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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322947/cacao-pod-husks-as-a-source-of-low-methoxyl-highly-acetylated-pectins-able-to-gel-in-acidic-media
#1
Lúcia Cristina Vriesmann, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz
Cacao pod husks, the main by-product from cocoa production, have been investigated for pectin isolation. In the present study, the rheological properties of two low-methoxyl (LM) pectins isolated from cacao pod husks using different extraction conditions were evaluated. One pectin was obtained from optimized conditions employing aqueous nitric acid as an extractant, and the other one was extracted with boiling water. Pectin gels (0.99% galacturonic acid equivalent, w/w) were prepared at pH 2.5-3.0 in the presence of 60% sucrose (w/w) and subjected to rheological analysis...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318272/investigations-on-the-aroma-of-cocoa-pulp-theobroma-cocoa-l-and-its-influence-on-the-odor-of-fermented-cocoa-beans
#2
Irene Chetschik, Markus Kneubühl, Karin Chatelain, Ansgar Schlüter, Konrad Bernath, Tilo Hühn
The odor active constituents of cocoa pulp have been analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. Pulps of three different cocoa varieties have been investigated. The variety CCN51 showed low flavor intensities in terms of FD-factors, in comparison to the varieties FSV41 and UF564, for which floral and fruity notes were detected in higher intensities. In order to gain first insights on molecular level how the cocoa pulp odorants impacted the odor quality of cocoa beans during fermentation, quantitative measurements of selected aroma compounds were conducted in pulp and bean at different time points of the fermentation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317753/bioactive-amines-and-phenolic-compounds-in-cocoa-beans-are-affected-by-fermentation
#3
Brenda de Nazaré do Carmo Brito, Renan Campos Chisté, Rosinelson da Silva Pena, Maria Beatriz Abreu Gloria, Alessandra Santos Lopes
Cocoa is the target of increased scientific research as it is one of the richest source of bioactive compounds. The formation of bioactive amines and their changes in cocoa beans during seven days of traditional fermentation was investigated for the first time. In addition, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins contents and the scavenging capacity against ABTS radical were determined to monitor the fermentation process. Only two biogenic amines (tryptamine and tyramine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) were detected in cocoa beans during fermentation...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317743/synthesis-of-1-3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol-by-enzymatic-acidolysis-in-a-solvent-free-system
#4
Xiaosan Wang, Yang Chen, Liyou Zheng, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
1,3-Distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (SOS) is widely used as a cocoa butter improver and an anti-blooming agent in the chocolate industry. In this study, an effective process was developed to prepare SOS by enzymatic acidolysis. Under optimal reaction conditions (substrate molar ratio of 12, NS40086 loading of 10%, a solvent-free system, 75°C for 4h), a SOS yield of 70.2% was obtained. Subsequently, two-step purification was applied to purify the crude SOS product. Free fatty acids were completely removed after molecular distillation...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317738/process-induced-formation-of-imidazoles-in-selected-foods
#5
Pascal Mottier, Claudia Mujahid, Adrienne Tarres, Thomas Bessaire, Richard H Stadler
The presence of 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI), 2-methylimidazole (2-MEI) and 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) in some foods may result from the usage of caramel colorants E150c and E150d as food additives. This study demonstrates that alkylimidazoles are also byproducts formed from natural constituents in foods during thermal processes. A range of heat-processed foods that are known not to contain caramel colorants were analyzed by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS to determine the contamination levels. Highest 4-MEI concentrations (up to 466µg/kg) were observed in roasted barley, roasted malt and cocoa powders, with the concomitant presence of 2-MEI and/or THI in some cases, albeit at significantly lower levels...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316204/-retrospect-of-chinese-herbs-taken-as-tea-drinking
#6
J N Zhu, X L Zhang, H Guo
Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea...
January 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298151/effect-of-exclusion-of-frequently-consumed-dietary-triggers-in-a-cohort-of-children-with-chronic-primary-headache
#7
Sepideh Taheri
BACKGROUND: Although dietary factors are known to trigger headaches, the relationship between food and headache in children remains unclear. This prospective, observational case series aimed to evaluate the effect of exclusion of frequently-consumed foods in a cohort of children with headache. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen children aged 3-15 (mean 10.5) years with primary headache were followed in a paediatric outpatient clinic. Patients who frequently consumed foods or food additives known to trigger headaches were advised to exclude them for six weeks and to return for follow-up with headache and food diary...
