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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226578/automatic-prostate-segmentation-on-mr-images-with-deep-network-and-graph-model
#1
Ke Yan, Changyang Li, Xiuying Wang, Ang Li, Yuchen Yuan, Dagan Feng, Mohamed Khadra, Jinman Kim, Ke Yan, Changyang Li, Xiuying Wang, Ang Li, Yuchen Yuan, Dagan Feng, Mohamed Khadra, Jinman Kim, Ke Yan, Ang Li, Yuchen Yuan, Xiuying Wang, Jinman Kim, Dagan Feng, Changyang Li, Mohamed Khadra
Automated prostate diagnoses and treatments have gained much attention due to the high mortality rate of prostate cancer. In particular, unsupervised (automatic) prostate segmentation is an active and challenging research. Most conventional works usually utilize handcrafted (low-level) features for prostate segmentation; however they often fail to extract the intrinsic structure of the prostate, especially on images with blurred boundaries. In this paper, we propose a novel automated prostate segmentation model with learned features from deep network...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223235/interleukin-32-inflammation-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Jin Tae Hong, Dong Ju Son, Chong Kil Lee, Do-Young Yoon, Dong Hun Lee, Mi Hee Park
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220449/current-management-strategy-for-active-surveillance-in-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Jamil S Syed, Juan Javier-Desloges, Stephanie Tatzel, Ansh Bhagat, Kevin A Nguyen, Kevin Hwang, Sarah Kim, Preston C Sprenkle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219737/membrane-androgen-receptor-characteristics-of-human-zip9-slc39a-zinc-transporter-in-prostate-cancer-cells-androgen-specific-activation-and-involvement-of-an-inhibitory-g-protein-in-zinc-and-map-kinase-signaling
#4
Peter Thomas, Yefei Pang, Jing Dong
Characteristics of novel human membrane androgen receptor (mAR), ZIP9 (SLC39A9), were investigated in ZIP9-transfected PC-3 cells (PC3-ZIP9). Ligand blot analysis showed plasma membrane [(3)H]-T binding corresponds to the position of ZIP9 on Western blots which suggests ZIP9 can bind [(3)H]-T alone, without a protein partner. Progesterone antagonized testosterone actions, blocking increases in zinc, Erk phosphorylation and apoptosis, further evidence that ZIP9 is specifically activated by androgens. Pre-treatment with GTPγS and pertussis toxin decreased plasma membrane [(3)H]-T binding and blocked testosterone-induced increases in Erk phosphorylation and intracellular zinc, indicating ZIP9 is coupled to an inhibitory G protein (Gi) that mediates both MAP kinase and zinc signaling...
February 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217695/gut-microbiome-and-chronic-prostatitis-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Hans C Arora, Charis Eng, Daniel A Shoskes
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213657/the-roles-of-uvb-and-vitamin-d-in-reducing-risk-of-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-a-review-of-the-epidemiology-clinical-trials-and-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Meis Moukayed, William B Grant
Global cancer incidence and mortality rates are high and increasing. Thus, it is imperative to find novel solutions to preventing cancer incidence and treating it at an affordable yet efficacious manner. The solar UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis was first proposed in 1980 based on a geographical ecological study. Since then, numerous ecological and observational studies as well as studies of mechanisms have provided support for the hypothesis. However, observational studies have not provided consistent support, in part due to using a single blood draw from any season to use for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in prospective studies with long follow-up times...
