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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931159/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-transformer-gene-from-bactrocera-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae
#1
Ya Luo, Santao Zhao, Jiahui Li, Peizheng Li, Rihui Yan
transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931004/the-logic-of-the-floral-transition-reverse-engineering-the-switch-controlling-the-identity-of-lateral-organs
#2
Jean-Louis Dinh, Etienne Farcot, Charlie Hodgman
Much laboratory work has been carried out to determine the gene regulatory network (GRN) that results in plant cells becoming flowers instead of leaves. However, this also involves the spatial distribution of different cell types, and poses the question of whether alternative networks could produce the same set of observed results. This issue has been addressed here through a survey of the published intercellular distribution of expressed regulatory genes and techniques both developed and applied to Boolean network models...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930988/application-of-laser-micro-irradiation-for-examination-of-single-and-double-strand-break-repair-in-mammalian-cells
#3
Nathaniel W Holton, Joel F Andrews, Natalie R Gassman
Highly coordinated DNA repair pathways exist to detect, excise and replace damaged DNA bases, and coordinate repair of DNA strand breaks. While molecular biology techniques have clarified structure, enzymatic functions, and kinetics of repair proteins, there is still a need to understand how repair is coordinated within the nucleus. Laser micro-irradiation offers a powerful tool for inducing DNA damage and monitoring the recruitment of repair proteins. Induction of DNA damage by laser micro-irradiation can occur with a range of wavelengths, and users can reliably induce single strand breaks, base lesions and double strand breaks with a range of doses...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930985/visualizing-angiogenesis-by-multiphoton-microscopy-in-vivo-in-genetically-modified-3d-plga-nhap-scaffold-for-calvarial-critical-bone-defect-repair
#4
Jian Li, Holger Jahr, Wei Zheng, Pei-Gen Ren
The reconstruction of critically sized bone defects remains a serious clinical problem because of poor angiogenesis within tissue-engineered scaffolds during repair, which gives rise to a lack of sufficient blood supply and causes necrosis of the new tissues. Rapid vascularization is a vital prerequisite for new tissue survival and integration with existing host tissue. The de novo generation of vasculature in scaffolds is one of the most important steps in making bone regeneration more efficient, allowing repairing tissue to grow into a scaffold...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930623/multipartner-fertility-in-nicaragua-complex-family-formation-in-a-low-income-setting
#5
Kammi K Schmeer, Jake Hays
CONTEXT: Multipartner fertility (having children with more than one partner) is an important topic in demographic research, but little is known about its incidence and correlates in low-income settings, where rates may be high because of poverty, union instability and early childbearing. METHODS: Data from the 2011-2012 Encuesta Nicaragüense de Demografía y Salud were used to calculate the prevalence of multipartner fertility among 8,320 mothers and 2,141 fathers with two or more children...
March 3, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#6
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930581/biophysical-mechanisms-complementing-classical-cell-biology
#7
Richard H W Funk
This overview addresses phenomena in cell- and molecular biology which are puzzling by their fast and highly coordinated way of organization. Generally, it appears that informative processes probably involved are more on the biophysical than on the classical biochemical side. The coordination problem is explained within the first part of the review by the topic of endogenous electrical phenomena. These are found e.g. in fast tissue organization and reorganization processes like development, wound healing and regeneration...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930560/structural-and-molecular-biology-of-psp94-its-significance-in-prostate-pathophysiology
#8
Jenifer H Anklesaria, Deepa R Mhatre, Smita D Mahale
Prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94), primarily found in the prostatic secretion, was originally isolated and purified from human seminal plasma. PSP94 has several putative biological functions and is considered a marker of prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we review the structural-functional relationships of PSP94, address its fungicidal activity and role as an inhibitor of sperm motility and protection from female immune surveillance, and review its role in tumor suppression. We also review the diagnostic assays that are developed for PSP94 for use in the diagnosis of PCa and use of such tests in the differential diagnosis of PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930451/a-biomimetic-stress-sensitive-hydrogel-controlled-by-dna-nanoswitches
#9
Swapneel R Deshpande, Roel Hammink, Frank H T Nelissen, Alan E Rowan, Hans A Heus
One of the most intriguing and important aspects of biological supramolecular materials is its ability to adapt macroscopic properties in response to environmental cues for controlling cellular processes. Recently, bulk matrix stiffness, in particular stress sensitivity, has been established as a key mechanical cue in cellular function and development. However, stress-stiffening capacity and the ability to control and exploit this key characteristic is relatively new to the field of biomimetic materials. In this work, DNA-responsive hydrogels, composed of semiflexible PIC polymers equipped with DNA cross-linkers, were engineered to create mimics of natural biopolymer networks that capture these essential elastic properties and can be controlled by external stimuli...
