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Marta Macedo
In the early 1900s, an obscure Portuguese colony in the equatorial Atlantic rose as the world's leading cocoa producer. Cocoa from the island of São Tomé was grown on large plantations with indentured labor and high technological inputs. This technoscientific system, to control both plants and people, became the model for making an industry-suited cocoa, and the material evidence of the moral and economic virtues of the colonial plantation. Experts played a crucial role in building and putting into circulation such a system...
2016: Technology and Culture
Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye, Charles Antwi-Boasiako, Seth Oppong, Stella Arthur, Joseph Edusei Sarkodie
BACKGROUND: Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, is a common beverage in Ghana. It possesses antimalarial prophylactic property and has a beneficial effect on blood components. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether regular dietary supplement of UNCP mitigates high-dose (HD) artemether-lumefantrine (A-L)-induced hematological disorders and to determine the effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male guinea pigs (300 g - 350 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 guinea pigs each...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Georgina E Crichton, Merrill F Elias, Peter Dearborn, Michael Robbins
Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively)...
October 7, 2016: Appetite
Xiaochen Lin, Isabel Zhang, Alina Li, JoAnn E Manson, Howard D Sesso, Lu Wang, Simin Liu
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanols may improve cardiometabolic health. Evidence from small short-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) remains inconsistent, and large long-term RCTs testing the efficacy of cocoa flavanols are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to quantify the effect of cocoa flavanol intake on cardiometabolic biomarkers. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for RCTs that evaluated the effects of cocoa flavanols on biomarkers relevant to vascular disease pathways among adults...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
F Balazard, S Le Fur, S Valtat, A J Valleron, P Bougnères, Dominique Thevenieau, Corinne Fourmy Chatel, Rachel Desailloud, Hélène Bony-Trifunovic, Pierre-Henri Ducluzeau, Régis Coutant, Sophie Caudrelier, Armelle Pambou, Emmanuelle Dubosclard, Florence Joubert, Philippe Jan, Estelle Marcoux, Anne-Marie Bertrand, Brigitte Mignot, Alfred Penformis, Chantal Stuckens, Régis Piquemal, Pascal Barat, Vincent Rigalleau, Chantal Stheneur, Sylviane Fournier, Véronique Kerlan, Chantal Metz, Anne Fargeot-Espaliat, Yves Reznic, Frédérique Olivier, Iva Gueorguieva, Arnaud Monier, Catherine Radet, Vincent Gajdos, Daniel Terral, Christine Vervel, Djamel Bendifallah, Candace Ben Signor, Daniel Dervaux, Abdelkader Benmahammed, Guy-André Loeuille, Françoise Popelard, Agnès Guillou, Pierre-Yves Benhamou, Jamil Khoury, Jean-Pierre Brossier, Joachim Bassil, Sylvaine Clavel, Bernard Le Luyer, Pierre Bougnères, Françoise Labay, Isabelle Guemas, Jacques Weill, Jean-Pierre Cappoen, Sylvie Nadalon, Anne Lienhardt-Roussie, Anne Paoli, Claudie Kerouedan, Edwige Yollin, Marc Nicolino, Gilbert Simonin, Jacques Cohen, Catherine Atlan, Agnès Tamboura, Hervé Dubourg, Marie-Laure Pignol, Philippe Talon, Stéphanie Jellimann, Lucy Chaillous, Sabine Baron, Marie-Noëlle Bortoluzzi, Elisabeth Baechler, Randa Salet, Ariane Zelinsky-Gurung, Fabienne Dallavale, Etienne Larger, Marie Laloi-Michelin, Jean-François Gautier, Bénédicte Guérin, Laure Oilleau, Laetitia Pantalone, Céline Lukas, Isabelle Guilhem, Marc De Kerdanet, Marie-Claire Wielickzo, Mélanie Priou-Guesdon, Odile Richard, François Kurtz, Norbert Laisney, Déborah Ancelle, Guilhem Parlier, Catherine Boniface, Dominique Paris Bockel, Denis Dufillot, Berthe Razafimahefa, Pierre Gourdy, Pierre Lecomte, Myriam Pepin-Donat, Marie-Emmanuelle Combes-Moukhovsky, Brigitte Zymmermann, Marina Raoulx, Anne Gourdin Et Catherine Dumont
BACKGROUND: The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence is rising in many countries, supposedly because of changing environmental factors, which are yet largely unknown. The purpose of the study was to unravel environmental markers associated with T1D. METHODS: Cases were children with T1D from the French Isis-Diab cohort. Controls were schoolmates or friends of the patients. Parents were asked to fill a 845-item questionnaire investigating the child's environment before diagnosis...
