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José J van den Driessche, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink
Functional foods can be effective in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and subsequently the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. More recently, however, another term was introduced to describe foods with additional health benefits: "superfoods", for which, to date, no generally accepted definition exists. Nonetheless, their consumption might contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, for example due to the presence of potentially bioactive compounds. This review provides an overview of controlled human intervention studies with foods described as "superfoods" and their effects on metabolic syndrome parameters...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Hamed Kord-Varkaneh, Ehsan Ghaedi, Ali Nazary-Vanani, Hamed Mohammadi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
BACKGROUND: Cocoa and dark chocolate (DC) have been reported to be effective for health promotion; however the exact effect of cocoa/DC on anthropometric measures have not been yet defined. METHODS: A comprehensive search to identify randomized clinical trials(RCT)s investigating the impact of cocoa/DC on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference(WC) was performed up to December 2017. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed using random effects model to estimate pooled effect size...
March 19, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, William Teyomnou Teyomnou, Noël Tenyang, Bernard Tiencheu, Azia Theresia Morfor, Blaise Arnaud Hako Touko, Serges Ndomou Houketchang, Gires Teboukeu Boungo, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi Karuna, François Zambou Ngoufack, Hilaire Macaire Womeni
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oven and traditional roasting on the polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipid quality, proximate composition and mineral content of fermented cocoa beans. Results showed that traditional roasting significantly decrease (p < 0.05) the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of cocoa beans. The analysis of oil showed that oven and traditional roasting significantly increase (p < 0.05) the peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of cocoa butter and that traditional roasting samples were the most deteriorated...
February 2018: Heliyon
Andrew S Fister, Lena Landherr, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diana Sirbu, Marcello Corno, Matthias S Ullrich, Nikolai Kuhnert
The nutritional value of cocoa butter is mainly determined by the composition of triacylglycerols (TAGs). In this paper we have developed a non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method, using ethanol as the mobile phase, coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry to identify TAGs in raw cocoa beans from six different origins. Tandem mass spectrometry was adopted to facilitate the identification of TAGs using unique diacylglycerol product ions and neutral losses. Additionally, two-dimensional m/z retention time maps aided the identification of entire homologous series of TAGs...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mariona Camps-Bossacoma, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell
Background: A 10% cocoa-enriched diet influences immune system functionality including the prevention of the antibody response and the induction of lower immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. However, neither cocoa polyphenols nor cocoa fiber can totally explain these immunoregulatory properties. Objectives: This study aimed to establish the influence of cocoa theobromine in systemic and intestinal Ig concentrations and to determine the effect of cocoa or theobromine feeding on lymphoid tissue lymphocyte composition...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Luc Pieters
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Rabia Latif
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
David Álvarez-Cilleros, Sonia Ramos, Luis Goya, María Ángeles Martín
Oxidative stress is involved in endothelial dysfunction, the key player in the development of vascular events. Flavanols, the major antioxidants in cocoa have been related to vascular protection and lower cardiovascular risk. However, the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols is very low and their bioactivity in vivo seems to be greatly mediated by the derived phenolic metabolites formed by intestinal microbiota. Hence, we investigated whether microbial-derived flavanol metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DHPAA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA) and a mix of them could influence endothelial function and prevent oxidative stress in human endothelial cells (Ea...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Vanessa Jordan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Debarati Chattopadhyay, Kavitha Thirumurugan
Past investigations have shown that various plant extracts are capable of promoting longevity in lower model organisms like Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bombyx mori etc. Longevity studies on such organisms provide a foundation to explore anti-aging efficacies of such plant extracts in higher organisms. Plant extracts of acai palm, apple, asparagus, blueberry, cinnamon, cocoa, Damnacanthus, maize, mistletoe, peach, pomegranate, Rhodiola, rose, Sasa, turmeric, and Withania have extended lifespan in lower model organisms via diverse mechanisms like insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, and antioxidant defense mechanisms...
March 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Leïla Bagny Beilhe, Cyril Piou, Zéphirin Tadu, Régis Babin
The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Aytaç Karabay, Jefta D Saija, David T Field, Elkan G Akyürek
In this study, we investigated how the acute physiological effects of cocoa flavanols might result in specific cognitive changes, in particular in temporal and spatial attention. To this end, we pre-registered and implemented a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and baseline-controlled crossover design. A sample of 48 university students participated in the study and each of them completed the experimental tasks in four conditions (baseline, placebo, low dose, and high-dose flavanol), administered in separate sessions with a 1-week washout interval...
