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Amygdala kindling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214547/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-predisposes-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Francesca Scicchitano, Annalidia Donato, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini, Vittoria Cianci, Chiara Mignogna, Giuseppe Donato, Rita Citraro, Umberto Aguglia, Giovambattista De Sarro
The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167431/adeno-associated-viral-vector-mediated-preprosomatostatin-expression-suppresses-induced-seizures-in-kindled-rats
#2
Gowri Natarajan, Jeffrey A Leibowitz, Junli Zhou, Yang Zhao, Jessica A McElroy, Michael A King, Brandi K Ormerod, Paul R Carney
Somatostatin is expressed widely in the hippocampus and notably in hilar GABAergic neurons that are vulnerable to seizure neuropathology in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. We previously demonstrated that sustained bilateral preprosomatostatin (preproSST) expression in the hippocampus prevents the development of generalized seizures in the amygdala kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we tested whether sustained preproSST expression is anticonvulsant in rats already kindled to high-grade seizures. Rats were kindled until they exhibited 3 consecutive Racine Grade 5 seizures before adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector driving either eGFP (AAV5-CBa-eGFP) or preproSST and eGFP (AAV5-CBa-preproSST-eGFP) expression was injected bilaterally into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 region...
January 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124605/increase-signaling-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-presence-of-apoptosis-in-cerebellum-of-kindled-rats
#3
Carmen Rubio-Osornio, Artemio Rosiles-Abonce, Cristina Trejo-Solís, Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Cesar Mendoza, Verónica Custodio, Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Edith González, Carlos Paz
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in humans, and the role of the cerebellum in its physiopathology remains the subject of study. The Purkinje cells (PC), whose axons target the dentate and interpositus nuclei, form the main cerebellar output to forebrain structures involved in epilepsy. Cerebellar atrophy related to loss of PC has been reported in chronic epilepsy although its mechanism remains unclear. Taking in account that an overexpression of β-Catenin has been related with cell death, here we present the signaling of β-Catenin and the type of PC death in cerebellum of rats with chronic seizures induced by the amygdaloid kindling model...
January 17, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097810/physicochemical-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-cinnamamide-derivative-r-s-2e-1-3-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one-km-608-for-nervous-system-disorders
#4
Agnieszka Gunia-Krzyżak, Ewa Żesławska, Florence Bareyre, Wojciech Nitek, Anna M Waszkielewicz, Henryk Marona
A cinnamamide scaffold has been successfully incorporated in several compounds possessing desirable pharmacological activities in central and peripheral nervous system such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant, and sedative/hypnotic properties. R,S-(2E)-1-(3-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (KM-608), a cinnamamide derivative, was synthesized, its chemical structure was confirmed by means of spectroscopy and crystallography, additionally thermal analysis showed that it exists in one crystalline form...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012162/evidence-for-a-differential-interaction-of-brivaracetam-and-levetiracetam-with-the-synaptic-vesicle-2a-protein
#5
Martyn D Wood, Michel Gillard
OBJECTIVE: Brivaracetam (BRV) and levetiracetam (LEV) are effective antiepileptic drugs that bind selectively to the synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) protein. However, BRV differs from LEV in that it exhibits more potent and complete seizure suppression in animal models including in amygdala-kindled mice, where BRV afforded nearly complete seizure suppression. This raises the possibility that aside from potency differences, BRV and LEV may interact differently with the SV2A protein, which is not apparent in radioligand-binding competition studies...