September 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
Laura T Rodriguez Furlán, Yanina Baracco, Javier Lecot, Noemi Zaritzky, Mercedes E Campderrós
The effect of the addition of inulin as a surfactant or stability agent on white compound chocolate sweetened with sucralose and Stevia was studied. Samples were stored at 7, 15 and 30°C during 100days and the influence of inulin on rheological properties, sensorial attributes, shelf-life, physical properties such as melting, crystallization and blooming were analyzed. The shelf-life of the compound chocolate with the incorporation of inulin was higher than the control sample without replacement. Compound chocolate with inulin at 10%w/w showed a dense matrix structure, reducing the size and number of fat crystals formed during storage; furthermore they presented higher values of brightness and WI...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yukari F Mise, Rejâne M Lira-da-Silva, Fernando M Carvalho
This study investigated the correlation between the incidence of snakebite and indicators of agricultural development in municipal districts of the State of Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study was conducted with the 27,347 cases of snakebite poisoning reported to the Reportable Diseases National Information System in municipalities from the State of Bahia, Brazil, 2000-2009. The unit of analysis was each one of the 417 State municipalities, and the outcome variable was the average annual incidence of snakebite...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Valerio Sanguigni, Melania Manco, Roberto Sorge, Lucio Gnessi, Davide Francomano
OBJECTIVE: The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. METHODS: In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream)...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
Luisa Torri, Alessandra Frati, Paolino Ninfali, Stefano Mantegna, Giancarlo Cravotto, Gabriella Morini
BACKGROUND: The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jenni Suen, Jolene Thomas, Amelia Kranz, Simon Vun, Michelle Miller
Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes initiate the first stage of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Flavonoid consumption has been related to significantly improved flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are thought to be involved. The effect of flavonoids on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in at risk individuals is yet to be reviewed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SCOPUS databases...
September 14, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
C Hernández-Hernández, Procopio Alejandro López-Andrade, Miguel A Ramírez-Guillermo, Diana Guerra Ramírez, Juan F Caballero Pérez
The aim of this research was to evaluate four different cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fermentation conditions and their effect on fermented bean quality, in order to be able to recommend the most suitable condition to producers in the municipality of Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Fermentations were carried out in square wooden boxes with capacity for 1000, 300, and 100 kg of fresh beans, as well as a rotary drum with capacity for 500 kg thereof. The fermentation process was carried out for 7 days, and the response variables measured were mass temperature, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, and acidity...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Meike Paschke, Christoph Hutzler, Frank Henkler, Andreas Luch
According to European legislation, tobacco additives may not increase the toxicity or the addictive potency of the product, but there is an ongoing debate on how to reliably characterize and measure such properties. Further, too little is known on pyrolysis patterns of tobacco additives to assume that no additional toxicological risks need to be suspected. An on-line pyrolysis technique was used and coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the pattern of chemical species formed upon thermal decomposition of 19 different tobacco additives like raw cane sugar, licorice or cocoa...
