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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292918/non-homologous-end-joining-with-minimal-sequence-loss-is-promoted-by-the-mre11-rad50-nbs1-ctp1-complex-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#1
Yanhui Li, Jinyu Wang, Gang Zhou, Michael Lajeunesse, Nga Le, Brittany N Stawicki, Yalitza Lopez Corcino, Kathleen L Berkner, Kurt W Runge
While the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex has known roles in repair processes like homologous recombination and microhomology-mediated end-joining, its role in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is unclear as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals have different requirements for repairing cut DNA ends. Most double-strand breaks (DSBs) require nucleolytic processing prior to DNA ligation. We therefore studied repair using the Hermes transposon, whose excision leaves a DSB capped by hairpin ends similar to structures generated by palindromes and trinucleotide repeats...
March 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287547/spatiotemporal-analysis-of-cytokinetic-events-in-fission-yeast
#2
Bin Wei, Brian S Hercyk, Julius Habiyaremye, Maitreyi Das
Cytokinesis, the final step in cell division is critical for maintaining genome integrity. Proper cytokinesis is important for cell differentiation and development. Cytokinesis involves a series of events that are well coordinated in time and space. Cytokinesis involves the formation of an actomyosin ring at the division site, followed by ring constriction, membrane furrow formation and extra cellular matrix remodeling. The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) is a well-studied model system that has revealed with substantial clarity the initial events in cytokinesis...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282432/metabolic-crosstalk-between-membrane-and-storage-lipids-facilitates-heat-stress-management-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#3
Mária Péter, Attila Glatz, Péter Gudmann, Imre Gombos, Zsolt Török, Ibolya Horváth, László Vígh, Gábor Balogh
Cell membranes actively participate in stress sensing and signalling. Here we present the first in-depth lipidomic analysis to characterize alterations in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe in response to mild heat stress (HS). The lipidome was assessed by a simple one-step methanolic extraction. Genetic manipulations that altered triglyceride (TG) content in the absence or presence of HS gave rise to distinct lipidomic fingerprints for S. pombe. Cells unable to produce TG demonstrated long-lasting growth arrest and enhanced signalling lipid generation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278249/expression-of-c-5-sterol-desaturase-from-an-edible-mushroom-in-fisson-yeast-enhances-its-ethanol-and-thermotolerance
#4
Ayushi Kamthan, Mohan Kamthan, Asis Datta
Bioethanol is an environment friendly and renewable source of energy produced by the fermentation of agricultural raw material by a variety of microorganisms including yeast. Obtaining yeast strains that are tolerant to stresses like high levels of ethanol and high temperature is highly desirable as it reduces cost and increases yield during bioethanol production. Here, we report that heterologous expression of C-5 Sterol desaturase (FvC5SD)-an ergosterol biosynthesis enzyme from an edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes in fission yeast, not only imparts increased thermotolerance but also tolerance towards high ethanol concentration and low pH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242692/lem2-recruits-chmp7-for-escrt-mediated-nuclear-envelope-closure-in-fission-yeast-and-human-cells
#5
Mingyu Gu, Dollie LaJoie, Opal S Chen, Alexander von Appen, Mark S Ladinsky, Michael J Redd, Linda Nikolova, Pamela J Bjorkman, Wesley I Sundquist, Katharine S Ullman, Adam Frost
Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins have been implicated in sealing the nuclear envelope in mammals, spindle pole body dynamics in fission yeast, and surveillance of defective nuclear pore complexes in budding yeast. Here, we report that Lem2p (LEM2), a member of the LEM (Lap2-Emerin-Man1) family of inner nuclear membrane proteins, and the ESCRT-II/ESCRT-III hybrid protein Cmp7p (CHMP7), work together to recruit additional ESCRT-III proteins to holes in the nuclear membrane...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238661/motor-activity-dependent-and-independent-functions-of-myosin-ii-contribute-to-actomyosin-ring-assembly-and-contraction-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#6
Saravanan Palani, Ting Gang Chew, Srinivasan Ramanujam, Anton Kamnev, Shrikant Harne, Bernardo Chapa-Y-Lazo, Rebecca Hogg, Mayalagu Sevugan, Mithilesh Mishra, Pananghat Gayathri, Mohan K Balasubramanian
Cytokinesis depends on a contractile actomyosin ring in many eukaryotes [1-3]. Myosin II is a key component of the actomyosin ring, although whether it functions as a motor or as an actin cross-linker to exert its essential role is disputed [1, 4, 5]. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the myo2-E1 mutation affects the upper 50 kDa sub-domain of the myosin II heavy chain, and cells carrying this lethal mutation are defective in actomyosin ring assembly at the non-permissive temperature [6, 7]. myo2-E1 also affects actomyosin ring contraction when rings isolated from permissive temperature-grown cells are incubated with ATP [8]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228545/ablation-of-rnai-and-retrotransposons-accompany-acquisition-and-evolution-of-transposases-to-heterochromatin-protein-cenpb
#7
Udita Upadhyay, Suchita Srivastava, Indu Khatri, Jagpreet Singh Nanda, Srikrishna Subramanian, Amit Arora, Jagmohan Singh
Inactivation of retrotransposons is accompanied by the emergence of CENPB (centromere binding protein-B) in Schizosaccharomyces as well as in metazoans. The RNAi-induced Transcriptional Silencing (RITS) Complex, comprising Chp1 (chromodomain protein-1), Tas3 (protein with unknown function) and Ago1 (Argonaute), plays an important role in RNAi-mediated heterochromatinization. We find that while the Ago1 subunit of the RITS complex is highly conserved, Tas3 is lost and Chp1 is truncated in S. cryophilus and S...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223368/phosphatases-generate-signal-specificity-downstream-of-ssp1-kinase-in-fission-yeast
#8
Lin Deng, Mid Eum Lee, Katherine Schutt, James B Moseley
AMPK-related protein kinases (ARKs) coordinate cell growth, proliferation, and migration with environmental status. It is unclear how specific ARKs are activated at specific times. In fission yeast S. pombe, the CaMKK-like protein kinase Ssp1 promotes cell cycle progression by activating the ARK Cdr2 according to cell growth signals. Here, we demonstrate that Ssp1 activates a second ARK, Ssp2/AMPK-α, for cell proliferation in low environmental glucose. Ssp1 activates these two related targets by the same biochemical mechanism: direct phosphorylation of a conserved residue in the activation loop (Cdr2-T166 and Ssp2-T189)...
February 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208632/cross-talk-between-dnmt2-dependent-trna-methylation-and-queuosine-modification
#9
REVIEW
Ann E Ehrenhofer-Murray
Enzymes of the Dnmt2 family of methyltransferases have yielded a number of unexpected discoveries. The first surprise came more than ten years ago when it was realized that, rather than being DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 enzymes actually are transfer RNA (tRNA) methyltransferases for cytosine-5 methylation, foremost C38 (m5C38) of tRNAAsp. The second unanticipated finding was our recent discovery of a nutritional regulation of Dnmt2 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Significantly, the presence of the nucleotide queuosine in tRNAAsp strongly stimulates Dnmt2 activity both in vivo and in vitro in S...
