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Novel treatments prostate

Shuai Huang, Qingde Wa, Jincheng Pan, Xinsheng Peng, Dong Ren, Qiji Li, Yuhu Dai, Qing Yang, Yan Huang, Xin Zhang, Wei Zhou, Dan Yuan, Jiazheng Cao, Yuming Li, Peiheng He, Yubo Tang
High avidity of bone metastasis is an important characteristic in prostate cancer (PCa). Downexpression of miR-133b has been reported to be implicated in the development, progression and recurrence in PCa. However, clinical significance and biological roles of miR-133b in bone metastasis of PCa remain unclear. Here we report that miR-133b is downregulated in PCa tissues and further decreased in bone metastatic PCa tissues. Downexpression of miR-133b positively correlates with advanced clinicopathological characteristics and shorter bone metastasis-free survival in PCa patients...
July 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Suleman S Hussain, Shih-Bo Huang, Roble G Bedolla, Paul Rivas, Joseph W Basler, Gregory P Swanson, Tim Hui-Ming Huang, Ganesh Narayanasamy, Nikos Papanikolaou, Hiroshi Miyamoto, I-Tien Yeh, Robert L Reddick, Brad H Pollock, Rita Ghosh, Addanki P Kumar
Radiation therapy (XRT) is a standard treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). Although dose escalation increases local control, toxicity hampers further escalation. Broader improvement will be possible by the addition of adjuvant therapies, which can synergize with radiation and thus improve efficacy. We have identified a natural compound (Nexrutine, Nx) that inhibits the survival and growth of PCa cells in combination with radiation. Combination studies demonstrated strong interaction between Nx and radiation both in vitro in multiple PCa cell lines and in the Transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model...
July 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
Luyao Wang, Mengke Qu, Shiqi Huang, Yu Fu, Liuqing Yang, Shanshan He, Lin Li, Zhirong Zhang, Qing Lin, Ling Zhang
Prostate cancer, one of the leading causes of disease and death in men all over the world, is challenging to treat. α-Enolase, a multifunctional protein, is overexpressed on human prostate carcinoma cells, and thereby it is a potential target for treatment of prostate cancer. In the current study, the pHCT74 peptide was used to construct a kind of highly targeted liposome (pHCT74-lipo) loaded with doxorubicin (pHCT74-lipo-Dox), which specifically targeted α-enolase on prostate tumour cells. Compared with liposomes without pHCT74 modification, pHCT74-lipo-Dox displayed a superior intracellular internalization with enhanced tumour cytotoxicity...
July 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Jingwen Yu, Pengyao Ping, Lei Wang, Linai Kuang, Xueyong Li, Zhelun Wu
An increasing number of studies have indicated that long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in biological processes, complex disease diagnoses, prognoses, and treatments. However, experimentally validated associations between lncRNAs and diseases are still very limited. Recently, computational models have been developed to discover potential associations between lncRNAs and diseases by integrating multiple heterogeneous biological data; this has become a hot topic in biological research. In this article, we constructed a global tripartite network by integrating a variety of biological information including miRNA⁻disease, miRNA⁻lncRNA, and lncRNA⁻disease associations and interactions...
July 8, 2018: Genes
Rahul Aggarwal, Jiaoti Huang, Joshi J Alumkal, Li Zhang, Felix Y Feng, George V Thomas, Alana S Weinstein, Verena Friedl, Can Zhang, Owen N Witte, Paul Lloyd, Martin Gleave, Christopher P Evans, Jack Youngren, Tomasz M Beer, Matthew Rettig, Christopher K Wong, Lawrence True, Adam Foye, Denise Playdle, Charles J Ryan, Primo Lara, Kim N Chi, Vlado Uzunangelov, Artem Sokolov, Yulia Newton, Himisha Beltran, Francesca Demichelis, Mark A Rubin, Joshua M Stuart, Eric J Small
Purpose The prevalence and features of treatment-emergent small-cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-SCNC) are not well characterized in the era of modern androgen receptor (AR)-targeting therapy. We sought to characterize the clinical and genomic features of t-SCNC in a multi-institutional prospective study. Methods Patients with progressive, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) underwent metastatic tumor biopsy and were followed for survival. Metastatic biopsy specimens underwent independent, blinded pathology review along with RNA/DNA sequencing...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Ross C Anderson, Claire L Newton, Richard A Anderson, Robert P Millar
The gonadotropin receptors, luteinising hormone receptor, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, play a central role in governing reproductive competency/fertility. Gonadotropin hormone analogues have been utilised clinically for decades, in assisted reproductive therapies, and in the treatment of various infertility disorders. While these treatments are effective, the clinical protocols demand multiple injections, and the hormone preparations can lack uniformity and stability. The past two decades have seen a drive to develop chimeric and modified peptide analogues with more desirable pharmacokinetic profiles with some displaying clinical efficacy, such as corifollitropin alfa which is now in clinical use...