September 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930435/new-triplet-sensitization-routes-for-photon-upconversion-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-molecules-inorganic-nanocrystals-and-singlet-to-triplet-absorption
#10
Nobuhiro Yanai, Nobuo Kimizuka
Photon upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC) has attracted much interest because of its possible applications to renewable energy production and biological fields. In particular, the UC of near-infrared (NIR) light to visible (vis) light is imperative to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit of single-junction photovoltaic cells, and the efficiency of photocatalytic hydrogen production from water can also be improved with the aid of vis-to-ultraviolet (UV) UC. However, both processes have met limitations in the wavelength range, efficiency, and sensitivity for weak incident light...
September 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930355/conformations-and-membrane-driven-self-organization-of-rodlike-fd-virus-particles-on-freestanding-lipid-membranes
#11
Anastasiia B Petrova, Christoph Herold, Eugene P Petrov
Membrane-mediated interactions and aggregation of colloidal particles adsorbed to responsive elastic membranes are challenging problems relevant for understanding the microscopic organization and dynamics of biological membranes. We experimentally study the behavior of rodlike semiflexible fd virus particles electrostatically adsorbed to freestanding cationic lipid membranes and find that their behavior can be controlled by tuning the membrane charge and ionic strength of the surrounding medium. Three distinct interaction regimes of rodlike virus particles with responsive elastic membranes can be observed...
September 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930308/structure-activity-relationship-study-of-proxyphos-chemosensors-for-the-detection-of-proximal-phosphorylation-and-other-phosphate-species
#12
A D Cabral, B I Murcar-Evans, K Toutah, M Bancerz, D Rosa, K Yuen, T B Radu, M Ali, A Penkul, D Kraskouskaya, P T Gunning
Chemosensors for the detection of phosphate-containing biological species are in high need. Detection of proximally phosphorylated sites of PPi and those found in peptides and proteins has been demonstrated using chemosensors containing pyrene, as a fluorescent reporter, and a Zn(2+)-chelate, as a phosphate-binding group. Using these sensors, detection of proximal phosphate groups is afforded by binding of at least two of the sensor molecules to the adjacent phosphates, via the Zn(2+) centres, leading to excimer formation between the pyrene groups and the corresponding shift in emission from 376 to 476 nm...
September 20, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930182/microbial-community-structure-and-functions-in-ethanol-fed-sulfate-removal-bioreactors-for-treatment-of-mine-water
#13
Malin Bomberg, Jarno Mäkinen, Marja Salo, Mona Arnold
Sulfate-rich mine water must be treated before it is released into natural water bodies. We tested ethanol as substrate in bioreactors designed for biological sulfate removal from mine water containing up to 9 g L(-1) sulfate, using granular sludge from an industrial waste water treatment plant as inoculum. The pH, redox potential, and sulfate and sulfide concentrations were measured twice a week over a maximum of 171 days. The microbial communities in the bioreactors were characterized by qPCR and high throughput amplicon sequencing...
September 20, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929970/bayesian-unidimensional-scaling-for-visualizing-uncertainty-in-high-dimensional-datasets-with-latent-ordering-of-observations
#14
Lan Huong Nguyen, Susan Holmes
BACKGROUND: Detecting patterns in high-dimensional multivariate datasets is non-trivial. Clustering and dimensionality reduction techniques often help in discerning inherent structures. In biological datasets such as microbial community composition or gene expression data, observations can be generated from a continuous process, often unknown. Estimating data points' 'natural ordering' and their corresponding uncertainties can help researchers draw insights about the mechanisms involved...
