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typhoid fever

Debaki R Howlader, Hemanta Koley, Ritam Sinha, Suhrid Maiti, Ushasi Bhaumik, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta
Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A are the leading causative agents of enteric fever which cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, there is no combination vaccine which could protect infection from both the strains. In this paper, we are focusing on the development of a novel bivalent typhoidal Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) based immunogen against enteric fever. We have isolated Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A OMVs and also characterized OMVs associated antigens. Then we immunized adult mice with three doses of our newly formulated bivalent immunogen orally (25 μg/200 μl)...
2018: PloS One
Jillian S Gauld, Hao Hu, Daniel Klein, Myron M Levine
Typhoid fever is endemic in many developing countries. In the early 20th century, newly industrializing countries including the United States successfully controlled typhoid as water treatment (chlorination/sand filtration) and improved sanitation became widespread. Enigmatically, typhoid remained endemic through the 1980s in Santiago, Chile, despite potable municipal water and widespread household sanitation. Data were collected across multiple stages of endemicity and control in Santiago, offering a unique resource for gaining insight into drivers of transmission in modern settings...
September 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Abishkar Thapa, Nancy Mittal, Gyan Kayastha, Buddha Basnyat
A 17-year-old young woman presented to Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, with high-grade fever and headache for 4 days and non-projectile vomiting for 1 day. She also had blurred vision with dizziness on and off. There was no abnormal physical finding. Enteric fever was suspected, and she was empirically started on azithromycin (20 mg/kg) for 7 days. She became afebrile after 2 days and was followed up in 7 days with diplopia since 5 days. At this time, the blood culture was positive for Salmonella serovar typhi...
September 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Vijayalaxmi V Mogasale, Enusa Ramani, Vittal Mogasale, Ju Yeon Park, Thomas F Wierzba
Background: Unsafe water is a well-known risk for typhoid fever, but a pooled estimate of the population-level risk of typhoid fever resulting from exposure to unsafe water has not been quantified. An accurate estimation of the risk from unsafe water will be useful in demarcating high-risk populations, modeling typhoid disease burden, and targeting prevention and control activities. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies that measured the risk of typhoid fever associated with drinking unimproved water as per WHO-UNICEF's definition or drinking microbiologically unsafe water...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Jason R Andrews, Stephen Baker, Florian Marks, Marcella Alsan, Denise Garrett, Bruce G Gellin, Samir K Saha, Farah Naz Qamar, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Isaac I Bogoch, Marina Antillon, Virginia E Pitzer, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jacob John, Jillian Gauld, Vittal Mogasale, Edward T Ryan, Stephen P Luby, Nathan C Lo
Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infectious disease responsible for an estimated 12-20 million illnesses and over 150 000 deaths annually. In March, 2018, a new recommendation was issued by WHO for the programmatic use of typhoid conjugate vaccines in endemic countries. Health economic analyses of typhoid vaccines have informed funding decisions and national policies regarding vaccine rollout. However, by focusing only on averted typhoid cases and their associated costs, traditional cost-effectiveness analyses might underestimate crucial benefits of typhoid vaccination programmes, because the potential effect of typhoid vaccines on the treatment of patients with non-specific acute febrile illnesses is not considered...
August 28, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sumeyra Savas, Aylin Ersoy, Yakup Gulmez, Selcuk Kilic, Belkis Levent, Zeynep Altintas
Bacteria-related pathogenic diseases are one of the major health problems throughout the world. Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria of which more than 2600 serotypes have been identified. Infection with Salmonella can cause salmonellosis, a serious bacterial toxi-infection syndrome associated with gastroenteritis, and paralyphoid and typhoid fevers. Its rapid and sensitive detection is a key to the prevention of problems related to health. This paper describes the development of antibody and DNA sensors for Salmonella detection using a microfluidic-based electrochemical system...
