eric A Decker
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of cocoa polyphenols and procyanidins with different degrees of polymerization to be encapsulated in a liposome delivery system and inhibit lipid oxidation at pH 3.0 and 5.0. In general, liposomes at pH 3.0 and 5.0 were physically stable in the presence of polyphenols and procyanidins with mean particle sizes of 56.56 ± 12.29 and 77.45 ± 8.67 nm and ζ-potential of -33.50 ± 3.16 and -20.44 ± 1.98 mV at pH 3.0 and 5.0, respectively. At both pH 3.0 and 5.0, all the polyphenols and procyanidins inhibited lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal formation, and antioxidant activity increased with increasing polymer chain size...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624689/effects-of-fat-polymorphic-transformation-and-nonfat-particle-size-distribution-on-the-surface-changes-of-untempered-model-chocolate-based-on-solid-cocoa-mass
#20
Huanhuan Zhao, Ashley K Young, Bryony J James
This study aims to understand the bloom process in untempered chocolate by investigating the polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter and changes in chocolate surface. Cocoa mass with varying particle size distributions (PSD) were used to produce untempered model chocolate. Optical microscopy showed that during 25 d of storage, the chocolate surface gradually became honeycombed in appearance with dark spots surrounded by white sandy bloom areas. In conjunction with X-ray diffraction this indicates that the polymorphic transformation of form IV cocoa butter to more stable form V crystals caused the observed surface changes with the most significant changes occurring within 6 d...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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