February 10, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199302/untimely-expression-of-gametogenic-genes-in-vegetative-cells-causes-uniparental-disomy
#10
H Diego Folco, Venkata R Chalamcharla, Tomoyasu Sugiyama, Gobi Thillainadesan, Martin Zofall, Vanivilasini Balachandran, Jothy Dhakshnamoorthy, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Shiv I S Grewal
Uniparental disomy (UPD), in which an individual contains a pair of homologous chromosomes originating from only one parent, is a frequent phenomenon that is linked to congenital disorders and various cancers. UPD is thought to result mostly from pre- or post-zygotic chromosome missegregation. However, the factors that drive UPD remain unknown. Here we use the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model to investigate UPD, and show that defects in the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery or in the YTH domain-containing RNA elimination factor Mmi1 cause high levels of UPD in vegetative diploid cells...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191457/the-copper-transport-associated-protein-ctr4-can-form-prion-like-epigenetic-determinants-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#11
Theodora Sideri, Yoko Yashiroda, David A Ellis, María Rodríguez-López, Minoru Yoshida, Mick F Tuite, Jürg Bähler
Prions are protein-based infectious entities associated with fatal brain diseases in animals, but also modify a range of host-cell phenotypes in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many questions remain about the evolution and biology of prions. Although several functionally distinct prion-forming proteins exist in S. cerevisiae, [HET-s] of Podospora anserina is the only other known fungal prion. Here we investigated prion-like, protein-based epigenetic transmission in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168604/the-natural-product-osthole-attenuates-yeast-growth-by-extensively-suppressing-the-gene-expressions-of-mitochondrial-respiration-chain
#12
Zhe Wang, Yan Shen
The fast growing evidences have indicated that the natural product osthole is a promising drug candidate for fighting several serious human diseases, for example, cancer and inflammation. However, the mode-of-action (MoA) of osthole remains largely incomplete. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition activity of osthole using fission yeast as a model, with the goal of understanding the osthole's mechanism of action, especially from the molecular level. Microarray analysis indicated that osthole has significant impacts on gene transcription levels (In total, 214 genes are up-regulated, and 97 genes are down-regulated)...
March 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162934/s-%C3%A2-pombe-uba1-ubc15-structure-reveals-a-novel-regulatory-mechanism-of-ubiquitin-e2-activity
#13
Zongyang Lv, Kimberly A Rickman, Lingmin Yuan, Katelyn Williams, Shanmugam Panneer Selvam, Alec N Woosley, Philip H Howe, Besim Ogretmen, Agata Smogorzewska, Shaun K Olsen
Ubiquitin (Ub) E1 initiates the Ub conjugation cascade by activating and transferring Ub to tens of different E2s. How Ub E1 cooperates with E2s that differ substantially in their predicted E1-interacting residues is unknown. Here, we report the structure of S. pombe Uba1 in complex with Ubc15, a Ub E2 with intrinsically low E1-E2 Ub thioester transfer activity. The structure reveals a distinct Ubc15 binding mode that substantially alters the network of interactions at the E1-E2 interface compared to the only other available Ub E1-E2 structure...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143796/clr4-specificity-and-catalytic-activity-beyond-h3k9-methylation
#14
Denis Kusevic, Srikanth Kudithipudi, Nahid Iglesias, Danesh Moazed, Albert Jeltsch
In fission yeast, the catalytic activity of the protein lysine methyltransferase (PKMT) Clr4, the sole homolog of the mammalian SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 enzymes, majorly contributes to the formation of heterochromatin. The enzyme introduces histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) di- and tri-methylation, a central heterochromatic histone modification, and later it was also found to methylate the Mlo3 protein, which has a role in heterochromatin formation as well. Herein, we have investigated the substrate specificity of Clr4 using custom made mutational scanning peptide arrays...
April 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143396/unsupervised-detection-of-regulatory-gene-expression-information-in-different-genomic-regions-enables-gene-expression-ranking
#15
Zohar Zafrir, Tamir Tuller
BACKGROUND: The regulation of all gene expression steps (e.g., Transcription, RNA processing, Translation, and mRNA Degradation) is known to be primarily encoded in different parts of genes and in genomic regions in proximity to genes (e.g., promoters, untranslated regions, coding regions, introns, etc.). However, the entire gene expression codes and the genomic regions where they are encoded are still unknown. RESULTS: Here, we employ an unsupervised approach to estimate the concentration of gene expression codes in different non-coding parts of genes and transcripts, such as introns and untranslated regions, focusing on three model organisms (Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe)...
