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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644819/quantifying-the-accuracy-and-precision-of-a-novel-real-time-6-degree-of-freedom-kilovoltage-intrafraction-monitoring-kim-target-tracking-system
#1
J-H Kim, D T Nguyen, C-Y Huang, T Fuangrod, V Caillet, R O'Brien, P Poulsen, J Booth, P Keall
Target rotation can considerably impact the delivered radiotherapy dose depending on the tumour shape. More accurate tumour pose during radiotherapy treatment can be acquired through tracking in 6 degrees-of-freedom (6 DoF) rather than in translation only. A novel real-time 6 DoF kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) target tracking system has recently been developed. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the accuracy and precision of the 6 DoF KIM implementation. Real-time 6 DoF KIM motion measurements were compared against the ground truth motion retrospectively derived from kV/MV triangulation for a range of lung and prostate tumour motion trajectories as well as for various static poses using a phantom...
June 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639950/reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-increase-in-mitochondrial-copy-number-new-insight-into-the-potential-mechanism-of-cytotoxicity-induced-by-aurora-kinase-inhibitor-azd1152-hqpa
#2
Ali Zekri, Yashar Mesbahi, Samad Ghanizadeh-Vesali, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Seyed H Ghaffari
Aurora-B kinase overexpression plays important roles in the malignant progression of prostate cancer (PCa). AZD1152-HQPA, as an inhibitor of Aurora-B, has recently emerged as a promising agent for cancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AZD1152-HQPA on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial function in PCa. We used AZD1152-HQPA (Barasertib), a highly potent and selective inhibitor of Aurora-B kinase. The effects of AZD1152-HQPA on cell viability, DNA content, cell morphology, and ROS production were studied in the androgen-independent PC-3 PCa cell line...
June 21, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638477/triptolide-inhibits-the-ar-signaling-pathway-to-suppress-the-proliferation-of-enzalutamide-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#3
Yangyang Han, Weiwei Huang, Jiakuan Liu, Dandan Liu, Yangyan Cui, Ruimin Huang, Jun Yan, Ming Lei
Enzalutamide is a second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonist for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Unfortunately, AR dysfunction means that resistance to enzalutamide will eventually develop. Thus, novel agents are urgently needed to treat this devastating disease. Triptolide (TPL), a key active compound extracted from the Chinese herb Thunder God Vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), possesses anti-cancer activity in human prostate cancer cells. However, the effects of TPL against CRPC cells and the underlying mechanism of any such effect are unknown...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633436/membrane-androgen-receptor-zip9-induces-croaker-ovarian-cell-apoptosis-via-stimulatory-g-protein-alpha-subunit-and-mapkinase-signaling
#4
Aubrey Converse, Chenan Zhang, Peter Thomas
Recent studies show that androgen-induced apoptosis in Atlantic croaker primary granulosa/theca (G/T) cells and in human breast and prostate cancer cell lines is mediated by the novel membrane androgen receptor ZIP9 which belongs to the SLC39A zinc transporter family. However, the apoptotic signaling pathways remain unclear because ZIP9 activates an inhibitory G protein in human cancer cells, whereas recombinant croaker ZIP9 activates a stimulatory G protein (Gs) in transfected cancer cells. Here we investigated androgen-dependent apoptotic pathways in order to identify the signaling pathways regulated through wild-type croaker ZIP9 in ovarian follicle cells...
June 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624626/alternative-polyadenylation-patterns-for-novel-gene-discovery-and-classification-in-cancer
#5
Oguzhan Begik, Merve Oyken, Tuna Cinkilli Alican, Tolga Can, Ayse Elif Erson-Bensan
Certain aspects of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cancer patients are still important challenges to be addressed. Therefore, we propose a pipeline to uncover patterns of alternative polyadenylation (APA), a hidden complexity in cancer transcriptomes, to further accelerate efforts to discover novel cancer genes and pathways. Here, we analyzed expression data for 1045 cancer patients and found a significant shift in usage of poly(A) signals in common tumor types (breast, colon, lung, prostate, gastric, and ovarian) compared to normal tissues...
June 15, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622443/mir-2909-regulates-isgylation-system-via-stat1-signalling-through-negative-regulation-of-socs3-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Shiekh Gazalla Ayub, Deepak Kaul
One of the well-document strategies adopted by tumour cells for progression is to evade immune surveillance mechanisms. An understanding of the tight interaction between immunity and progression of cancer can provide novel treatment options for different malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we have shown that AATF genome encoded miR-2909, known to play role both in immunity and cancer upregulates various interferon stimulating genes (ISGs) including ISGylation system through STAT1. Our results revealed that miR-2909 up-regulates STAT1 through negative regulation of SOCS3 and not through up-regulation of Type 1 interferon (IFN) production...
