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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883598/vagal-afferent-activation-suppresses-systemic-inflammation-via-the-splanchnic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#1
Evilin Naname Komegae, David George Stephen Farmer, Virginia Leah Brooks, Michael Joseph McKinley, Robin Michael McAllen, Davide Martelli
Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) is a novel strategy used to treat inflammatory conditions. Therapeutic VNS activates both efferent and afferent fibers; however, the effects attributable to vagal afferent stimulation are unclear. Here, we tested if selective activation of afferent fibers in the abdominal vagus suppresses systemic inflammation. In urethane-anesthetized rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 60 µg/kg, i.v.), abdominal afferent VNS (2 Hz for 20 min) reduced plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) levels 90 min later by 88% compared with unmanipulated animals...
June 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725320/cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-and-glucose-variability-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-is-there-an-association
#2
Szabolcs Nyiraty, Fruzsina Pesei, Andrea Orosz, Sara Coluzzi, Orsolya Eszter Vági, Csaba Lengyel, György Ábrahám, Simona Frontoni, Peter Kempler, Tamás Várkonyi
Introduction: The oxidative stress associated with glucose variability might be responsible for neuronal damage while autonomic neuropathy (AN) has a detrimental effect on metabolism. The aim of the study was to find relationship between AN and GV in type 1 diabetic patients and to identify further factors that affect GV. Patients and methods: Twenty type 1 diabetic patients were involved (age: 39.5 ± 3.4 years, duration of diabetes: 17.5 ± 2.5 years; HbA1c: 8...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676798/afferent-neural-feedback-overrides-the-modulating-effects-of-arousal-hypercapnia-and-hypoxaemia-on-neonatal-cardiorespiratory-control
#3
Kathleen J Lumb, Jennifer M Schneider, Thowfique Ibrahim, Anita Rigaux, Shabih U Hasan
KEY POINTS: Evidence obtained at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for the establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. As a result of the irreversible nature of the vagal ablation studies performed to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apnoeas and hypoxaemia and hypercarbia were observed, necessitating the termination of perineural blockade...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498060/crime-prevention-through-environmental-design-cpted-characteristics-associated-with-violence-and-safety-in-middle-schools
#4
Kevin J Vagi, Mark R Stevens, Thomas R Simon, Kathleen C Basile, Sherry P Carter, Stanley L Carter
BACKGROUND: This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. METHODS: Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and violence were assessed. Evaluators used the CPTED School Assessment (CSA) to quantify how well the physical elements of each school correspond to ideal CPTED principles...
April 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455718/precollege-sexual-violence-perpetration-and-associated-risk-and-protective-factors-among-male-college-freshmen-in-georgia
#5
Laura F Salazar, Kevin M Swartout, Monica H Swahn, Alexandra L Bellis, Jhetari Carney, Kevin J Vagi, Colby Lokey
PURPOSE: Sexual violence (SV) perpetration on college campuses is a serious and prevalent public health issue in the U.S. In response, incoming male freshmen are mandated to receive SV prevention programming. To provide a more effective response, however, we need to understand the SV behaviors of male freshmen before they arrive on campus and the associated factors that contribute to risk and that afford protection, areas that have received limited attention. METHODS: Male freshmen (N = 1,133) across 30 selected 4-year colleges and universities throughout the state of Georgia were recruited for a longitudinal study on SV perpetration...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425906/effects-of-vagal-neuromodulation-on-feeding-behavior
#6
REVIEW
Nicole A Pelot, Warren M Grill
Implanted vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for obesity was recently approved by the FDA. However, its efficacy and mechanisms of action remain unclear. Herein, we synthesize clinical and preclinical effects of VNS on feeding behavior and energy balance and discuss engineering considerations for understanding and improving the therapy. Clinical cervical VNS (≤30 Hz) to treat epilepsy or depression has produced mixed effects on weight loss as a side effect, albeit in uncontrolled, retrospective studies. Conversely, preclinical studies (cervical and subdiaphragmatic VNS) mostly report decreased food intake and either decreased weight gain or weight loss...
February 7, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376213/identification-of-the-female-produced-sex-pheromone-of-an-invasive-greenhouse-pest-the-european-pepper-moth-duponchelia-fovealis
#7
Péter Béla Molnár, Csengele Bognár, Anna Laura Erdei, Takeshi Fujii, Pál Vági, Júlia Katalin Jósvai, Zsolt Kárpáti
The European pepper moth (Duponchelia fovealis, Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) is an invasive pest of greenhouses in many countries, causing serious damages to horticultural plants. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis of the female gland extract revealed two antennally active peaks. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), one was identified as (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald); however, further analysis on different types of capillary columns indicated that the second active compound has two different isomers, (E)-13-octadecenal (E13-18:Ald) and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13-18:Ald)...