February 17, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213333/hmba-is-a-putative-hsp70-activator-stimulating-hexim1-expression-that-is-down-regulated-by-estrogen
#7
Rati Lama, Chunfang Gan, Nethrie Idippily, Viharika Bobba, David Danielpour, Monica Montano, Bin Su
Hexamethylene bis-acetamide inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) is identified as a novel inhibitor of estrogen stimulated breast cell growth, and it suppresses estrogen receptor-α transcriptional activity. HEXIM1 protein level has been found to be downregulated by estrogens. Recently, HEXIM1 has been found to inhibit androgen receptor transcriptional activity as well. Researchers have used Hexamethylene bis-acetamide (HMBA) for decades to stimulate HEXIM1 expression, which also inhibit estrogen stimulated breast cancer cell gene activation and androgen stimulated prostate cancer gene activation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202510/myc-mediates-large-oncosome-induced-fibroblast-reprogramming-in-prostate-cancer
#8
Valentina R Minciacchi, Cristiana Spinelli, Mariana Reis-Sobreiro, Lorenzo Cavallini, Sungyong You, Mandana Zandian, Xiaohong Li, Paola Chiarugi, Rosalyn M Adam, Edwin M Posadas, Giuseppe Viglietto, Michael R Freeman, Emanuele Cocucci, Neil A Bhowmick, Dolores Di Vizio
Communication between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment results in the modulation of complex signaling networks that facilitate tumor progression. Here we describe a new mechanism of intercellular communication originating from large oncosomes (LO), which are cancer cell-derived, atypically large (1-10 μm) extracellular vesicles (EV). We demonstrate that, in the context of prostate cancer, LO harbor sustained AKT1 kinase activity, nominating them as active signaling platforms. Active AKT1 was detected in circulating EV from the plasma of metastatic prostate cancer patients and was LO specific...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194370/peptide-agonists-of-vasopressin-v2-receptor-reduce-expression-of-neuroendocrine-markers-and-tumor-growth-in-human-lung-and-prostate-tumor-cells
#9
Marina Pifano, Juan Garona, Carla S Capobianco, Nazareno Gonzalez, Daniel F Alonso, Giselle V Ripoll
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies that express neuropeptides as synaptophysin, chromogranin A (CgA), and specific neuronal enolase (NSE), among others. Vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide with an endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effect in normal and pathological tissues. AVP receptors are present in human lung, breast, pancreatic, colorectal, and gastrointestinal tumors. While AVP V1 receptors are associated with stimulation of cellular proliferation, AVP V2 receptor (V2r) is related to antiproliferative effects...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191283/active-%C3%AE-catenin-is-regulated-by-the-pten-pi3-kinase-pathway-a-role-for-protein-phosphatase-pp2a
#10
Amit Persad, Geetha Venkateswaran, Li Hao, Maria E Garcia, Jenny Yoon, Jaskiran Sidhu, Sujata Persad
Dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been associated with the development and progression of many cancers. The stability and subcellular localization of β-catenin, a dual functional protein that plays a role in intracellular adhesion and in regulating gene expression, is tightly regulated. However, little is known about the transcriptionally active form of β-catenin, Active Beta Catenin (ABC), that is unphosphorylated at serine 37 (Ser37) and threonine 41 (Thr41). Elucidating the mechanism by which β-catenin is activated to generate ABC is vital to the development of therapeutic strategies to block β-catenin signaling for cancer treatment...