February 1, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117401/transient-structural-variations-have-strong-effects-on-quantitative-traits-and-reproductive-isolation-in-fission-yeast
#16
Daniel C Jeffares, Clemency Jolly, Mimoza Hoti, Doug Speed, Liam Shaw, Charalampos Rallis, Francois Balloux, Christophe Dessimoz, Jürg Bähler, Fritz J Sedlazeck
Large structural variations (SVs) within genomes are more challenging to identify than smaller genetic variants but may substantially contribute to phenotypic diversity and evolution. We analyse the effects of SVs on gene expression, quantitative traits and intrinsic reproductive isolation in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We establish a high-quality curated catalogue of SVs in the genomes of a worldwide library of S. pombe strains, including duplications, deletions, inversions and translocations. We show that copy number variants (CNVs) show a variety of genetic signals consistent with rapid turnover...
January 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096519/the-nuclear-poly-a-binding-protein-of-mammals-but-not-of-fission-yeast-participates-in-mrna-polyadenylation
#17
Uwe Kühn, Juliane Buschmann, Elmar Wahle
The nuclear poly(A) binding protein (PABPN1) has been suggested, on the basis of biochemical evidence, to play a role in mRNA polyadenylation by strongly increasing the processivity of poly(A) polymerase. While experiments in metazoans have tended to support such a role, the results were not unequivocal, and genetic data show that the S. pombe ortholog of PABPN1, Pab2, is not involved in mRNA polyadenylation. The specific model in which PABPN1 increases the rate of poly(A) tail elongation has never been examined in vivo...
April 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054638/functional-constraints-on-adaptive-evolution-of-protein-ubiquitination-sites
#18
Liang Lu, Yang Li, Zhongyang Liu, Fengji Liang, Feifei Guo, Shuai Yang, Dan Wang, Yangzhige He, Jianghui Xiong, Dong Li, Fuchu He
It is still unclear whether there exist functional constraints on the evolution of protein ubiquitination sites, because most previous studies regarded all protein ubiquitination sites as a whole or only focused on limited structural properties. We tried to clarify the relation between functional constraints and ubiquitination sites evolution. We investigated the evolutionary conservation of human ubiquitination sites in a broad evolutionary scale from G. gorilla to S. pombe, and we found that in organisms originated after the divergence of vertebrate, ubiquitination sites are more conserved than their flanking regions, while the opposite tendency is observed before this divergence time...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003514/s-cerevisiae-trm140-has-two-recognition-modes-for-3-methylcytidine-modification-of-the-anticodon-loop-of-trna-substrates
#19
Lu Han, Erin Marcus, Sonia D'Silva, Eric M Phizicky
The 3-methylcytidine (m(3)C) modification is ubiquitous in eukaryotic tRNA, widely found at C32 in the anticodon loop of tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Ser), and some tRNA(Arg) species, as well as in the variable loop (V-loop) of certain tRNA(Ser) species. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formation of m(3)C32 requires Trm140 for six tRNA substrates, including three tRNA(Thr) species and three tRNA(Ser) species, whereas in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, two Trm140 homologs are used, one for tRNA(Thr) and one for tRNA(Ser) The occurrence of a single Trm140 homolog is conserved broadly among Ascomycota, whereas multiple Trm140-related homologs are found in metazoans and other fungi...
March 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999345/combined-use-of-s-pombe-and-l-thermotolerans-in-winemaking-beneficial-effects-determined-through-the-study-of-wines-analytical-characteristics
#20
Ángel Benito, Fernando Calderón, Santiago Benito
The most common way to produce red wine is through the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid bacteria for malolactic fermentation. This traditional winemaking methodology produces microbiologically stable red wines. However, under specific conditions off-flavours can occur, wine quality can suffer and human health problems are possible, especially after the second fermentation by the lactic acid bacteria. In warm countries, problems during the malolactic fermentation arise because of the high pH of the must, which makes it very difficult to properly control the process...
December 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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