Read by QxMD icon Read


Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Mouadh Mihoub, André Pichette, Balla Sylla, Charles Gauthier, Jean Legault
Betulin has a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties with its anticancer activity attracting most of the attention as it offers a possible alternative treatment to chemotherapy. However, betulin's in vivo biological effectiveness is limited by its poor solubility. As such, we synthesized polar glycosylated derivatives to increase its hydrosolubility and enhance its pharmacological properties. Among these synthesized compounds, 28-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosylbetulin 3β-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (Bi-L-RhamBet) was assessed for its cytotoxic effects against a suite of lung cancer cell lines...
2018: PloS One
Erzsebet Polyak, Julian Ostrovsky, Min Peng, Stephen D Dingley, Mai Tsukikawa, Young Joon Kwon, Shana E McCormack, Michael Bennett, Rui Xiao, Christoph Seiler, Zhe Zhang, Marni J Falk
Oxidative stress is a known contributing factor in mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease pathogenesis. Yet, no efficient means exists to objectively evaluate the comparative therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of different antioxidant compounds empirically used in human RC disease. We postulated that pre-clinical comparative analysis of diverse antioxidant drugs having suggested utility in primary RC disease using animal and cellular models of RC dysfunction may improve understanding of their integrated effects and physiologic mechanisms, and enable prioritization of lead antioxidant molecules to pursue in human clinical trials...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Emma Robson, Clare Tweedy, Nelson Manzanza, John-Paul Taylor, Peter Atkinson, Fiona Randall, Amy Reeve, Gavin J Clowry, Fiona E N LeBeau
Intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a key pathological process evident in Lewy body dementias (LBD), including Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). LBD results in marked cognitive impairments and changes in cortical networks. To assess the impact of abnormal α-syn expression on cortical network oscillations relevant to cognitive function, we studied changes in fast beta/gamma network oscillations in the hippocampus in a mouse line that over-expresses human mutant α-syn (A30P)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Hok Khim Fam, Kunho Choi, Lauren Fougner, Chinten James Lim, Cornelius F Boerkoel
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is a nuclear and mitochondrial protein that in nuclei and in vitro repairs blocked 3' DNA termini such as 3' phosphotyrosine conjugates resulting from stalling of topoisomerase I-DNA intermediates. Its mutation also causes spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy type 1 (SCAN1). Because Tdp1 colocalizes with mitochondria following oxidative stress, we hypothesized that Tdp1 repairs mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and that mtDNA damage mediates entry of Tdp1 into the mitochondria...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
John E Casida
Insecticide radioligands allow the direct recognition and analysis of the targets and mechanisms of toxic action critical to effective and safe pest control. These radioligands are either the insecticides themselves or analogs that bind at the same or coupled sites. Preferred radioligands and their targets, often in both insects and mammals, are trioxabicyclooctanes for the GABA receptor, avermectin for the Glutamate receptor, imidacloprid for the nicotinic receptor, ryanodine and chlorantraniliprole for the ryanodine receptor, and rotenone or pyridaben for NADH+ ubiquinone oxidoreductase...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Cybelle Façanha Barreto Medeiros-Linard, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade-da-Costa, Ricielle Lopes Augusto, Adriana Sereniki, Maria Teresa Sales Trevisan, Renata de Cássia Ribas Perreira, Francisco Thiago Correia de Souza, Glauber Ruda Feitoza Braz, Claudia Jacques Lagranha, Ivone Antônia de Souza, Almir Gonçalves Wanderley, Soraya S Smailli, Simone Sette Lopes Lafayette
Anacardic acids (AAs) are alkyl phenols mainly presenting in cashew nuts. The antioxidant effects of these compounds have been an area of interest in recent research, with findings suggesting potential therapeutic use for certain diseases. Nevertheless, none of these studies were performed in order to test the hypothesis of whether anacardic acids are capable of preventing behavioral changes and oxidative stress induced by the pesticide rotenone in experimental model of Parkinson's disease. In our research, adult male rats were treated orally with AAs (1, 3, 10, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) 1 h before rotenone (3 mg/kg; s...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sunaina Sharma, Puneet Kumar, Rahul Deshmukh
Parkinson's disease is a leading hypokinetic disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of mid-brain. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is considered to be due to oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, disturbed calcium homeostasis and glutamate excitotoxicity etc. Spermidine is a polyamine which counteracts age associated cell death by scavenging free radical formation, activates authophagic machinery by enhancing formation of autophagosome, and antagonizes NMDA receptor...