September 4, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
J D Midwood, M H Larsen, K Aarestrup, S J Cooke
Food deprivation (FD) is a naturally occurring stressor that is thought to influence the ultimate life-history strategy of individuals. Little is known about how FD interacts with other stressors to influence migration success. European populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) exhibit partial migration, whereby a portion of the population smoltifies and migrates to the ocean, and the rest remain in their natal stream. This distinct, natural dichotomy of life-history strategies provides an excellent opportunity to explore the roles of energetic state (as affected by FD) and activation of the glucocorticoid stress response in determining life-history strategy and survival of a migratory species...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Suzana Saric, Raja K Sivamani
Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods such as green tea, chocolate, grape seeds, and wine. Polyphenols have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Growing evidence suggests that polyphenols may be used for the prevention of sunburns as polyphenols decrease the damaging effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the skin. This review was conducted to examine the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested polyphenols in prevention of sunburns...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Akiko Saito, Kodai Inagawa, Rikihiko Ebe, Shinobu Fukase, Yukari Horikoshi, Masahiro Shibata, Naomi Osakabe
A lot of epidemiological and intervention studies support the hypotensive action resulting from ingestion of foods rich in flavan 3-ols. However, the mechanisms of this action remain unclear. We have reported previously on the alteration of the micro- and systemic circulations after administration of a flavan 3-ol fraction (FL) derived from cocoa in mammals. We also confirmed that blood catecholamine levels increase significantly after administration of FL. In the present study, we examined whether adrenaline receptors are involved in the hemodynamic changes using several adrenaline receptor (AR) blockers...
September 9, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye, Samuel Frimpong-Manso, Benoit Banga N'guessan, Mahmood Abdulai Seidu, Paul Osei-Prempeh, Daniel Kwaku Boamah
Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP) is a pulverized high-grade powder of compressed solid blocks which remains after extraction. Little scientific data is available concerning its safety despite the presence of potential toxic elements. Elemental composition in UNCP was analyzed with ED-XRF spectroscopy. Single oral high dose toxicity study was conducted on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g) by the limit test method. One group received water and the test group 2000 mg/kg UNCP. All animals were observed for 14 days and then euthanized for haematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye, Mahmood Abdulai Seidu, Banga Benoit N'guessan, Samuel Frimpong-Manso, Joseph Edusei Sarkodie, Samuel Adjei, Schevadnazy Kutu, Joseph Osei-Little, Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko, Philip Debrah
BACKGROUND: Unsweetened natural cocoa has antimalarial properties. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), obtained as a result of the removal of cocoa butter from a cocoa bean protects against malaria episodes. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9 % theobromine and 0.21 % caffeine. Concomitant consumption of cocoa and artemether/lumefantrine (A/L) is a common practice in Ghana, West Africa. This study seeks to determine the elemental composition of UNCP and its protective effect on the heart and kidney against (A/L) administration...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Selvaraj Miltonprabu, Michał Tomczyk, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Luca Rastrelli, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Liver diseases caused by viral hepatitis infections have a negative impact on global health. Approximately 30 million people in the USA and 29 million people in the European Union suffer from chronic liver disease. There are many kinds of diseases of the liver, caused by viruses, such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, or by certain drugs and poisons including excessive alcohol consumption. Many herbal medicines are used in traditional medicine for their protective and therapeutic properties against liver diseases...
August 31, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Concetta Pironti, Antonio Proto, Federica Camin, Raffaele Cucciniello, Ilaria Zarrella, Oriana Motta
The (13)C/(12)C carbon isotope ratio is a chemical parameter with many important applications in several scientific area and the technique of choice currently used for the δ(13)C determination is the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). This latter is highly accurate (0.1‰) and sensitive (up to 0.01‰), but at the same time expensive and complex. The objective of this work was to assess the reliability of FTIR and NDIRS techniques for the measurement of carbon stable isotope ratio of food sample, in comparison to IRMS...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Rodney De Palma, Imelda Sotto, Elizabeth G Wood, Noorafza Q Khan, Jane Butler, Atholl Johnston, Martin T Rothman, Roger Corder
AIMS: Poor prognosis in chronic heart failure (HF) is linked to endothelial dysfunction for which there is no specific treatment currently available. Previous studies have shown reproducible improvements in endothelial function with cocoa flavanols, but the clinical benefit of this effect in chronic HF has yet to be determined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential therapeutic value of a high dose of cocoa flavanols in patients with chronic HF, by using reductions in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as an index of improved cardiac function...
June 2016: ESC Heart Failure
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