August 27, 2018: Materials
Xiaobing Yang, Jiaojiao Zou, Deguang Kong, Gaofeng Jiang
Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (TPF), systemic emerging infectious diseases, is a serious health problem for society. If the incidence trend of TPF can be predicted, prevention and control measures can be taken in advance to reduce the harm to the people's health.Grey Model First Order One Variable [GM (1, 1)] was applied to predict the incidence trend of TPF with the incidence data of TPF in Wuhan City of China from 2004 to 2015. The original data were acquired from the national surveillance system.The GM (1, 1) model was established as ŷ (t + 1) = 0...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Malick M Gibani, Carl Britto, Andrew J Pollard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteric fever remains a major global-health concern, estimated to be responsible for between 11.9 and 26.9 million cases annually. Long-term prevention of enteric fever will require improved access to safe drinking water combined with investment in sanitation and hygiene interventions. In the short-to-medium term, new control strategies for typhoid fever have arrived in the form of typhoid Vi-conjugate vaccines (TCVs), offering hope that disease control can be achieved in the near future...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
E G J von Asmuth, H J Brockhoff, J Wallinga, L G Visser
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is a global health problem, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, the most widely used vaccine is the typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi-PS) vaccine. While epidemiological studies on its efficacy have been performed in children in endemic countries, there are no efficacy studies evaluating its use in travel medicine. Response to vaccination may differ in travelers receiving immunosuppressive therapy. This study investigates the humoral response to Vi-PS vaccination in travelers receiving immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid disease...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Limenih Habte, Endale Tadesse, Getachew Ferede, Anteneh Amsalu
OBJECTIVE: Although typhoid fever is a major public health problem in Ethiopia, data is not available in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical presentation at the time of diagnosis and associated factors of typhoid fever among febrile patients visiting Shashemene Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1, 2016, to October 30, 2016. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire...
August 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Khulla Naseer, Ayyaz Amin, Muhammad Saleem, Javaria Qazi
This study investigated the potential of Raman spectroscopy, to differentiate between two different types of human pathological conditions with some symptom similarity; typhoid and dengue. Raman spectra were recorded from 20 Salmonella Typhi infected and 22 dengue virus (DENV) infected sera samples using laser wavelength 785 nm. When Raman spectrum (540 to 1830 cm-1 ) of serum samples was compared it showed significant variations. Twelve characteristic Raman bands at 562, 649, 716, 780, 838, 1099, 1144, 1156, 1260, 1386, 1556 and 1746 cm-1 were recorded specifically in case of the typhoid infected samples, whereas four Raman bands at 756, 1218, 1672 and 1686 cm-1 were found specifically in the DENV infected samples...
August 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Princy Vijayababu, Gopinath Samykannu, Christian Bharathi Antonyraj, SundaraBaalaji Narayanan, Syed Ibrahim Basheer Ahamed, Perumal Perumal, Shanmughavel Piramanayagam
Typhoid fever is a severe illness in humans, caused by Salmonella typhi, a Gram-negative bacterium. Membrane proteins of S. typhi have strong potential for its use in development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. In current study, peptide-based subunit vaccine constructed from AI-2 import ATP-binding cassette transporter protein (LsrA) against S. typhi. B-cell and T-cell epitopes were identified at fold level with validated 3-D theoretical modelled structure. T-cell epitope from LsrA (LELPGSRPQ) has binds to maximum number (82...
August 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ruchita Balasubramanian, Justin Im, Jung-Seok Lee, Hyon Jin Jeon, Ondari D Mogeni, Jerome H Kim, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Stephen Baker, Florian Marks
Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has emerged as a major public health concern. Yet, understanding of the global burden is incomplete, limited particularly by the breadth of blood culture-based surveillance systems that are able to accurately diagnose the etiology of bacteremia. The accessibility of whole genome sequencing has allowed for genetic characterization of pathogens, shedding light on its evolutionary history and sounding alerts for its future progression. iNTS disease is observed to be a particular threat in sub-Saharan Africa, with a case fatality rate greatly exceeding that of typhoid fever, and commonly affecting infants, young children and immunocompromised adults...