February 28, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Mariëtte E C Waaijer, David A Gunn, Diana van Heemst, P Eline Slagboom, John M Sedivy, Roeland W Dirks, Hans J Tanke, Rudi G J Westendorp, Andrea B Maier
Little is known on how well senescence markers in vitro and in situ correlate within individual donors. We studied correlations between the same and different in vitro markers. Furthermore, we tested correlations between in vitro markers with in situ p16INK4a positivity.From 100 donors (20-91 years), cultured dermal fibroblasts were assessed for reactive oxygen species (ROS), telomere-associated foci (TAF), p16INK4a and senescence-associated β-gal (SAβ-gal), with/ without 0.6 µM rotenone for 3 days (short-term)...
February 28, 2018: Aging
Daniela Strobbe, Leonardo Caporali, Luisa Iommarini, Alessandra Maresca, Monica Montopoli, Andrea Martinuzzi, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni, Valerio Carelli, Anna Ghelli
There is growing evidence that the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which clusters in population- and/or geographic-specific haplogroups, may result in functional effects that, in turn, become relevant in disease predisposition or protection, interaction with environmental factors and ultimately in modulating longevity. To unravel functional differences between mtDNA haplogroups we here employed transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrid cells (cybrids) grown in galactose medium, culture condition that force oxidative phosphorylation, and in the presence of rotenone, the classic inhibitor of respiratory Complex I...
February 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi, Amos Olalekan Abolaji, Temitope Hannah Farombi, Abiola Surajudeen Oropo, Omowunmi Abigail Owoje, Mathew Terwase Awunah
Rotenone, a naturally occurring and commonly used pesticide, has been established as a model for inducing Parkinson's Disease (PD) in rodents. Kolaviron is a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the ameliorative role of Kolaviron on rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for longevity study were exposed to Kolaviron (100-500mg/kg diet) throughout the lifespan. For biochemical study, Groups A, B and C flies were treated with ethanol (2...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Carlotta Ciaramelli, Alessandro Palmioli, Ada De Luigi, Laura Colombo, Gessica Sala, Chiara Riva, Chiara Paola Zoia, Mario Salmona, Cristina Airoldi
To identify food and beverages that provide the regular intake of natural compounds capable of interfering with toxic amyloidogenic aggregates, we developed an experimental protocol that combines NMR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, in vitro biochemical and cell assays to detect anti-Aβ molecules in natural edible matrices. We applied this approach to investigate the potential anti-amyloidogenic properties of coffee and its molecular constituents. Our data showed that green and roasted coffee extracts and their main components, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and melanoidins, can hinder Aβ on-pathway aggregation and toxicity in a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Michaela E Johnson, Andrea Stringer, Larisa Bobrovskaya
While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor symptoms, which can occur at any stage of PD, even years prior to diagnosis, and can affect all sections along the GI tract causing a range of symptoms including drooling, gastroparesis and constipation. We have investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD- rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, is capable of reproducing the GI dysfunction seen clinically...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Amel A M Abdel-Hafez, Asmaa M S Gomaa, Raghda Elsherif
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes have been implicated as potentially exerting both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities in Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether glial cells negatively impact the neuron integrity remains to be determined. We aimed to assess the vulnerability of glia and vessels in rat substantia nigra in a rotenone PD model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups: vehicle-control group (received dimethylsulfoxide + polyethylene glycol (PEG)-300, 1:1 v/v) and rotenone-treated group (received six doses of rotenone, 1...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Xiao Xu Bai, Li Gu, Hui Min Yang, Shao Song Xi, Ning Xia, Song Zhang, Hong Zhang