November 2016: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184030/genetic-variants-in-rhoa-and-rock1-genes-are-associated-with-the-development-progression-and-prognosis-of-prostate-cancer
#11
Kang Liu, Xiao Li, Jie Wang, Yichun Wang, Huiyu Dong, Jie Li
The contribution of genetic variants in RhoA and ROCK1 genes towards prostate cancer risk has not been reported before. We genotyped six potentially functional genetic variants in a case-control study of 1699 subjects. Overall, we found rs2410 mutant allele and rs2269736 wild allele were risk factors for prostate cancer. Individuals carrying more than two risk alleles were exposed to hazard of prostate cancer. In addition, we demonstrated that the risk of biochemical recurrence might be linked with clinico-pathological characteristics and also genetic factors...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174422/antarlides-f-h-new-members-of-the-antarlide-family-produced-by-streptomyces-sp-bb47
#12
Shun Saito, Takahiro Fujimaki, Watanalai Panbangred, Ryuichi Sawa, Yasuhiro Igarashi, Masaya Imoto
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the most aggressive form of this disease. CRPC remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Therefore, a novel AR antagonist, enzalutamide, is used clinically for the treatment of men with metastatic CRPC. However, enzalutamide-resistant AR has appeared, and a new type of AR antagonist is desired. Previously, in the course of screening for a new type of AR antagonist, we isolated a series of compounds, designated antarlides A-E, that share a novel 22-membered-ring macrocyclic structure and are produced by Streptomyces sp...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168749/promising-therapeutic-efficacy-of-a-novel-reic-dkk-3-expressing-adenoviral-vector-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Hiroaki Sawahara, Hidenori Shiraha, Daisuke Uchida, Hironari Kato, Ryo Kato, Atsushi Oyama, Teruya Nagahara, Masaya Iwamuro, Shigeru Horiguchi, Koichiro Tsutsumi, Mari Mandai, Tetsushige Mimura, Nozomu Wada, Yasuto Takeuchi, Kenji Kuwaki, Hideki Onishi, Shinichiro Nakamura, Masami Watanabe, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Akinobu Takaki, Kazuhiro Nouso, Takahito Yagi, Yasutomo Nasu, Hiromi Kumon, Hiroyuki Okada
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Reduced expression in immortalized cells (REIC)/dickkopf 3 (Dkk-3) is a tumor suppressor gene that is downregulated in various cancers. In our previous study of prostate cancer, the REIC/Dkk-3-expressing adenoviral vector (Ad-REIC) was found to induce cancer-selective apoptosis. We recently developed a novel super gene expression (SGE) system and used this system to re-construct an Ad-REIC vector, termed the Ad-SGE-REIC, to achieve more effective therapeutic outcomes...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167510/preclinical-development-of-a-non-toxic-oral-formulation-of-monoethanolamine-a-lipid-precursor-for-prostate-cancer-treatment
#14
Roopali Saxena, Chunhua Yang, Mukkavilli Rao, Ravi Chakra C Turaga, Chakravarthy Garlapati, Sushma Reddy Gundala, Kimberly Myers, Ahmed Ghareeb, Shristi Bhattarai, Golnaz Kamilinia, Sangina Bristi, Dan Su, Giovanni Gadda, Padmashree Cg Rida, Guilherme Cantuaria, Ritu Aneja
PURPOSE: Most currently-available chemotherapeutic agents target rampant cell division in cancer cells, thereby affecting rapidly-dividing normal cells resulting in toxic side-effects. This non-specificity necessitates identification of novel cellular pathways that are reprogrammed selectively in cancer cells and can be exploited to develop pharmacologically superior and less-toxic therapeutics. Despite growing awareness on dysregulation of lipid metabolism in cancer cells, targeting lipid biosynthesis is still largely uncharted territory...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156003/population-based-validation-of-the-2014-isup-gleason-grade-groups-in-patients-treated-with-radical-prostatectomy-brachytherapy-external-beam-radiation-or-no-local-treatment
#15
Raisa S Pompe, Helen Davis-Bondarenko, Emanuele Zaffuto, Zhe Tian, Shahrokh F Shariat, Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Jonas Schiffmann, Fred Saad, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Derya Tilki, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: To test discriminant ability of the 2014 ISUP Gleason grade groups (GGG) for prediction of prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy (BT), external beam radiation (EBRT) or no local treatment (NLT) relative to traditional Gleason grading (TGG). METHODS: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-database (2004-2009), 2,42,531 non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients were identified, who underwent local treatment (RP, BT, EBRT only) or NLT...