September 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929751/structural-biology-inspired-discovery-of-novel-kras-pde%C3%AE-inhibitors
#15
Yan Jiang, Chunlin Zhuang, Long Chen, Junjie Lu, Guoqiang Dong, Zhenyuan Miao, Wannian Zhang, Jian Li, Chunquan Sheng
Structural biology is a powerful tool for investigating the stereospecific interactions between a protein and its ligand. Herein, an unprecedented chiral binding pattern was observed for inhibitors of KRAS-PDEδ interactions. Virtual screening and X-ray crystallography studies revealed that two enantiomers of a racemic inhibitor could bind at different sites. Fragment-based drug design was used to identify highly potent PDEδ inhibitors that can be used as promising lead compounds for target validation and antitumor drug development...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929670/-herbgenomics
#16
Shi-Lin Chen, Jing-Yuan Song
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has contributad greatly to improving human health. However, the biological characteristics and molecular mechanisms of TCM in the treatment of human diseases remain largely unknown. Genomics plays an important role in modern medicine and biology. Here, we introduce genomics and other related omics to the study of herbs to propose a new discipline, Herbgenomics, that aims to uncover the genetic information and regulatory networks of herbs and to clarify their molecular mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of human diseases...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929622/endonuclease-regnase-1-monocyte-chemotactic-protein-1-induced-protein-1-mcpip1-in-controlling-immune-responses-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Osamu Takeuchi
The activation of inflammatory cells is controlled at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Posttranscriptional regulation modifies mRNA stability and translation, allowing for elaborate control of proteins required for inflammation, such as proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin synthases, cell surface co-stimulatory molecules, and even transcriptional modifiers. Such regulation is important for coordinating the initiation and resolution of inflammation, and is mediated by a set of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including Regnase-1, Roquin, Tristetraprolin (TTP), and AU-rich elements/poly(U)-binding/degradation factor 1 (AUF1)...
September 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929304/embryonic-body-culturing-in-an-all-glass-microfluidic-device-with-laser-processed-4%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-thick-ultra-thin-glass-sheet-filter
#18
Y Yalikun, N Tanaka, Y Hosokawa, T Iino, Y Tanaka
In this paper, we report the development and demonstration of a method to fabricate an all-glass microfluidic cell culturing device without circulation flow. On-chip microfluidic cell culturing is an indispensable technique for cellular replacement therapies and experimental cell biology. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have become a popular material for fabricating microfluidic cell culture devices because it is a transparent, biocompatible, deformable, easy-to-mold, and gas-permeable. However, PDMS is also a chemically and physically unstable material...
September 19, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929266/brazilian-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccine-physicochemical-immunological-and-thermal-stability-characteristics
#19
Renata Chagas Bastos, Marilza Batista Corrêa, Iaralice Medeiros de Souza, Milton Neto da Silva, Denise da Silva Gomes Pereira, Fernanda Otaviano Martins, Camila da Silva Faria, Ana Paula Dinis Ano Bom, Maria de Lourdes Leal, Ellen Jessouroun, José Godinho da Silva, Ricardo de Andrade Medronho, Ivna Alana Freitas Brasileiro da Silveira
High temperature is known to cause some instability in polysaccharide-protein conjugated vaccines and studies under stress conditions may be useful in determining whether short-term accidental exposure to undesired conditions can compromise product quality. In this study, we examined the structural stability of three industrial batches of Brazilian Meningococcal C conjugate bulk (MPCT) incubated at 4, 37, and 55 °C for 5 weeks. The effect of exposure to the storage temperatures was monitored by HPLC-SEC, CZE, CD and NMR techniques...
September 19, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929030/genomic-analysis-of-p-elements-in-natural-populations-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Casey M Bergman, Shunhua Han, Michael G Nelson, Vladyslav Bondarenko, Iryna Kozeretska
The Drosophila melanogaster P transposable element provides one of the best cases of horizontal transfer of a mobile DNA sequence in eukaryotes. Invasion of natural populations by the P element has led to a syndrome of phenotypes known as P-M hybrid dysgenesis that emerges when strains differing in their P element composition mate and produce offspring. Despite extensive research on many aspects of P element biology, many questions remain about the genomic basis of variation in P-M dysgenesis phenotypes across populations...
2017: PeerJ
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