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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689265/aerobic-glycolysis-hypothesis-through-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-in-exudative-age-related-macular-degeneration
#1
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inflammatory processes are associated with upregulation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway in exudative AMD. We focus this review on the link between WNT/beta-catenin pathway activation and neovascular progression in exudative AMD through activation of aerobic glycolysis for production of angiogenic factors. Increased WNT/beta-catenin pathway involves hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484259/the-physiological-and-molecular-response-of-aurelia-sp-1-under-hypoxia
#2
Guoshan Wang, Yu Zhen, Zhigang Yu, Yan Shi, Qing Zhao, Jianyan Wang, Tiezhu Mi
Few studies have been published on the mechanisms of hypoxia response and tolerance in jellyfish, especially with respect to the regulatory mechanism at the molecular level. In this study, Aurelia sp.1, which is frequently found in Chinese coastal waters, was cultivated in a hypoxic system to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying its hypoxic response by studying the physiological activity, gene expression and metabolite contents in the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) oxygen-sensing system...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207834/ros-mediated-glucose-metabolic-reprogram-induces-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Kelei Dong, Hua Ni, Meiling Wu, Ziqing Tang, Michael Halim, Dongyun Shi
Oxidative stress is known to contribute to insulin resistance in diabetes, however the mechanism is not clear. Here we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) could reprogram the glucose metabolism through upregulating the pentose pathway so as to induce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). By using streptozotocin-high fat diet (STZ-HFD) induced T2DM in rats, we show that diabetic rats exhibited high level of oxidative stress accompanied with insulin resistance. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) protein expression as well as its downstream target glucokinase (GK), were upregulated; The glycogen synthesis increased accordingly; However the glycolysis was inhibited as indicated by decreased phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), pyruvate kinase (PK), phospho-PFK-2/PFK-2 (p-PFK-2/PFK-2) ratio, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK); Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) which promotes pyruvate to generate acetyl-CoA declined as well...
August 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25940033/ischemic-postconditioning-inhibits-apoptosis-of-renal-cells-following-reperfusion-a-novel-in-vitro-model
#4
Xiaodong Weng, Min Wang, Hui Chen, Zhiyuan Chen, Xiuheng Liu
PURPOSE: The majority of renal ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) and ischemic postconditioning (IPO) studies have been based on animal models. To gain mechanistic insights into ischemic postconditioning-induced alterations at the cell level, a novel in vitro model of I/R and IPO is set up by using the rat proximal tubule cell line NRK-52E. METHODS: Cells are incubated in 1 mL ischemic buffer under hypoxia conditions for 3 h to simulate the clinical condition of a cellular microenvironment representative of ischemia, including oxygen deprivation, carbon dioxide elevation, nutrient depletion, and waste accumulation...
July 2015: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23376776/nutrient-deprivation-induces-the-warburg-effect-through-ros-ampk-dependent-activation-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase
#5
Ching-An Wu, Yee Chao, Shine-Gwo Shiah, Wan-Wan Lin
The Warburg effect is known to be crucial for cancer cells to acquire energy. Nutrient deficiencies are an important phenomenon in solid tumors, but the effect on cancer cell metabolism is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrate that starvation of HeLa cells by incubation with Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) induced cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Notably, HBSS starvation increased lactate production, cytoplasmic pyruvate content and decreased oxygen consumption, but failed to change the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or the glucose uptake...
May 2013: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20626586/determination-of-the-minimal-melatonin-exposure-required-to-induce-osteoblast-differentiation-from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-these-effects-on-downstream-signaling-pathways
#6
Shalini Sethi, Nicholas M Radio, Mary P Kotlarczyk, Chien-Tsun Chen, Yau-Huei Wei, Ralf Jockers, Paula A Witt-Enderby
The purpose of this study was to determine the critical time periods of melatonin treatment required to induce human mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) into osteoblasts and to determine which osteogenic genes are involved in the process. The study design consisted of adding melatonin for different times (2, 5, 10, 14 or 21 days) toward the end of a 21-day treatment containing osteogenic (OS+) medium or at the beginning of the 21-day treatment and then withdrawn. The results show that a 21-day continuous melatonin treatment was required to induce both alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition and these effects were mediated through MT₂Rs...
October 2010: Journal of Pineal Research
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