February 3, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151974/assessment-of-a-prognostic-model-psa-metrics-and-toxicities-in-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-using-data-from-project-data-sphere-pds
#16
Bethany Pitcher, Leila Khoja, Robert J Hamilton, Kald Abdallah, Melania Pintilie, Anthony M Joshua
BACKGROUND: Prognostic models in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may have clinical utility. Using data from PDS, we aimed to 1) validate a contemporary prognostic model (Templeton et al., 2014) 2) evaluate prognostic impact of concomitant medications and PSA decrease 3) evaluate factors associated with docetaxel toxicity. METHODS: We accessed data on 2,449 mCRPC patients in PDS. The existing model was validated with a continuous risk score, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and corresponding time-dependent Area under the Curve (tAUC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151478/proteasome-associated-deubiquitinase-ubiquitin-specific-protease-14-regulates-prostate-cancer-proliferation-by-deubiquitinating-and-stabilizing-androgen-receptor
#17
Yuning Liao, Ningning Liu, Xianliang Hua, Jianyu Cai, Xiaohong Xia, Xuejun Wang, Hongbiao Huang, Jinbao Liu
Androgen receptor (AR) is frequently over-expressed and plays a critical role in the growth and progression of human prostate cancer. The therapy attempting to target AR signalling was established in decades ago but the treatment of prostate cancer is far from being satisfactory. The assignable cause is that our understanding of the mechanism of AR regulation and re-activation remains incomplete. Increasing evidence suggests that deubiquitinases are involved in the regulation of cancer development and progression but the specific underlying mechanism often is not elucidated...
February 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147927/a-case-report-of-enzalutamide-administration-in-a-dialysis-dependent-patient-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#18
Erica S Tsang, Marie de Haan, Bernhard J Eigl
Enzalutamide, an androgen receptor signaling inhibitor, is a standard of care treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We present the first reported case of enzalutamide in a patient with end-stage renal disease, on dialysis. While there were no significant toxicities, a sustained increase in systolic blood pressure was maintained after starting enzalutamide, suggestive of a degree of drug accumulation. Further evaluation of novel hormonal agents in end-stage renal disease patients should be encouraged as this population is typically excluded from clinical trials...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144969/high-levels-of-the-ar-v7-splice-variant-and-co-amplification-of-the-golgi-protein-coding-yipf6-in-ar-amplified-prostate-cancer-bone-metastases
#19
Erik Djusberg, Emma Jernberg, Elin Thysell, Irina Golovleva, Pia Lundberg, Sead Crnalic, Anders Widmark, Anders Bergh, Maria Brattsand, Pernilla Wikström
BACKGROUND: The relation between androgen receptor (AR) gene amplification and other mechanisms behind castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), such as expression of constitutively active AR variants and steroid-converting enzymes has been poorly examined. Specific aim was to examine AR amplification in PC bone metastases and to explore molecular and functional consequences of this, with the long-term goal of identifying novel molecular targets for treatment. METHODS: Gene amplification was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cryo-sections of clinical PC bone metastases (n = 40) and by PCR-based copy number variation analysis...
February 1, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139693/genome-wide-association-study-of-prostate-specific-antigen-levels-identifies-novel-loci-independent-of-prostate-cancer
#20
Thomas J Hoffmann, Michael N Passarelli, Rebecca E Graff, Nima C Emami, Lori C Sakoda, Eric Jorgenson, Laurel A Habel, Jun Shan, Dilrini K Ranatunga, Charles P Quesenberry, Chun R Chao, Nirupa R Ghai, David Aaronson, Joseph Presti, Tobias Nordström, Zhaoming Wang, Sonja I Berndt, Stephen J Chanock, Jonathan D Mosley, Robert J Klein, Mridu Middha, Hans Lilja, Olle Melander, Mark N Kvale, Pui-Yan Kwok, Catherine Schaefer, Neil Risch, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, John S Witte
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for detection and surveillance of prostate cancer (PCa). However, factors other than PCa-such as genetics-can impact PSA. Here we present findings from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PSA in 28,503 Kaiser Permanente whites and 17,428 men from replication cohorts. We detect 40 genome-wide significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 19 novel, 15 previously identified for PSA (14 of which were also PCa-associated), and 6 previously identified for PCa only...
January 31, 2017: Nature Communications
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