March 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288552/microencapsulation-of-theobroma-cacao-l-waste-extract-optimization-using-response-surface-methodology
#8
Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Russany Silva da Costa, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Patrizia Perego, José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa, Attilio Converti
The cocoa extract (Theobroma cacao L.) has a significant amount of polyphenols (TP) with potent antioxidant activity (AA). This study aims to optimise microencapsulation of the extract of cocoa waste using chitosan and maltodextrin. Microencapsulation tests were performed according to a Box-Behnken factorial design, and the results were evaluated by response surface methodology with temperature, maltodextrin concentration (MD) and extract flowrate (EF) as independent variables, and the fraction of encapsulated TP, TP encapsulation yield, AA, yield of drying and solubility index as responses...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276197/phenyl-%C3%AE-valerolactones-flavan-3-ol-colonic-metabolites-protect-brown-adipocytes-from-oxidative-stress-without-affecting-their-differentiation-or-function
#9
Laura Mele, Stefania Carobbio, Nicoletta Brindani, Claudio Curti, Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca, Guillaume Bidault, Pedro Mena, Ilaria Zanotti, Michele Vacca, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Daniele Del Rio
SCOPE: Consumption of products rich in flavan-3-ols, such as tea and cocoa, has been associated with decreased obesity, partially dependent on their capacity to enhance energy expenditure. Despite these phenolics having been reported to increase the thermogenic program in brown and white adipose tissue, flavan-3-ols are vastly metabolised in vivo to phenyl-γ-valerolactones. Therefore, we hypothesize that phenyl-γ-valerolactones may directly stimulate the differentiation and the activation of brown adipocytes...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272800/correlation-between-antimicrobial-antioxidant-activity-and-polyphenols-of-alkalized-nonalkalized-cocoa-powders
#10
Vanja Todorovic, Marina Milenkovic, Bojana Vidovic, Zoran Todorovic, Sladjana Sobajic
Many factors can influence antioxidative and antimicrobial characteristics of plant materials. The quality of cocoa as functional food ingredient is influenced through its processing. The main aim of this study was to test if there is difference in polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity between nonalkalized and alkalized cocoa powders. To estimate polyphenol and flavonoid content in cocoa samples the spectrophotometric microassays were used. Flavan-3ols were determined with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264525/occurrence-and-antioxidant-activity-of-c1-degradation-products-in-cocoa
#11
Cédric De Taeye, Marie-Lucie Kankolongo Cibaka, Sonia Collin
Procyanidin C1 is by far the main flavan-3-ol trimer in cocoa. Like other flavan-3-ols, however, it suffers a lot during heat treatments such as roasting. RP-HPLCHRMS/MS(ESI(-))analysis applied to an aqueous model medium containing commercial procyanidin C1 proved that epimerization is the main reaction involved in its degradation (accounting for 62% of degradation products). In addition to depolymerization, cocoa procyanidin C1 also proved sensitive to oxidation, yielding once- and twice-oxidized dimers. No chemical oligomer involving the native trimer was found in either model medium or cocoa, while two C1 isomers were retrieved...
February 28, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264305/two-new-eriophyoid-mite-species-trombidiformes-eriophyoidea-from-the-cocoa-tree-and-a-note-on-i-shevtchenkella-i-i-biseta-i-nalepa
#12
Daniela F S Rodrigues, Denise Navia, Anibal R Oliveira, Francisco Ferragut, Carlos H W Flechtmann
Two new eriophyoid mite species are described from the cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae) - the Diptilomiopidae Davisella trevisani n. sp. Rodrigues, Navia & Oliveira, from Brazil; and the Eriophyidae Tetra theobromae n. sp. Rodrigues, Navia & Oliveira, from Costa Rica. The new Davisella species presents an enlarged subcylindrical tubercle bearing pedipalp genual seta d, a novel structure for eriophyoid mites; its functional morphology was discussed. The new Tetra species is the third in this genus described from plants of the Malvaceae...
