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Toru Kawada, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Shuji Shimizu, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Atsunori Kamiya, Masaru Sugimachi
Desipramine (DMI) is a blocker of neuronal norepinephrine (NE) uptake transporter. Although intravenous DMI has been shown to cause centrally-mediated sympathoinhibition and peripheral NE accumulation, its parasympathetic effect remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that intravenous DMI activates the cardiac vagal nerve via an α2-adrenergic mechanism. Using a cardiac microdialysis technique, changes in myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the left ventricular free wall in response to intravenous DMI (1mg·kg(-1)) were examined in anesthetized rats...
February 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Spyros K Golfinopoulos, Anastasia D Nikolaou, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Anna Maria Kotrikla, Maria C Vagi, Andreas S Petsas, Demetris F Lekkas, Themistokles D Lekkas
An investigation into the occurrence of priority substances regulated by 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and 2008/105/EC Directive was conducted for a period of one year in the surface water sources supplying the water treatment plants (WTPs) of Athens and in the raw water of WTPs. Samples from four reservoirs and four water treatment plants of Athens were taken seasonally. The substances are divided into seven specific groups, including eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), diethylhexylphthalate, four organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), three organophosphorus/organonitrogen pesticides (OPPs/ONPs), four triazines and phenylurea herbicides, pentachlorophenol, and four metals...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Feng-Bin Wang, Yi-Han Liao, Yao-Chen Wang
The inner thoracic cavity is lined by the parietal pleura, and the lung lobes are covered by the visceral pleura. The parietal and visceral plurae form the pleural cavity that has negative pressure within to enable normal respiration. The lung tissues are bilaterally innervated by vagal and spinal nerves, including sensory and motor components. This complicated innervation pattern has made it difficult to discern the vagal vs. spinal processes in the pulmonary visceral pleura. With and without vagotomy, we identified vagal nerve fibres and endings distributed extensively in the visceral pleura ('P'-type nerve endings) and triangular ligaments ('L'-type nerve endings) by injecting wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase as a tracer into the nucleus of solitary tract or nodose ganglion of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Thomas J Fitzgerald, Yoonjae Kang, Carolyn B Bridges, Todd Talbert, Sara J Vagi, Brock Lamont, Samuel B Graitcer
BACKGROUND: During an influenza pandemic, to achieve early and rapid vaccination coverage and maximize the benefit of an immunization campaign, partnerships between public health agencies and vaccine providers are essential. Immunizing pharmacists represent an important group for expanding access to pandemic vaccination. However, little is known about nationwide coordination between public health programs and pharmacies for pandemic vaccine response planning. METHODS: To assess relationships and planning activities between public health programs and pharmacies, we analyzed data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assessments of jurisdictions that received immunization and emergency preparedness funding from 2012 to 2015...
November 4, 2016: Vaccine
Shuhei Okamoto, Kentaro Nakanishi, Masatada Ono, Akemi Nozawa, Shinitsu Kitamura, Toshinobu Miyamoto, Kazuo Sengoku
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Anna E Körei, Miklós Kempler, Ildikó Istenes, Orsolya E Vági, Zsuzsanna Putz, Viktor J Horváth, Katalin Keresztes, Csaba Lengyel, Ádám Gy Tabák, Vincenza Spallone, Péter Kempler
OBJECTIVE: Historically, a set of 5 Cardiovascular Autonomic Reflex Tests (CARTs) were considered to be the gold standard in the assessment of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN). However, measuring diastolic Blood Pressure (BP) response to sustained handgrip is omitted in recent guidelines. We aimed to assess the association between the handgrip and the other 4 tests as well as to identify determinants of the handgrip test results in diabetic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 353 patients with diabetes (DM) were recruited (age: 60...
2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Arthur F Gelb, Jay A Nadel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Cindy H Chiu, Rebecca S Noe, John Paul Martin, Amy F Wolkin, Sara J Vagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2014: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Eran Weiner, Ohad Gluck, Michal Levy, Maya Ram, Michael Divon, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if hospitalization of pregnant women, involved in minor trauma, for 24h of surveillance, is warranted. STUDY DESIGN: The medical files of pregnant women involved in minor trauma, during 2009-2014, at 22-42 gestational weeks, were reviewed. Minor trauma was defined as an injury severity score <3, no immediate complains, normal ultrasound evaluation, reactive non-stress test, and no regular contractions. Patients were divided into those who, according to our departmental protocol, were hospitalized for 24h observation (hospitalized group), and those who refused to be hospitalized, (non-hospitalized group)...
August 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Joseph E Logan, Kevin J Vagi, Deborah Gorman-Smith
BACKGROUND: Youth reporting combined histories of nonfatal violence, suicidal ideation/behavior, and gun-carrying (VSG) are at risk for perpetrating fatal interpersonal violence and self-harm. AIMS: We characterized these youth to inform prevention efforts. METHOD: We analyzed 2004 data from 3,931 seventh-, ninth-, and 11-12th-grade youth and compared VSG youth (n = 66) with non-gun carrying youth who either had no histories of violence or suicidal thoughts/behavior (n = 1,839), histories of violence (n = 884), histories of suicidal thoughts/behaviors (n = 552), or both (n = 590)...
November 2016: Crisis
Cindy H Chiu, Sara J Vagi, Amy F Wolkin, John Paul Martin, Rebecca S Noe
Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning...