December 24, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891086/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-mechanisms-of-depression
#6
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model of the regulation of appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors, the motivation to display these essential conducts is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical, re-entry circuits, including the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side, to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, controls the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875989/interleukin-1-receptor-il-1r-mediates-epilepsy-induced-sleep-disruption
#7
Tzu-Rung Huang, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yu-Ju Chou, Pei-Lu Yi, Chun-Jen Chen, Fang-Chia Chang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disruptions are common in epilepsy patients. Our previous study demonstrates that homeostatic factors and circadian rhythm may mediate epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances when epilepsy occurs at different zeitgeber hours. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is a somnogenic cytokine and may also be involved in epileptogenesis; however, few studies emphasize the effect of IL-1 in epilepsy-induced sleep disruption. We herein hypothesized that IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) mediates the pathogenesis of epilepsy and epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829869/interaction-between-thalamus-and-hippocampus-in-termination-of-amygdala-kindled-seizures-in-mice
#8
Zhen Zhang, Jia-Jia Li, Qin-Chi Lu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pei-Ji Liang, Pu-Ming Zhang
The thalamus and hippocampus have been found both involved in the initiation, propagation, and termination of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the interaction of these regions during seizures is not clear. The present study is to explore whether some regular patterns exist in their interaction during the termination of seizures. Multichannel in vivo recording techniques were used to record the neural activities from the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MDT) in mice. The mice were kindled by electrically stimulating basolateral amygdala neurons, and Racine's rank standard was employed to classify the stage of behavioral responses (stage 1~5)...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816614/developmental-exposure-to-an-environmental-pcb-mixture-delays-the-propagation-of-electrical-kindling-from-the-amygdala
#9
Suren B Bandara, Renee N Sadowski, Susan L Schantz, Mary E Gilbert
Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle 4 weeks prior to mating and continued through gestation and up until postnatal day (PND) 21...
January 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784476/-effects-of-prenatal-maternal-seizure-on-hippocampal-damage-and-cognitive-deficits-in-offspring-rats
#10
Y Lu, W P Wang, X X Wang, J J Feng, Z P Guo, L M Liu, T Xie, R R Zhao, Y L Cai
Objective: To observe hippocampal damage and cognitive impairment of offspring exposed to prenatal maternal seizure induced by amygdala kindling, and to explore the underlying mechanism by the detection of pathological changes of placenta. Method: Adult female SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group(8 rats), kindling group(12 rats) and sham group(8 rats). All the rats were allowed to mate after one week's fully kindling. The pregnant rats in kindling group received electric stimulation every 48 h...
October 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659238/classifying-amygdala-kindling-stages-using-quantitative-assessments-of-extracellular-recording-of-eeg-in-rats
#11
Mostafa Jalilifar, Ali Yadollahpour, Ahmad Ali Moazedi, Zohreh Ghotbeddin
PURPOSE: Determining different seizure stage specific features in a kindling model is a crucial step in developing efficient objective techniques for early prediction and treatment of seizures. This study identified and categorized kindling stages based on their electrophysiological features through processing extracellular field potentials of Amygdala rapid kindling. METHODS: Thirteen Wistar rats (200±10g) were divided into 2 groups including kindle (n=7) and sham (n=6) and respectively underwent an amygdala rapid kindling and placebo stimulation...
September 19, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579577/preparation-antiepileptic-activity-and-cardiovascular-safety-of-dihydropyrazoles-as-brain-penetrant-t-type-calcium-channel-blockers
#12
Lubos Remen, Olivier Bezençon, Lloyd Simons, Rick Gaston, Dennis Downing, John Gatfield, Catherine Roch, Melanie Kessler, Johannes Mosbacher, Thomas Pfeifer, Corinna Grisostomi, Markus Rey, Eric A Ertel, Richard Moon
A series of dihydropyrazole derivatives was developed as potent, selective, and brain-penetrating T-type calcium channel blockers. An optimized derivative, compound 6c, was advanced to in vivo studies, where it demonstrated efficacy in the WAG/Rij rat model of generalized nonconvulsive, absence-like epilepsy. Compound 6c was not efficacious in the basolateral amygdala kindling rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and it led to prolongation of the PR interval in ECG recordings in rodents.