June 16, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615299/ormeloxifene-suppresses-prostate-tumor-growth-and-metastatic-phenotypes-via-inhibition-of-oncogenic-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-and-emt-progression
#7
Bilal Bin Hafeez, Aditya Ganju, Mohammed Sikander, Vivek K Kashyap, Zubair Bin Hafeez, Neeraj Chauhan, Shabnam Malik, Andrew E Massey, Manish K Tripathi, Fathi T Halaweish, Nadeem Zafar, Man M Singh, Murali M Yallapu, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C Chauhan
Ormeloxifene (ORM), is a clinically approved selective estrogen receptor modulator, which has also shown excellent anti-cancer activity, thus it can be an ideal repurposing pharmacophore. Herein, we report therapeutic effects of ORM on prostate cancer (PrCa) and elucidate a novel molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer activity. ORM treatment inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process as evident by repression of N-cadherin, Slug, Snail, and vimentin, MMPs (MMP2 and MMP3), β-catenin/TCF-4 transcriptional activity, and induced the expression of pGSK3β...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614092/poloxamer-p85-increases-anticancer-activity-of-schiff-base-against-prostate-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Selami Demirci, Ayşegül Doğan, Neşe Başak Türkmen, Dilek Telci, Ahmet B Çağlayan, Mustafa Ç Beker, Ertuğrul Kiliç, Ferda Özkan, Bülent Dede, Fikrettin Şahin
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men and the leading cause of death after lung cancer. Development of hormone-refractory disease is a crucial step for prostate cancer progression for which an effective treatment option is currently unavailable. Therefore, there is a need for new agents that can efficiently target cancer cells, decrease tumor growth, and thereby extend the survival of patients in late-stage castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the current study, a novel heterodinuclear copper(II)Mn(II) Schiff base complex combined with P85 was used to evaluate anticancer activity against prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo...
June 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609300/a-new-method-to-reconstruct-intra-fractional-prostate-motion-in-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy
#9
Y Chi, N H Rezaeian, C Shen, Y Zhou, W Lu, M Yang, R Hannan, X Jia
Intra-fractional motion is a concern during prostate radiation therapy, as it may cause deviations between planned and delivered radiation doses. Because accurate motion information during treatment delivery is critical to address dose deviation, we developed the projection marker matching method (PM(3)), a novel method for prostate motion reconstruction in volumetric modulated arc therapy. The purpose of this method is to reconstruct in-treatment prostate motion trajectory using projected positions of implanted fiducial markers measured in kV x-ray projection images acquired during treatment delivery...
July 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606127/augmentation-of-the-anticancer-activity-of-cyt997-in-human-prostate-cancer-by-inhibiting-src-activity
#10
Yong Teng, Yafei Cai, Wenhu Pi, Lixia Gao, Chloe Shay
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of tubulin polymerization and microtubule assembly are often seen in cancer, which make them very suitable targets for the development of therapeutic approach against rapidly dividing and aggressive cancer cells. CYT997 is a novel microtubule-disrupting agent with anticancer activity in multiple cancer types including prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of CYT997 in prostate cancer have not been well characterized. METHODS: Src knockdown cells were achieved by lentiviral-mediated interference...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604629/androgen-receptor-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms-involved-in-prostate-cancer-therapy-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Daniel J Crona, Young E Whang
Despite the initial efficacy of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer, virtually all patients progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is critically required for CRPC. A new generation of medications targeting AR, such as abiraterone and enzalutamide, has improved survival of metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients. However, a significant proportion of patients presents with primary resistance to these agents, and in the remainder, secondary resistance will invariably develop, which makes mCRPC the lethal form of the disease...
June 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604596/optimized-photodynamic-therapy-with-multifunctional-cobalt-magnetic-nanoparticles
#12
Kyong-Hoon Choi, Ki Chang Nam, Un-Ho Kim, Guangsup Cho, Jin-Seung Jung, Bong Joo Park
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been adopted as a minimally invasive approach for the localized treatment of superficial tumors, representing an improvement in the care of cancer patients. To improve the efficacy of PDT, it is important to first select an optimized nanocarrier and determine the influence of light parameters on the photosensitizing agent. In particular, much more knowledge concerning the importance of fluence and exposure time is required to gain a better understanding of the photodynamic efficacy...
June 10, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602980/suppression-of-akt1-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-advanced-prostate-cancer-promotes-tgf%C3%AE-1-mediated-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis
#13
Fei Gao, Abdulrahman Alwhaibi, Harika Sabbineni, Arti Verma, Wael Eldahshan, Payaningal R Somanath
Akt1 is essential for the oncogenic transformation and tumor growth in various cancers. However, the precise role of Akt1 in advanced cancers is conflicting. Using a neuroendocrine TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model, we first show that the genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of Akt1 in mice blunts oncogenic transformation and prostate cancer (PCa) growth. Intriguingly, triciribine (TCBN)-mediated Akt inhibition in 25-week old, tumor-bearing TRAMP mice and Akt1 gene silencing in aggressive PCa cells enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoted metastasis to the lungs...