January 2014: Weather, Climate, and Society (Print)
Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Monika Jampolska, Małgorzata Szereda-Przestaszewska
Neurokinin A (NKA) is a peptide neurotransmitter that participates in the regulation of breathing and the cardiovascular system. The purpose of the current study was to determine the cardiorespiratory pattern exerted by the systemic injection of NKA, to look at the contribution of neurokinin NK1 and NK2 receptors, and to establish the engagement of the vagal pathway in mediation of these responses. The effects of intravenous injections of NKA (50 μg/kg) were studied in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in the following experimental schemes: in neurally intact rats; and vagotomized at either midcervical or supranodosal level...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Cindy Chiu, Colleen Martin, Daniel Woldemichael, Girmay W/Selasie, Israel Tareke, Richard Luce, Gidey G/Libanos, Danielle Hunt, Tesfaye Bayleyegn, Adamu Addissie, Danielle Buttke, Amsalu Bitew, Sara Vagi, Matthew Murphy, Teshale Seboxa, Daddi Jima, Asfaw Debella
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of a chronic liver disease of unidentified cause, known as "Unidentified Liver Disease (ULD)" by local communities was first observed in a rural village in Tigray, northern-Ethiopia in 2001. Little was known about the geographical extent, trend, and epidemiology of the disease. METHODS: The Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) by then Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and Tigray Regional Health Bureaue established the ULD surveillance system in 2009 to characterize and monitor trends for this emerging disease and to identify cases for treatment and follow up...
January 2016: Ethiopian Medical Journal
Kevin J Vagi, Kathryn A Brookmeyer, R Matthew Gladden, Laura F Chiang, Andrew Brooks, Myo-Zin Nyunt, Gideon Kwesigabo, James A Mercy, Linda L Dahlberg
During a household survey in Tanzania, a nationally representative sample of females and males aged 13-24 years reported any experiences of sexual violence that occurred before the age of 18 years. The authors explore the prevalence, circumstances, and health outcomes associated with childhood sexual violence. The results suggest that violence against children in Tanzania is pervasive, with roughly three in 10 females and one in eight males experiencing some form of childhood sexual violence, and its health consequences are severe...
March 14, 2016: Violence Against Women
Qihai David Gu, Charles R Moss, Kristen L Kettelhut, Carolyn A Gilbert, Hongzhen Hu
Transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 4 (TRPV4) is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel implicated in numerous physiological and pathological functions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TRPV4 activation on respiration and to explore the potential involvement of bronchopulmonary sensory neurons. Potent TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A was injected into right atrium in anesthetized spontaneously breathing rats and the changes in breathing were measured. Patch-clamp recording was performed to investigate the effect of GSK1016790A or another TRPV4 activator 4α-PDD on cultured rat vagal bronchopulmonary sensory neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Laura F Chiang, Jieru Chen, Matthew R Gladden, James A Mercy, Gideon Kwesigabo, Fatma Mrisho, Linda L Dahlberg, Myo Zin Nyunt, Kate A Brookmeyer, Kevin Vagi
Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior and could benefit from targeted interventions. In 2009, nationally representative data were collected on violence against children in Tanzania from 13-24 year old respondents (n=3,739). Analyses show that females aged 19-24 (n=579) who experienced childhood sexual violence, were more likely to report no/infrequent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=3...
October 2015: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Jeffrey L Ardell, Pradeep S Rajendran, Heath A Nier, Bruce H KenKnight, J Andrew Armour
Using vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), we sought to determine the contribution of vagal afferents to efferent control of cardiac function. In anesthetized dogs, the right and left cervical vagosympathetic trunks were stimulated in the intact state, following ipsilateral or contralateral vagus nerve transection (VNTx), and then following bilateral VNTx. Stimulations were performed at currents from 0.25 to 4.0 mA, frequencies from 2 to 30 Hz, and a 500-μs pulse width. Right or left VNS evoked significantly greater current- and frequency-dependent suppression of chronotropic, inotropic, and lusitropic function subsequent to sequential VNTx...
November 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Summer D DeBastiani, Tara W Strine, Sara J Vagi, Daniel J Barnett, Emily B Kahn
Our objective was to inform state and community interventions focused on increasing household preparedness by examining the association between self-reported possession of household disaster preparedness items (ie, a 3-day supply of food and water, a written evacuation plan, and a working radio and flashlight) and perceptions of household preparedness on a 3-point scale from "well prepared" to "not at all prepared." Data were analyzed from 14 states participating in a large state-based telephone survey: the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (n = 104,654)...
September 2015: Health Security
Erica S Levitt, Ana P Abdala, Julian F R Paton, John M Bissonnette, John T Williams
KEY POINTS: In addition to reductions in respiratory rate, opioids also cause aspiration and difficulty swallowing, indicating impairment of the upper airways. The Kölliker-Fuse (KF) maintains upper airway patency and a normal respiratory pattern. In this study, activation of μ opioid receptors in the KF reduced respiratory frequency and tidal volume in anaesthetized rats. Nerve recordings in an in situ preparation showed that activation of μ opioid receptors in the KF eliminated the post-inspiration phase of the respiratory cycle...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Emily Fisher, Sara Vagi, Ethan Fechter-Leggett, Natasha Prudent, Mary Dott, Randolph Daley, Rachel Nonkin Avchen
On October 27, 2014, CDC released guidance for monitoring and movement of persons with potential Ebola virus disease (Ebola) exposure in the United States. For persons with possible exposure to Ebola, this guidance recommended risk categorization, daily monitoring during the 21-day incubation period, and, for persons in selected risk categories, movement restrictions. The purpose of the guidance was to delineate methods for early identification of symptoms among persons at potential risk for Ebola so that they could be isolated, tested, and if necessary, treated to improve their chance of survival and reduce transmission...
July 3, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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