March 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jennica M Young, Michael R Hoane
After sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI), a person's ability to make daily decisions can be affected. Simple tasks such as, deciding what to wear are no longer effortless choices, but are instead difficult decisions. This study explored the use of a discrimination task with a magnesium treatment in order to examine how decision-making skills are affected after TBI and if the treatment helped to attenuate cognitive and motor impairments. Thirty-one male rats were separated into MAG/TBI, VEH/TBI, or VEH/Sham groups...
March 1, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Erin Swinton, Emily de Freitas, Cayley Swinton, Tamila Shymansky, Emily Hiles, Jack Zhang, Cailin Rothwell, Ken Lukowiak
A flavonoid, (-)-epicatechi (Epi), enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea and reverses memory obstruction caused by stress. Many foods contain substantial amounts of Epi, (e.g. green tea and cocoa). In humans eating such foods may directly or indirectly enhance cognition. We directly test whether operant conditioning training Lymnaea in these natural foods result in the same effects as training snails in pure Epi. We found that exposure to products containing high concentrations of Epi (e.g. green tea and cocoa) during training enhanced memory formation and could even reverse a learning and memory deficit brought about by stress...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Edwina Romanens, Rebecca Näf, Tobias Lobmaier, Vasilisa Pedan, Susette Freimüller Leischtfeld, Leo Meile, Susanne Miescher Schwenninger
Lab-scale systems modelling the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process are useful tools to research the influence of process parameters on the fermentation and the final bean quality. In this study in Honduras, a 1-kg lab-scale fermentation (LS-F) was compared to a 300-kg on-farm fermentation (OF-F) in a multiphasic approach, analysing microbial counts, microbial species diversity, physico-chemical parameters, and final dried bean quality. Yeast and total aerobic counts of up to 8 log CFU/g during the LS-F were comparable to the OF-F, while counts for lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria were up to 3 log CFU/g lower during the LS-F than during the OF-F...
February 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Takashi Kubo, Toshiro Shinke, Takayuki Okamura, Kiyoshi Hibi, Gaku Nakazawa, Yoshihiro Morino, Junya Shite, Yasushi Ino, Hironori Kitabata, Toshio Shimokawa, Takashi Akasaka
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is increasingly used as an adjunct to coronary angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The current consensus on PCI is that the large final stent area offers the best chance of a good late clinical outcome. Since OCT provides more accurate information about the coronary artery and implanted stents, OCT-guided stent implantation is expected to achieve greater stent expansion than angiography guidance alone. Therefore, we designed the COCOA (Comparison between Optical COherence tomography guidance and Angiography guidance in percutaneous coronary intervention) study to evaluate whether OCT-guided stent implantation would result in a minimum stent area greater than that achieved with angiography guidance alone...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Jeffrey B Blumberg, Regan L Bailey, Howard D Sesso, Cornelia M Ulrich
Micronutrient deficiencies occur in segments of the adult population in the United States. Multivitamin/multimineral supplements (MVMS) are widely used by this population, which reduces inadequacies in micronutrient intake, but the potential for exceeding tolerable upper intake levels in others should be considered. There are concerns associated with the excessive intake of certain nutrients, particularly folic acid, and potential untoward consequences. The advent of nutrigenomics and the enhanced ability to directly study the interactions between nutrition and genetic variants and expression will allow for the conduct of more targeted studies with specific endpoints and may ultimately lead to progress in the field of personalized nutrition...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
Supeeraya Arsa, Chockchai Theerakulkait
BACKGROUND: Rice bran is by-product obtained from the rice milling industry. The aims of this research were to add value of rice bran by preparation of enzymatic hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate (HRPC) as a flavoring agent and the flavoring which was produced by HRPC has not been discovered. Different drying methods (freeze drying and spray drying) and fructose additions were studied for improvement of rice bran protein sensorial aroma characteristics. RESULTS: the most abundant amino acids in liquid HRPC (LH) were glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid and leucine, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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