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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628670/combining-ability-heritability-and-genotypic-relations-of-different-physiological-traits-in-cacao-hybrids
#1
Allan Silva Pereira, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Márcia Christina da Silva Branco, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Dario Ahnert
Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627207/the-effect-of-defatted-cocoa-powder-on-cholesterol-induced-changes-of-serum-lipids-in-rats
#2
Mousa Numan Ahmad, Amira Mohammad Amr
INTRODUCTION: Cocoa has been known for many health benefits, but its lipid-lowering activity still remains unresolved. OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects of varying amounts of defatted cocoa on serum lipids in cholesterol-fed rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four cholesterol-free (control) and four cholesterol-supplemented (experimental) diets containing 0, 1, 2 or 3% defatted cocoa (DC) and given ad libitumto the rats for ten weeks...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614756/photosynthetic-antioxidative-molecular-and-ultrastructural-responses-of-young-cacao-plants-to-cd-toxicity-in-the-soil
#3
Romária Pereira de Araújo, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Lidiane Silva Pereira, Pedro A O Mangabeira, José Olimpio Souza, Carlos P Pirovani, Dário Ahnert, Virupax C Baligar
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal for plants, even at low concentrations in the soil. The annual production of world cocoa beans is approximately 4 million tons. Most of these fermented and dried beans are used in the manufacture of chocolate. Recent work has shown that the concentration of Cd in these beans has exceeded the critical level (0.6mgkg(-1) DM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Cd in young plants of CCN 51 cacao genotype grown in soil with different concentrations of Cd (0, 0...
June 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614041/effect-of-short-term-research-training-programs-on-medical-students-attitudes-toward-aging
#4
Dilip V Jeste, Julie Avanzino, Colin A Depp, Maja Gawronska, Xin Tu, Daniel D Sewell, Steven F Huege
Strategies to build a larger workforce of physicians dedicated to research on aging are needed. One method to address this shortage of physician scientists in geriatrics is short-term training in aging research for early-stage medical students. The authors examined the effects of two summer research training programs, funded by the National Institutes of Health, on medical students' attitudes toward aging, using the Carolina Opinions on Care of Older Adults (COCOA). The programs combined mentored research, didactics, and some clinical exposure...
June 14, 2017: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610307/three-new-species-of-phytoseiid-mites-acari-phytoseiidae-from-bahia-state-brazil
#5
Adeilma Nascimento DE Carvalho, Aníbal Ramadan Oliveira, Poliane Sá Argolo, Francisco Ferragut
During a survey of predatory mites on cocoa cropping areas in Bahia State, north-eastern Brazil, three undescribed species of Phytoseiidae were collected on natural vegetation associated with crops. Typhlodromips baculiductus n. sp., Graminaseius bahiensis n. sp. and Typhlodromalus annulatus n. sp. are described and diagnosed. Comments on the boundary between the genera Amblydromalus Chant & McMurtry and Typhlodromalus Muma are also included.
