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typhoid fever

Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Koh Shinohara, Kei Yamamoto, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Internal Medicine
Kathrin I Mohr
For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Kumar V Br, Kishore D, Diwaker A, Yadav V, Tiwari A
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jill Koshiol, Aniela Wozniak, Paz Cook, Christina Adaniel, Johanna Acevedo, Lorena Azócar, Ann W Hsing, Juan C Roa, Marcela F Pasetti, Juan F Miquel, Myron M Levine, Catterina Ferreccio
In Chile, where gallbladder cancer (GBC) rates are high and typhoid fever was endemic until the 1990s, we evaluated the association between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) antibodies and GBC. We tested 39 GBC cases, 40 gallstone controls, and 39 population-based controls for S. Typhi Vi antibodies and performed culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the subset with bile, gallstone, tissue, and stool samples available. We calculated gender and education-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with GBC...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Aleš Chrdle, Vaclav Chmelik, Daniel Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 years of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires three basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards...
August 15, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vanessa K Wong, Stephen Baker, Thomas R Connor, Derek Pickard, Andrew J Page, Jayshree Dave, Niamh Murphy, Richard Holliman, Armine Sefton, Michael Millar, Zoe A Dyson, Gordon Dougan, Kathryn E Holt
The population of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, exhibits limited DNA sequence variation, which complicates efforts to rationally discriminate individual isolates. Here we utilize data from whole-genome sequences (WGS) of nearly 2,000 isolates sourced from over 60 countries to generate a robust genotyping scheme that is phylogenetically informative and compatible with a range of assays. These data show that, with the exception of the rapidly disseminating H58 subclade (now designated genotype 4...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Julius Ho, Gladys Odhiambo, Lucy W Meng'anyi, Rosemary M Musuva, Joseph M Mule, Zakayo S Alaly, Maurice R Odiere, Pauline N Mwinzi, Lisa Ganley-Leal
BACKGROUND: Private sector medicine outlets are an important provider of health services across the developing world, and are an untapped means of distributing and selling vaccines outside of childhood immunization programs. The present study assessed the viability of medicine outlets (chemists and pharmacies) as potential channels for sale of vaccines. METHODS: To evaluate the viability of the medicine outlet model, we partnered with nine outlets across urban and rural communities in western Kenya to sell a nurse-administered typhoid vaccine...
September 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Madushini N Dharmasena, Catherine M Feuille, Carly Elizabeth C Starke, Arvind A Bhagwat, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues...
2016: PloS One
Öznur Küçük, Suat Biçer, Meltem Ugraş, Defne Çöl, Tuba Giray, Gülay Çiler Erdag, Yeşim Gürol, Gülden Yilmaz, Zerrin Yalvaç, Ayça Vitrinel, Çigdem Kaspar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory data of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. infections. Clinical (demographic data, symptoms and findings) and laboratory data (stool microscopy, rapid antigen tests, culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and blood test results) of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. between January 2010 and October 2012 were evaluated. Differences between the groups for categorical variables were estimated with a chi-square or Fisher exact test; for continuous variables with two independent samples a t test was used...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Engin Burak Selcuk, Uner Kayabas, Hulisi Binbasioglu, Baris Otlu, Yasar Bayindir, Bulent Bozdogan, Mehmet Karatas
BACKGROUND: The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. METHOD: A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013...
September 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Amoolya Bhat, Vijaya Chowdappa, Smita Surendra Masamatti
INTRODUCTION: Dengue affects more than 50 million people per year and is one of the most common causes of severe thrombocytopaenia. Thrombocytopaenia is a common complication of dengue and other viral fevers apart from malaria, typhoid, leptospirosis, leukaemia and megaloblastic anaemia. A platelet count of <20,000/μl is characteristically seen in dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue fever. It results from immune complex mediated platelet destruction or bone marrow suppression. Severe thrombocytopaenia <10,000/μl is one of the indications for prophylactic platelet transfusion therapy to prevent haemorrhage...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Muthu Gopal, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Suresh Arumugam, Vishnuprabu Durairajpandian, Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan, Esthermary Selvam, Srivani Seetharaman
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is endemic in India and other developing countries, causing major public health problems with high morbidity and mortality. The resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) towards commonly prescribed antimicrobials is increasing in developing countries. However, there have been several reports of the therapeutic failure of fluoroquinolones in patients with Salmonella infection. Resistance to quinolones/ fluoroquinolones commonly arises due to target site mutation...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Elmoubasher Farag, Humberto Guanche Garcell, Nandakumar Ganesan, Shazia Nadeem N Ahmed, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Shk Mohammed Hamad J Al Thani, Salih Ali Al-Marri, Emad Ibrahim, Hamad Eid Al-Romaihi
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is a food- and water-borne pathogen that can be easily spread in a population, leading to the outbreak of salmonellosis that is caused by ingestion of mixed salads contaminated by the pathogen. Most cases occur in the late spring months and can be seen as single cases, clusters, or episodes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in the State of Qatar. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive study carried out in laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis during 2004-2012 from all Salmonella surveillance centers...
2016: Qatar Medical Journal
Richa Misra, Ritesh Thakare, N Amrin, Kashi Nath Prasad, Sidharth Chopra, Tapan Nirodhechand Dhole
BACKGROUND: We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 100 typhoidal Salmonella isolates recovered from blood cultures and also investigate the association of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility with mutations in the genes coding for DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in 55 isolates. METHODS: The study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2015 at a tertiary care centre in north India. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test...
August 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Priyanka Sharma, Sushila Dahiya, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Anil Kanga, Preetilata Panda, Rashna Das, Anbumani Dhanraju, Deepak Kumar Mendiratta, Seema Sood, Bimal Kumar Das, Arti Kapil
Enteric fever is an invasive infection predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. The pathogens have evolved from other nontyphoidal salmonellaeto become invasive and host restricted. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae in some countries is a major therapeutic concern as the travelers returning from endemic countries carry resistant strains to non endemic areas. In order to understand the epidemiology and to design disease control strategies molecular typing of the pathogen is very important...
2016: PloS One
Rajesh Upadhyay, Milind Y Nadkar, A Muruganathan, Mangesh Tiwaskar, Deepak Amarapurkar, N H Banka, Ketan K Mehta, B S Sathyaprakash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ki Soo Park, Hyun Jung Chung, Farhana Khanam, Hakho Lee, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Md Taufiqur Bhuiyan, Amanda Berger, Jason B Harris, Stephen B Calderwood, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri, Ralph Weissleder, Richelle C Charles
There is currently no widely available optimal assay for diagnosing patients with enteric fever. Here we present a novel assay designed to detect amplified Salmonella nucleic acid (mRNA) using magneto-DNA probes and a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance device. We designed primers for genes specific to S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, and genes conserved among Salmonella enterica spp. and utilized strongly magnetized nanoparticles to enhance the detection signal. Blood samples spiked with in vitro grown S. Typhi, S...
2016: Scientific Reports
Peter Manu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Haley E Adcox, Erin M Vasicek, Varun Dwivedi, Ky V Hoang, Joanne Turner, John S Gunn
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, form biofilms encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Biofilms facilitate colonization and persistent infection in gallbladders of humans and mouse models of chronic carriage. Individual roles of matrix components have not been completely elucidated in vitro or in vivo To examine individual functions, strains of S. Typhimurium, the murine model of S Typhi, in which various ECM genes were deleted or added were created to examine biofilm formation and colonization and persistence in the gallbladder...
September 6, 2016: Infection and Immunity
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