July 2, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Stefan Prekovic, Thomas Van den Broeck, Simon Linder, Martin E van Royen, Adriaan Houtsmuller, Florian Handle, Steven Joniau, Wilbert Zwart, Frank Claessens
Prostate cancer (PCa) is among the most common adult malignancies, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. As PCa is hormone-dependent, blockade of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling is an effective therapeutic strategy for men with advanced metastatic disease. The discovery of enzalutamide, a compound that effectively blocks the AR axis and its clinical application has led to a significant improvement in survival time. However, the effect of enzalutamide is not permanent, and resistance to treatment ultimately leads to development of lethal disease, for which there currently is no cure...
July 5, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Ximena Leighton, Alakesh Bera, Ofer Eidelman, Michael Eklund, Narayanan Puthillathu, Harvey B Pollard, Meera Srivastava
BACKGROUND/AIM: Our studies showed that ANXA7 is a novel tumor suppressor gene that is lost in various aggressive forms of prostate cancer. However, little is known about the role of ANXA7 in the anticancer drug treatment towards different cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of ANXA7 was measured in the 60 cancer cell lines of the NCI-60 ADS project and correlated with the enhanced sensitivity to over 30,000 natural and synthetic compounds. RESULTS: Eucalyptol showed a high positive correlation with ANXA7 expression and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell death occurred very effectively in response to the combination of eucalyptol and overexpressed wt-ANXA7 than either agent alone...
July 2018: Anticancer Research
Agnese Re, Claudia Colussi, Simona Nanni, Aurora Aiello, Lorenza Bacci, Claudio Grassi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Antonella Farsetti
Nucleoporin 153 (Nup153), key regulator of nuclear import/export, has been recently associated to oncogenic properties in pancreatic and breast tumour cells modulating either cell motility and migration or gene expression by chromatin association. In the present work, we have characterized the role of Nup153 in a cellular model of prostate cancer (PCa). The analysis of several immortalized cell lines derived from freshly explants of prostate cancer specimens showed that Nup153 protein was higher and present in multimeric complexes with eNOS and ERβ as compared to normal/hyperplastic prostate epithelial cells...
June 15, 2018: Oncotarget
Martin Hennenberg, Paul Kuppermann, Qingfeng Yu, Annika Herlemann, Alexander Tamalunas, Yiming Wang, Beata Rutz, Anna Ciotkowska, Frank Strittmatter, Christian G Stief, Christian Gratzke
Background: Prostate smooth muscle contraction plays an important role for pathophysiology and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but is incompletely understood. Because the efficacy of available medication is limited, novel options and improved understanding of prostate smooth muscle contraction are of high demand. Recently, a possible role of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) has been suggested for smooth muscle contraction outside the lower urinary tract. Here, we examined effects of PLK inhibitors on contraction of human prostate tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Andreas Charalambous, Mary Wells, Pauline Campbell, Claire Torrens, Ulrika Östlund, Wendy Oldenmenger, Elisabeth Patiraki, Lena Sharp, Iveta Nohavova, Nuria Domenech-Climent, Manuela Eicher, Carole Farrell, Maria Larsson, Cecilia Olsson, Mhairi Simpson, Theresa Wiseman, Daniel Kelly
BACKGROUND: Advances in research and technology coupled with an increased cancer incidence and prevalence have resulted in significant expansion of cancer nurse role, in order to meet the growing demands and expectations of people affected by cancer (PABC). Cancer nurses are also tasked with delivering an increasing number of complex interventions as a result of ongoing clinical trials in cancer research. However much of this innovation is undocumented, and we have little insight about the nature of novel interventions currently being designed or delivered by cancer nurses...
May 26, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Umberto Maestroni, Francesco Morandin, Stefania Ferretti, Francesco Dinale, Francesco Ziglioli
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men over 50 years of age. Surgery, radiotherapy and hormonal manipulation represent its typical treatment. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is an alternative choice in localized prostate cancer. To date, an index for prediction of recurrence in patients treated with HIFU is not availabe. Our study proposes a novel index for the predition of recurrence able to determine if a candidate is fit for this tratment...
June 7, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Wen-Yan Cai, Ying Zhuang, Fei Yan, Ting Li, Wen-Ting Song, Jin-Hu Sun
Simvastatin, an inhibitor of 3‑hydroxy‑3-methylglutaryl‑coenzyme A reductase, is been used in the clinic due to its pleiotropic effects, such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer. Simvastatin has recently been demonstrated to serve a potential role in the prophylaxis and therapeutics of a number of human cancers. The majority of reports concerning simvastatin treatment in the majority of human cancers have demonstrated that survivin is significantly decreased as a result and has been implicated in tumorigenesis...