May 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605130/effect-of-cocoa-s-theobromine-on-intestinal-microbiota-of-rats
#6
Sandra Martín-Peláez, Mariona Camps-Bossacoma, Malen Massot-Cladera, Mar Rigo-Adrover, Àngels Franch, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Margarida Castell
SCOPE: To establish the role of cocoa theobromine on gut microbiota composition and fermentation products after cocoa consumption in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (RF diet), a diet containing 10% cocoa (CC diet) or a diet including 0.25% theobromine (TB diet) for 15 days. Gut microbiota (fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to flow cytometry and metagenomics analysis), SCFA and IgA-coated bacteria were analyzed in fecal samples...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578265/lactic-acid-bacteria-involved-in-cocoa-beans-fermentation-from-ivory-coast-species-diversity-and-citrate-lyase-production
#7
Hadja D Ouattara, Honoré G Ouattara, Michel Droux, Sylvie Reverchon, William Nasser, Sébastien L Niamke
Microbial fermentation is an indispensable process for high quality chocolate from cocoa bean raw material. lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the major microorganisms responsible for cocoa fermentation but their exact role remains to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the diversity of LAB in six cocoa producing regions of Ivory Coast. Ribosomal 16S gene sequence analysis showed that Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides are the dominant LAB species in these six regions. In addition, other species were identified as the minor microbial population, namely Lactobacillus curieae, Enterococcus faecium, Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus casei, Weissella paramesenteroides and Weissella cibaria...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577147/enhancement-of-sorption-capacity-of-cocoa-shell-biomass-modified-with-non-thermal-plasma-for-removal-of-both-cationic-and-anionic-dyes-from-aqueous-solution
#8
Brice Takam, Elie Acayanka, Georges Y Kamgang, Merlin T Pedekwang, Samuel Laminsi
Removal of cationic dye, Azur II, and anionic dye, Reactive Red 2 (RR-2) from aqueous solutions, has been successfully achieved by using a modified agricultural biomaterial waste: cocoa shell husk (Theobroma cacao) treated by gliding arc plasma (CPHP). The biomass in its natural form CPHN and modified form CPHP was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and point of zero charge (pHpzc). Experimental variables such as initial pH, contact time, and temperature were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of CPHN and CPHP...
June 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572069/consumption-of-dark-chocolate-attenuates-subsequent-food-intake-compared-with-milk-and-white-chocolate-in-postmenopausal-women
#9
Channa E Marsh, Daniel J Green, Louise H Naylor, Kym J Guelfi
BACKGROUND: Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57...
May 29, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560212/enhancing-human-cognition-with-cocoa-flavonoids
#10
REVIEW
Valentina Socci, Daniela Tempesta, Giovambattista Desideri, Luigi De Gennaro, Michele Ferrara
Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558981/natural-lipids-based-nlc-containing-lidocaine-from-pre-formulation-to-in-vivo-studies
#11
Lígia N M Ribeiro, Márcia C Breitkreitz, Viviane A Guilherme, Gustavo H R da Silva, Verônica M Couto, Simone R Castro, Bárbara O de Paula, Daisy Machado, Eneida de Paula
In a nanotechnological approach we have investigated the use of natural lipids in the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Three different NLC composed of copaiba oil and beeswax, sweet almond oil and shea butter, and sesame oil and cocoa butter as structural matrices were optimized using factorial analysis; Pluronic® 68 and lidocaine (LDC) were used as the colloidal stabilizer and model encapsulated drug, respectively. The optimal formulations were characterized by different techniques (IR-ATR, DSC, and TEM), and their safety and efficacy were also tested...
May 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551261/production-of-sn-1-3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol-rich-fats-from-mango-kernel-fat-by-selective-fractionation-using-2-methylpentane-based-isohexane
#12
Jun Jin, Liyou Zheng, Warda Mwinyi Pembe, Jinfang Zhang, Dan Xie, Xiaosan Wang, Jianhua Huang, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
High-purity isohexane containing 88.12% 2-methylpentane, which has a higher polarity than industrial hexane, was selected to selectively fractionate mango kernel fat to produce 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS)-rich fat. The three-stage fractionation process was optimized by considering the stearin yield and its SOS content to obtain a third stearin (TS). This fat contained a high percentage of SOS (69.2%) with only 0.8% diacylglycerol. Mass spectra and sn-2 fatty acid analyses further revealed that the TS was mainly composed of symmetrical monounsaturated triacylglycerols...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546652/chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-flexibly-use-introduced-species-for-nesting-and-bark-feeding-in-a-human-dominated-habitat
#13
Maureen S McCarthy, Jack D Lester, Craig B Stanford
As habitat loss and fragmentation place growing pressure on endangered nonhuman primate populations, researchers find increasing evidence for novel responses in behavior. In western Uganda between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabit a mosaic landscape comprising forest fragments, human settlements, and agricultural land. We recorded nests and feeding evidence of unhabituated chimpanzees in this region over a 12-mo period. We found extensive evidence of nesting in introduced tree species, including eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis), guava (Psidium guajava), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), and Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea)...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541356/food-and-plant-bioactives-for-reducing-cardiometabolic-disease-risk-an-evidence-based-approach
#14
REVIEW
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Alessandro Colletti
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major causes of mortality and disability in Western countries. Prevention is known to be the cornerstone to lessen the incidence of CVDs and also to reduce the economic burden of both the citizen and the healthcare system. "Interventional medicine" certainly puts lifestyle modification as the first therapeutic step, including a healthy diet and physical activity. Secondly, a large body of research individuated a number of food and plant bioactives, which are potentially efficacious in preventing and reducing some highly prevalent CV risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, vascular inflammation and vascular compliance...