February 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263864/the-need-to-revisit-ochratoxin-a-risk-in-light-of-diabetes-obesity-and-chronic-kidney-disease-prevalence
#13
Chen Chen, Felicia Wu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin, or fungal toxin, that contaminates multiple foodstuffs worldwide. Affected commodities include oats, wheat, maize, barley, raisins and other dried vine fruits, wine, beer, coffee, and cocoa. Although OTA has been shown to cause kidney disease, including kidney cancer, in multiple animal species, the impact of dietary OTA on human health from a global perspective has been less clear. Several epidemiological studies suggest an association between OTA exposure and human kidney disease, but evidence of causality has been limited...
March 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260703/streptomyces-cameroonensis-sp-nov-a-geldanamycin-producer-that-promotes-theobroma-cacao-growth
#14
Thaddée Boudjeko, Romaric Armel Mouafo Tchinda, Mina Zitouni, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou Nana, Sylvain Lerat, Carole Beaulieu
The taxonomy of an actinobacterial strain, designated JJY4(T), was established using a polyphasic approach. JJY4(T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata in Yaoundé (Cameroon) during a project for the selection of biological control agents. Strain JJY4(T) exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Strain JJY4(T) also exhibited the traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity...
March 4, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251656/influences-of-superheated-steam-roasting-on-changes-in-sugar-amino-acid-and-flavor-active-components-of-cocoa-bean-theobroma-cacao
#15
Wahidu Zzaman, Rajeev Bhat, Tajul Aris Yang, Azhar Mat Easa
BACKGROUND: Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa base industries that develop unique flavor in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roast at different temperature and time using superheated steam. Influence of roasting temperature (150-250 °C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavoring compounds were investigated. RESULTS: The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82...
March 2, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241034/detection-of-plant-micrornas-in-honey
#16
Angelo Gismondi, Gabriele Di Marco, Antonella Canini
For the first time in the literature, our group has managed to demonstrate the existence of plant RNAs in honey samples. In particular, in our work, different RNA extraction procedures were performed in order to identify a purification method for nucleic acids from honey. Purity, stability and integrity of the RNA samples were evaluated by spectrophotometric, PCR and electrophoretic analyses. Among all honey RNAs, we specifically revealed the presence of both plastidial and nuclear plant transcripts: RuBisCO large subunit mRNA, maturase K messenger and 18S ribosomal RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239436/gut-microbiota-in-a-rat-oral-sensitization-model-effect-of-a-cocoa-enriched-diet
#17
Mariona Camps-Bossacoma, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell
Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting a relation between dietary compounds, microbiota, and the susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly food allergy. Cocoa, a source of antioxidant polyphenols, has shown effects on gut microbiota and the ability to promote tolerance in an oral sensitization model. Taking these facts into consideration, the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of an oral sensitization model, both alone and together with a cocoa-enriched diet, on gut microbiota...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231135/changes-in-food-intake-in-australia-comparing-the-1995-and-2011-national-nutrition-survey-results-disaggregated-into-basic-foods
#18
Bradley Ridoutt, Danielle Baird, Kathryn Bastiaans, Gilly Hendrie, Malcolm Riley, Peerasak Sanguansri, Julie Syrette, Manny Noakes
As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary...
May 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218656/-cocoa%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-chocolate-%C3%A2-science%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-gastronomy-the%C3%A2-second%C3%A2-annual%C3%A2-workshop%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-research%C3%A2-institute%C3%A2-on%C3%A2-nutrition%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-food%C3%A2-security%C3%A2-insa-%C3%A2-9%C3%A2-november%C3%A2-2016
#19
Malen Massot-Cladera, Francisco Pérez-Cano, Rafael Llorach, Mireia Urpi-Sarda
The Research Institute on Nutrition and Food Security at the University of Barcelona (INSA-UB) was founded in 2005 by twenty-two research groups from the Faculties of Pharmacy and Food Science; Biology; Chemistry; and Geography and History, as well as other UB-affiliated centers and hospitals [...].
February 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208630/cocoa-and-grape-seed-byproducts-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-proanthocyanidins
#20
María De La Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Jorge Joven, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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