March 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209161/electroacupuncture-attenuates-visceral-hypersensitivity-by-inhibiting-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-the-descending-pain-modulation-system
#8
Juan Wan, Yi Ding, Adnan H Tahir, Manoj K Shah, Habibullah Janyaro, Xiaojing Li, Juming Zhong, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Mingxing Ding
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used for treating visceral hypersensitivity (VH). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study was aim to testify the effect of EA on ileitis-provoked VH, and to confirm whether EA attenuates VH through Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the periaqueductal gray (PAG)-the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM)-the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) axis. Methods: Goats were anesthetized and laparotomized for injecting 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol solution (30mg TNBS dissolved in 40% ethanol) into the ileal wall to induce VH...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044170/phosphorylation-regulates-the-subcellular-localization-of-cucumber-mosaic-virus-2b-protein
#9
Katalin Nemes, Ákos Gellért, Asztéria Almási, Pál Vági, Réka Sáray, Katalin Kádár, Katalin Salánki
The 2b protein of Cucumber mosaic virus has a role in nearly all steps of the viral cycle including cell-to-cell movement, symptom induction and suppression of antiviral RNA silencing. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of 2b protein in the nucleus and in cytoplasm as well. Phosphorylation site of 2b protein is conserved in all CMV isolates, including proposed constitute motifs for casein kinase II and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. To discern the impact of 2b protein phosphorylation, we created eight different mutants to mimic the non-phosporylated (serine to alanine) as well as the phosphorylated state (serine to aspartic acid) of the protein...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892450/2015-pandemic-influenza-readiness-assessment-among-us-public-health-emergency-preparedness-awardees
#10
Thomas J Fitzgerald, Danielle L Moulia, Samuel B Graitcer, Sara J Vagi, Stephanie A Dopson
OBJECTIVES: To assess how US Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) awardees plan to respond to an influenza pandemic with vaccination. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Pandemic Influenza Readiness Assessment, an online survey sent to PHEP directors, to analyze, in part, the readiness of PHEP awardees to vaccinate 80% of the populations of their jurisdictions with 2 doses of pandemic influenza vaccine, separated by 21 days, within 16 weeks of vaccine availability...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892441/improvements-in-state-and-local-planning-for-mass-dispensing-of-medical-countermeasures-the-technical-assistance-review-program-united-states-2007-2014
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Paul G Renard, Sara J Vagi, Chris M Reinold, Brenda L Silverman, Rachel N Avchen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and describe outcomes of state and local medical countermeasure preparedness planning, which is critical to ensure rapid distribution and dispensing of a broad spectrum of life-saving medical assets during a public health emergency. METHODS: We used 2007 to 2014 state and local data collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Technical Assistance Review. We calculated descriptive statistics from 50 states and 72 local Cities Readiness Initiative jurisdictions that participated in the Technical Assistance Review annually...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892440/progress-in-public-health-emergency-preparedness-united-states-2001-2016
#12
Bhavini Patel Murthy, Noelle-Angelique M Molinari, Tanya T LeBlanc, Sara J Vagi, Rachel N Avchen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program's progress toward meeting public health preparedness capability standards in state, local, and territorial health departments. METHODS: All 62 PHEP awardees completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's self-administered PHEP Impact Assessment as part of program review measuring public health preparedness capability before September 11, 2001 (9/11), and in 2014. We collected additional self-reported capability self-assessments from 2016...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862330/defining-the-neural-fulcrum-for-chronic-vagus-nerve-stimulation-implications-for-integrated-cardiac-control
#13
Jeffrey L Ardell, Heath Nier, Matthew Hammer, E Marie Southerland, Christopher L Ardell, Eric Beaumont, Bruce H KenKnight, J Andrew Armour
KEY POINTS: The evoked cardiac response to bipolar cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) reflects a dynamic interaction between afferent mediated decreases in central parasympathetic drive and suppressive effects evoked by direct stimulation of parasympathetic efferent axons to the heart. The neural fulcrum is defined as the operating point, based on frequency-amplitude-pulse width, where a null heart rate response is reproducibly evoked during the on-phase of VNS. Cardiac control, based on the principal of the neural fulcrum, can be elicited from either vagus...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817330/readiness-to-vaccinate-critical-personnel-during-an-influenza-pandemic-united-states-2015
#14
Danielle L Moulia, Stephanie A Dopson, Sara J Vagi, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Samuel B Graitcer
OBJECTIVES: To assess the readiness to vaccinate critical infrastructure personnel (CIP) involved in managing public works, emergency services, transportation, or any other system or asset that would have an immediate debilitating impact on the community if not maintained. METHODS: We analyzed self-reported planning to vaccinate CIP during an influenza pandemic with data from 2 surveys: (1) the Program Annual Progress Assessment of immunization programs and (2) the Pandemic Influenza Readiness Assessment of public health emergency preparedness programs...