May 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541054/review-of-teas-cocoa-and-coffee-plant-secondary-metabolites-and-health-teas-cocoa-and-coffee-plant-secondary-metabolites-and-health-edited-by-alan-crozier-hiroshi-ashihara-and-francisco-tom%C3%A3-s-barb%C3%A3-ran-john-wiley-sons-ltd-west-sussex-uk-2011-x-252-pp-228-18
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540183/the-draft-genome-of-corchorus-olitorius-cv-jro-524-navin
#16
Debabrata Sarkar, Ajay Kumar Mahato, Pratik Satya, Avijit Kundu, Sangeeta Singh, Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Akshay Singh, Kaushlendra Bahadur, Sasmita Pattnaik, Nisha Singh, Avrajit Chakraborty, Nur Alam Mandal, Debajeet Das, Tista Basu, Amitha Mithra Sevanthi, Dipnarayan Saha, Subhojit Datta, Chandan Sourav Kar, Jiban Mitra, Karabi Datta, Pran Gobinda Karmakar, Tilak Raj Sharma, Trilochan Mohapatra, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Here, we present the draft genome (377.3 Mbp) of Corchorus olitorious cv. JRO-524 (Navin), which is a leading dark jute variety developed from a cross between African (cv. Sudan Green) and indigenous (cv. JRO-632) types. We predicted from the draft genome a total of 57,087 protein-coding genes with annotated functions. We identified a large number of 1765 disease resistance-like and defense response genes in the jute genome. The annotated genes showed the highest sequence similarities with that of Theobroma cacao followed by Gossypium raimondii...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494759/time-resolved-dual-transcriptomics-reveal-early-induced-nicotiana-benthamiana-root-genes-and-conserved-infection-promoting-phytophthora-palmivora-effectors
#17
Edouard Evangelisti, Anna Gogleva, Thomas Hainaux, Mehdi Doumane, Frej Tulin, Clément Quan, Temur Yunusov, Kévin Floch, Sebastian Schornack
BACKGROUND: Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection...
May 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486419/impact-of-a-microbial-cocktail-used-as-a-starter-culture-on-cocoa-fermentation-and-chocolate-flavor
#18
Igor Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Leonardo de Figueiredo Vilela, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Cledir Santos, Nelson Lima, Rosane Freitas Schwan
Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization...
May 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476307/isolation-of-organic-compounds-with-high-added-values-from-agro-industrial-solid-wastes
#19
Dimitris P Zagklis, Christakis A Paraskeva
Phenols are organic compounds with high antioxidant activity. Occurring mainly in plants, where they act as pigments or even as part of defense mechanisms against insects and herbivores. Given the positive impact on on human health, their isolation and purification from agricultural products is of particular interest for the production of nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetics supplements. In our study different materials rich in phenolic compounds were used, in order to separate the phenolic content and maximum condensation using physicochemical methods such as solvent extraction, filtration through membranes, adsorption/desorption on resins and vacuum distillation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465837/a-moderate-zinc-deficiency-does-not-alter-lipid-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-the-liver-of-weanling-rats-fed-diets-rich-in-cocoa-butter-or-safflower-oil
#20
Edgar Weigand, Jennifer Egenolf
The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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