August 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xuewen Liu, Zhiting Sun, Dandan Li, Jikun Deng, Jun Liu, Kaihuai Ma, Shanshan Qin, Yuan Si, Te Zhang, Tingting Feng, Ying Liu, Yan Tan
Polyphyllin I (PPI) is a natural compound extracted from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla and has been used to treat fevers and headaches in China. In the present study, the antitumor activity of PPI in prostate cancer (PC) cells was evaluated. At low doses, PPI decreased proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PC cells. PPI decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), an enzyme that is critical for tumor metastasis. PPI also decreased the expression of Snail and vimentin, which are EMT-associated factors...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Luksana Chaiswing, Heidi L Weiss, Rani D Jayswal, Daret K St Clair, Natasha Kyprianou
Radiation therapy (RT) is commonly used for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, cancer cells often develop resistance to radiation through unknown mechanisms and pose an intractable challenge. Radiation resistance is highly unpredictable, rendering the treatment less effective in many patients and frequently causing metastasis and cancer recurrence. Understanding the molecular events that cause radioresistance in PCa will enable us to develop adjuvant treatments for enhancing the efficacy of RT...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) was first used to treat neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) 30 years ago. Recently, application of BoNT-A in LUTD have become more common since the approval of intravesical BoNT-A injection for patients with both overactive bladders (OAB) and neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) by regulatory agencies in many countries. Although unlicensed, BoNT-A has been recommended to treat patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) under different guidelines...
June 26, 2018: Toxins
Yu Lan, Wenqi Wu, Luhao Liu, Shiyu Zhou, Chuangxin Lan, Irene Raphael Ketegwe, Guohua Zeng
Thulium laser vaporesection (ThuVARP) and bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP) are novel surgeries for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This paper is a systematic review and analysis of literatures comparing efficacy indicators, operative parameters, as well as safety indicators between ThuVARP and B-TURP for the treatment of BPH. A systematic search of electronic databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), was carried out up to December 1, 2015 (updated on March 1, 2016)...
June 27, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Sarah F Cook, Michael V Fiandalo, David S Watt, Yue Wu, James L Mohler, Robert R Bies
BACKGROUND: Progression of castration-recurrent/resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) relies in part on dihydrotestosterone derived from intratumoral androgen metabolism. Mathematical modeling provides a valuable tool for studies of androgen metabolism in CRPC. This modeling approach integrates existing knowledge about complex biologic systems and provides a means of interrogating the effects of various interventions. We sought to model a single reaction in the androgen biosynthesis network, namely the oxidation of androsterone (AND) to androstanedione (5α-dione) by four 3α-oxidoreductase enzymes, as an initial effort to establish the feasibility of our modeling approach...
June 25, 2018: Prostate
Keefe Murphy, Brendan T Murphy, Susie Boyce, Louise Flynn, Sarah Gilgunn, Colm J O'Rourke, Cathy Rooney, Henning Stöckmann, Anna L Walsh, Stephen Finn, Richard J O'Kennedy, John O'Leary, Stephen R Pennington, Antoinette S Perry, Pauline M Rudd, Radka Saldova, Orla Sheils, Denis C Shields, R William Watson
INTRODUCTION: Classifying indolent prostate cancer represents a significant clinical challenge. We investigated whether integrating data from different omic platforms could identify a biomarker panel with improved performance compared to individual platforms alone. METHODS: DNA methylation, transcripts, protein, and glycosylation biomarkers were assessed in a single cohort of patients treated by radical prostatectomy. Novel multi-block statistical data integration approaches were used to deal with missing data and modelled via stepwise multinomial logistic regression, or LASSO...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Emelie Berglund, Jonas Maaskola, Niklas Schultz, Stefanie Friedrich, Maja Marklund, Joseph Bergenstråhle, Firas Tarish, Anna Tanoglidi, Sanja Vickovic, Ludvig Larsson, Fredrik Salmén, Christoph Ogris, Karolina Wallenborg, Jens Lagergren, Patrik Ståhl, Erik Sonnhammer, Thomas Helleday, Joakim Lundeberg
Intra-tumor heterogeneity is one of the biggest challenges in cancer treatment today. Here we investigate tissue-wide gene expression heterogeneity throughout a multifocal prostate cancer using the spatial transcriptomics (ST) technology. Utilizing a novel approach for deconvolution, we analyze the transcriptomes of nearly 6750 tissue regions and extract distinct expression profiles for the different tissue components, such as stroma, normal and PIN glands, immune cells and cancer. We distinguish healthy and diseased areas and thereby provide insight into gene expression changes during the progression of prostate cancer...
June 20, 2018: Nature Communications
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