August 6, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Debalina Chaudhuri, Atish Roy Chowdhury, Biswendu Biswas, Dipshikha Chakravortty
Salmonella systemic infections claim thousands of lives worldwide even today. Certain cases lead to an infection in the brain culminating in meningitis and associated neurological abnormalities. Multiple reports have indicated neurological manifestations in patients suffering from typhoid fever during the course of infection and afterwards. While the meanderings of Salmonella systemic infections are fairly well studied, the flow of events in the brain is very poorly understood. We investigated the colonization of various brain parts by Salmonella in mice...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Regev Cohen, Frida Babushkin, Maurice Shapiro, Martina Uda, Yafit Atiya-Nasagi, Talya Finn
We present a rare case of an Indian immigrant suffering from concomitant infection of Salmonella typhi and spotted fever group Rickettsia . We discuss the scarce reports of dual infections from the developing world and the related diagnostic challenges.
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Virginie Pommelet, Patricia Mariani, Romain Basmaci, Mathieu Tourdjman, Laurence Morin, Jean Gaschignard, Agathe de Lauzanne, Chloé Lemaitre, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Albert Faye
Background: Enteric fever in France is primarily travel-associated. Characteristics of paediatric cases are scarce and information from field studies in endemic countries might not be generalizable to non-endemic countries. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed all cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fever treated in a French paediatric tertiary care centre from 1993 through 2015. Results: Fifty cases of enteric fever due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (n = 44) and Paratyphi (n = 6) were identified...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Farah Naz Qamar, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Shazia Sultana, Attaullah Baig, Sadia Shakoor, Farzeen Hirani, Abdul Wassay, Sehrish Khushboo, Junaid Mehmood, Alexander Freeman, Kashmira Date, Denise Garrett
Introduction: The Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) is a multisite surveillance study designed to capture morbidity and mortality burden of enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. We aim to describe enteric fever disease burden, severity of illness, and antimicrobial resistance trends in Pakistan. Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, laboratory records of hospitalized patients who received a blood culture in any of 3 Aga Khan University hospitals in Karachi and Hyderabad, Pakistan, from 2012 to 2014 were reviewed...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stephen P Luby
The typhoidal Salmonellae were controlled in cities in North America and Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century by development of centralized water treatment systems. In the early 21st century, large urban centers where drinking water routinely mixes with human feces have the highest burden of typhoid fever. Although improving municipal drinking water quality is the most robust approach to reduce enteric fever burden, the high costs and managerial capacity that such systems require and decreasing per capita water availability requires new approaches to reach the highest risk communities...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Matthew M Griffith, Munehisa Fukusumi, Yusuke Kobayashi, Yusuke Matsui, Shingo Nishiki, Reiko Shimbashi, Saeko Morino, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Keiko Tanaka-Taya, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
Introduction: In 2019 and 2020, Japan will host two international sporting events estimated to draw a combined 22 million visitors. Mass gatherings like these ones increase the risk of spread of infectious disease outbreaks and international transmission. Pre-travel advice reduces that risk. Methods: To assist ministries of health and related organizations in developing pre-travel advice, we summarized national surveillance data in Japan (2000-2016, to the extent available) for rubella, invasive pneumococcal disease, measles, non-A and non-E viral hepatitis, hepatitis A, invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease, tetanus, typhoid fever, invasive meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, influenza, varicella, mumps and pertussis by calculating descriptive statistics of reported cases and reviewing trends...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila K Pragasam, Yamuna D Bakthavatchalam, Ravikar Ralph
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi (resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole), was significantly reduced with the increased usage of fluoroquinolones and azithromycin. This has led to declining multidrug resistance rates in India with increasing ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility rates and clinical failures due to azithromycin. However, for the available agents such as ceftriaxone, azithromycin and fluoroquinolones, the dose and duration for treatment is undefined...
July 2018: Future Science OA
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