June 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600175/overcoming-immunosuppression-in-bone-metastases
#14
REVIEW
Zachary Z Reinstein, Sahithi Pamarthy, Vinay Sagar, Ricardo Costa, Sarki A Abdulkadir, Francis J Giles, Benedito A Carneiro
Bone metastases are present in up to 70% of advanced prostate and breast cancers and occur at significant rates in a variety of other cancers. Bone metastases can be associated with significant morbidity. The establishment of bone metastasis activates several immunosuppressive mechanisms. Hence, understanding the tumor-bone microenvironment is crucial to inform the development of novel therapies. This review describes the current standard of care for patients with bone metastatic disease and novel treatment options targeting the microenvironment...
May 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599655/canine-reic-dkk-3-interacts-with-sgta-and-restores-androgen-receptor-signalling-in-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#15
Yuiko Kato, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Shota Kawakami, Nobuhiro Nakao, Daigo Azakami, Makoto Bonkobara, Masaki Michishita, Masami Morimatsu, Masami Watanabe, Toshinori Omi
BACKGROUND: The pathological condition of canine prostate cancer resembles that of human androgen-independent prostate cancer. Both canine and human androgen receptor (AR) signalling are inhibited by overexpression of the dimerized co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA), which is considered to cause the development of androgen-independency. Reduced expression in immortalised cells (REIC/Dkk-3) interferes with SGTA dimerization and rescues AR signalling...
June 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597850/the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-in-prostate-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Catherine Elix, Sumanta K Pal, Jeremy O Jones
Despite great progress in the detection and treatment of prostate cancer, this disease remains an incredible health and economic burden. Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a key role in the development and progression of prostate cancer, aberrations in other molecular pathways also contribute to the disease, making it essential to identify and develop drugs against novel targets, both for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. One promising target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) protein...
June 9, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593860/evolving-adoptive-cellular-therapies-in-urological-malignancies
#17
REVIEW
Yien Ning Sophia Wong, Kroopa Joshi, Martin Pule, Karl S Peggs, Charles Swanton, Sergio A Quezada, Mark Linch
Immunotherapies have long been used to treat urological cancers but rarely lead to cure. In the past 5 years, success of immune checkpoint inhibition has led to a resurgence of enthusiasm for immunotherapy in the treatment of solid tumours. Increased understanding of tumour immune biology, technological advancements of gene transfer and cell culture, and improved clinical infrastructures for routine delivery of cell products, has made cell-based immunotherapeutics a real prospect for cancer therapy. These scientific and clinical activities, attempting to exploit the innate and adaptive immune systems for therapeutic gain, are well exemplified by the urological malignancies of renal, bladder, prostate, and penile cancer, a group of anatomically localised diseases, each with a distinct biology and different immunotherapeutic challenges...
June 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592125/correlation-of-gankyrin-oncoprotein-overexpression-with-histopathological-grade-in-prostate-cancer
#18
M M Riahi, N S Sistani, P Zamani, K Abnous, K Jamialahmadi
Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among men worldwide. Identifying new prognostic and predictive biomarkers will help stratification of prostate cancer patients for a better treatment. Gankyrin is a novel oncoprotein which regulates cell cycle and protein degradation. Gankyrin overexpression correlated with the malignant phenotypes and promotes the tumorigenicity and metastasis in many cancers. However there are not any reports on the role of Gankyrin in prostate cancer. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the expression of Gankyrin in prostate cancer and analyze its correlation with some clinicopathological characteristics...
June 8, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592122/knockdown-of-cftr-enhances-sensitivity-of-prostate-cancer-cells-to-cisplatin-via-inhibition-of-autophagy
#19
Q Zhu, H Li, Y Liu, L Jiang
Prostate cancer is one of the most lethal diseases in men worldwide. Although the survival rate of men diagnosed with prostate cancer has increased with the improvement of treatments, drug resistance still remains a big challenge for improving overall survival. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated anion channel, has been reported to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various cancers, but its role in chemoresistance of prostate cancer cells is poorly understood...
June 8, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590314/novel-imaging-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#20
Hanan Goldberg, Robert J Hamilton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of death in men. Imaging evaluation of PCa is challenging because of the prostate's deep pelvic location, its complex zonal anatomy and its multifocal nature. Novel imaging modalities are needed to improve detection, reassessment in biochemical relapse, and disease progression in advanced metastatic stages. RECENT FINDINGS: Current imaging modalities have distinct strengths...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
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