Clinical epidemiological studies have shown that there is a link between Parkinson's disease (PD) and cancer, but how PD regulates cancer development remains unknown. In our study, the effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5 ) on hepatoma was explored in a rotenone-induced PD model both in vitro and in vivo. We found that conditioned media derived from MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells by rotenone-induced toxicity inhibited the growth, migration, invasion and promoted apoptosis of Hepa1-6 cells, which corresponded with decreased expression of mGlu5 ...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Shu-Ju Wang, Qi Wang, Jun Ma, Pei-Hao Yu, Zhong-Ming Wang, Bin Wang
Defects in autophagy-mediated clearance of α-synuclein may be one of the key factors leading to progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Moxibustion therapy for Parkinson's disease has been shown to have a positive effect, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Based on this, we explored whether moxibustion could protect dopaminergic neurons by promoting autophagy mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with subsequent elimination of α-syn. A Parkinson's disease model was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of rotenone at the back of their necks, and they received moxibustion at Zusanli (ST36), Guanyuan (CV4) and Fengfu (GV16), for 10 minutes at every point, once per day, for 14 consecutive days...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Xia Wu, Yanran Liang, Xiuna Jing, Danyu Lin, Ying Chen, Tianen Zhou, Sudan Peng, Dezhi Zheng, Zhifen Zeng, Ming Lei, Kaixun Huang, Enxiang Tao
In addition to its original application for treating tuberculosis, rifampicin has multiple potential neuroprotective effects in chronic neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. Inflammatory reactions and the PI3K/Akt pathway are strongly implicated in dopaminergic neuronal death in PD. This study aims to investigate whether rifampicin protects rotenone-lesioned SH-SY5Y cells via regulating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/CREB pathway. Rotenone-treated SH-SY5Y cells were used as the cell model to investigate the neuroprotective effects of rifampicin...
February 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Alessandro Tozzi, Michela Tantucci, Saverio Marchi, Petra Mazzocchetti, Michele Morari, Paolo Pinton, Andrea Mancini, Paolo Calabresi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which genetic and environmental factors synergistically lead to loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Mutation of leucine-rich repeated kinase2 (Lrrk2) genes is responsible for the majority of inherited familial cases of PD and can also be found in sporadic cases. The pathophysiological role of this kinase has to be fully understood yet. Hyperactivation of Lrrk2 kinase domain might represent a predisposing factor for both enhanced striatal glutamatergic release and mitochondrial vulnerability to environmental factors that are observed in PD...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jia Liu, Weijin Liu, Yongquan Lu, Hao Tian, Chunli Duan, Lingling Lu, Ge Gao, Xia Wu, Xiaomin Wang, Hui Yang
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease and is caused by genetics, environmental factors and aging, with few treatments currently available. Apoptosis and macroautophagy/autophagy play critical roles in PD pathogenesis; as such, modulating their balance is a potential treatment strategy. BCL2 (B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2) is a key molecule regulating this balance. Piperlongumine (PLG) is an alkaloid extracted from Piper longum L. that has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects...
February 13, 2018: Autophagy
Hao Ding, Xing-Wang Xu, Huan Wang, Lin Xiao, Le Zhao, Guang-Ling Duan, Xiao-Ran Li, Zhao-Xia Ma, He-Ping Chen
DJ-1 was recently reported to mediate the cardioprotection of delayed hypoxic preconditioning (DHP) by suppressing hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress, but its mechanism against H/R-induced oxidative stress during DHP is not fully elucidated. Here, using the well-established cellular model of DHP, we again found that DHP significantly improved cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release with concurrently up-regulated DJ-1 protein expression in H9c2 cells subjected to H/R. Importantly, DHP efficiently improved mitochondrial complex I activity following H/R and attenuated H/R-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and subsequent oxidative stress, as demonstrated by a much smaller decrease in reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and a much smaller increase in intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde contents than that observed for the H/R group...
February 12, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"