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489773/the-effective-connectivity-of-the-seizure-onset-zone-and-ictal-perfusion-changes-in-amygdala-kindled-rhesus-monkeys
#13
Evy Cleeren, Elsie Premereur, Cindy Casteels, Karolien Goffin, Peter Janssen, Wim Van Paesschen
Epileptic seizures are network-level phenomena. Hence, epilepsy may be regarded as a circuit-level disorder that cannot be understood outside this context. Better insight into the effective connectivity of the seizure onset zone and the manner in which seizure activity spreads could lead to specifically-tailored therapies for epilepsy. We applied the electrical amygdala kindling model in two rhesus monkeys until these animals displayed consistent stage IV seizures. At this stage, we investigated the effective connectivity of the amygdala by means of electrical microstimulation during fMRI (EM-fMRI)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471467/a-missense-mutation-of-the-gene-encoding-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2a-sv2a-confers-seizure-susceptibility-by-disrupting-amygdalar-synaptic-gaba-release
#14
Kentaro Tokudome, Takahiro Okumura, Ryo Terada, Saki Shimizu, Naofumi Kunisawa, Tomoji Mashimo, Tadao Serikawa, Masashi Sasa, Yukihiro Ohno
Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is specifically expressed in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of SV2A in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders, we recently generated a novel rat model (Sv2a(L174Q) rat) carrying a missense mutation of the Sv2a gene and showed that the Sv2a(L174Q) rats were hypersensitive to kindling development (Tokudome et al., 2016). Here, we further conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seizure vulnerability in Sv2a(L174Q) rats...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458343/dystrophin-distribution-and-expression-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Sandra Schipper, Govert Hoogland, Olaf E M G Schijns, Jim T A Dings, Marlien W Aalbers, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Dystrophin is part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In addition to its role in muscle tissue, it functions as an anchoring protein within the central nervous system such as in hippocampus and cerebellum. Its presence in the latter regions is illustrated by the cognitive problems seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Since epilepsy is also supposed to constitute a comorbidity of DMD, it is hypothesized that dystrophin plays a role in neuronal excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445726/rapid-amygdala-kindling-causes-motor-seizure-and-comorbidity-of-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-rats
#16
Shang-Der Chen, Yu-Lin Wang, Sheng-Fu Liang, Fu-Zen Shaw
Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434859/increased-inhibitory-synaptic-activity-in-the-hippocampus-ca1-of-genetic-absence-epilepsy-rats-relevance-of-kindling-resistance
#17
Nihan Çarçak, Ergin Dileköz, Rezzan Gülhan, Rüştü Onur, Filiz Yılmaz Onat, Yıldırım Sara
PURPOSE: Genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a well-validated genetic rat model for typical absence epilepsy, are known to manifest a resistance to secondary generalization of abnormal focal electrical activity evoked by kindling. The mechanism of this resistance is still unclear. In order to understand the possible mechanism of kindling resistance, we investigated for the first time, the differences of short-term synaptic plasticity by using a paired-pulse paradigm as an indicator of GABAergic activity in CA1 region of hippocampus in GAERS and non-epileptic Wistar rats in-vivo...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404844/chemogenetic-silencing-of-the-midline-and-intralaminar-thalamus-blocks-amygdala-kindled-seizures
#18
Evan Wicker, Patrick A Forcelli
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of medically-intractable epilepsy. While seizures in TLE originate in structures such as hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal cortex, they propagate through a crucial relay: the midline/intralaminar thalamus. Prior studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of midline thalamus attenuates limbic seizures. Here, we examined a recently developed technology, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), as a means of chemogenetic silencing to attenuate limbic seizures...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362579/selective-plasticity-of-hippocampal-gabaergic-interneuron-populations-following-kindling-of-different-brain-regions
#19
J J Botterill, N Nogovitsyn, H J Caruncho, L E Kalynchuk
The vulnerability and plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons is a topic of broad interest and debate in the field of epilepsy. In this experiment, we used the electrical kindling model of epilepsy to determine whether seizures that originate in different brain regions have differential effects on hippocampal interneuron subpopulations. Long-Evans rats received 99 electrical stimulations of the hippocampus, amygdala, or caudate nucleus, followed by sacrifice and immunohistochemical or western blot analyses...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289302/sodium-selenate-retards-epileptogenesis-in-acquired-epilepsy-models-reversing-changes-in-protein-phosphatase-2a-and-hyperphosphorylated-tau
#20
Shi-Jie Liu, Ping Zheng, David K Wright, Gabi Dezsi, Emma Braine, Thanh Nguyen, Niall M Corcoran, Leigh A Johnston, Christopher M Hovens, Jamie N Mayo, Matthew Hudson, Sandy R Shultz, Nigel C Jones, Terence J O'Brien
There are no treatments in clinical practice known to mitigate the neurobiological processes that convert a healthy brain into an epileptic one, a phenomenon known as epileptogenesis. Downregulation of protein phosphatase 2A, a protein that causes the hyperphosphorylation of tau, is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases commonly associated with epilepsy, such as Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. Here we used the protein phosphatase 2A activator sodium selenate to investigate the role of protein phosphatase 2A in three different rat models of epileptogenesis: amygdala kindling, post-kainic acid status epilepticus, and post-traumatic epilepsy...
July 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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