October 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676377/is-there-a-connection-between-postprandial-hyperglycemia-and-igt-related-sensory-nerve-dysfunction
#15
N Németh, Z Putz, I Istenes, A E Körei, O E Vági, M Kempler, R Gandhi, G Jermendy, S Tesfaye, Á G Tabák, P Kempler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To assess the risk factors for sensory nerve dysfunction in subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-two people with isolated IGT (WHO 1999 criteria) and 39 gender and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent detailed clinical and neurological assessment including quantitative sensory testing using the Neurometer device (current perception threshold measurement on four limbs at three different frequencies)...
July 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242182/desipramine-increases-cardiac-parasympathetic-activity-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-mechanism-in-rats
#16
Toru Kawada, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Shuji Shimizu, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Atsunori Kamiya, Masaru Sugimachi
Desipramine (DMI) is a blocker of neuronal norepinephrine (NE) uptake transporter. Although intravenous DMI has been shown to cause centrally-mediated sympathoinhibition and peripheral NE accumulation, its parasympathetic effect remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that intravenous DMI activates the cardiac vagal nerve via an α2 -adrenergic mechanism. Using a cardiac microdialysis technique, changes in myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the left ventricular free wall in response to intravenous DMI (1mg·kg-1 ) were examined in anesthetized rats...
July 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973987/determination-of-the-priority-substances-regulated-by-2000-60-ec-and-2008-105-ec-directives-in-the-surface-waters-supplying-water-treatment-plants-of-athens-greece
#17
Spyros K Golfinopoulos, Anastasia D Nikolaou, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Anna Maria Kotrikla, Maria C Vagi, Andreas S Petsas, Demetris F Lekkas, Themistokles D Lekkas
An investigation into the occurrence of priority substances regulated by 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and 2008/105/EC Directive was conducted for a period of one year in the surface water sources supplying the water treatment plants (WTPs) of Athens and in the raw water of WTPs. Samples from four reservoirs and four water treatment plants of Athens were taken seasonally. The substances are divided into seven specific groups, including eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), diethylhexylphthalate, four organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), three organophosphorus/organonitrogen pesticides (OPPs/ONPs), four triazines and phenylurea herbicides, pentachlorophenol, and four metals...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896830/vagal-nerve-endings-in-visceral-pleura-and-triangular-ligaments-of-the-rat-lung
#18
Feng-Bin Wang, Yi-Han Liao, Yao-Chen Wang
The inner thoracic cavity is lined by the parietal pleura, and the lung lobes are covered by the visceral pleura. The parietal and visceral plurae form the pleural cavity that has negative pressure within to enable normal respiration. The lung tissues are bilaterally innervated by vagal and spinal nerves, including sensory and motor components. This complicated innervation pattern has made it difficult to discern the vagal vs. spinal processes in the pulmonary visceral pleura. With and without vagotomy, we identified vagal nerve fibres and endings distributed extensively in the visceral pleura ('P'-type nerve endings) and triangular ligaments ('L'-type nerve endings) by injecting wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase as a tracer into the nucleus of solitary tract or nodose ganglion of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686834/integrating-pharmacies-into-public-health-program-planning-for-pandemic-influenza-vaccine-response
#19
Thomas J Fitzgerald, Yoonjae Kang, Carolyn B Bridges, Todd Talbert, Sara J Vagi, Brock Lamont, Samuel B Graitcer
BACKGROUND: During an influenza pandemic, to achieve early and rapid vaccination coverage and maximize the benefit of an immunization campaign, partnerships between public health agencies and vaccine providers are essential. Immunizing pharmacists represent an important group for expanding access to pandemic vaccination. However, little is known about nationwide coordination between public health programs and pharmacies for pandemic vaccine response planning. METHODS: To assess relationships and planning activities between public health programs and pharmacies, we analyzed data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assessments of jurisdictions that received immunization and emergency preparedness funding from 2012 to 2015...
November 4, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623694/rectal-perforation-after-incision-of-the-vaginal-canal-following-incorrect-insertion-of-a-vagi-pipe-into-the-rectum-during-total-laparoscopic-hysterectomy
#20
Shuhei Okamoto, Kentaro Nakanishi, Masatada Ono, Akemi Nozawa, Shinitsu Kitamura, Toshinobu Miyamoto, Kazuo Sengoku
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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