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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213043/emerging-insights-into-the-biology-of-typhoid-toxin
#1
REVIEW
Casey C Fowler, Shu-Jung Chang, Xiang Gao, Tobias Geiger, Gabrielle Stack, Jorge E Galán
Typhoid toxin is a unique A2B5 exotoxin and an important virulence factor for Salmonella Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. In the decade since its initial discovery, great strides have been made in deciphering the unusual biological program of this toxin, which is fundamentally different from related toxins in many ways. Purified typhoid toxin administered to laboratory animals causes many of the symptoms of typhoid fever, suggesting that typhoid toxin is a central factor in this disease. Further advances in understanding the biology of this toxin will help guide the development of badly needed diagnostics and therapeutic interventions that target this toxin to detect, prevent or treat typhoid fever...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207076/typhoid-fever-on-the-half-shell
#2
Linda Gaul, John Hellerstedt
Protecting the public from communicable infectious disease outbreaks is one of the most important, and most challenging, functions of public health. Foodborne outbreaks are not uncommon, and they can be especially difficult. This true story of the epidemiologic investigation into a typhoid fever outbreak illustrates the critical importance of timely reporting by front-line clinicians, extensive interprofessional teamwork, and statewide coordination.
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197393/preclinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-the-ty21a-vaccine-strain-for-intravesical-immunotherapy-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#3
Sonia Domingos-Pereira, Valérie Cesson, Mathieu F Chevalier, Laurent Derré, Patrice Jichlinski, Denise Nardelli-Haefliger
Intravesical Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy can reduce recurrence/progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), although significant adverse events and treatment failure argue for alternative options. Here, we examined whether another attenuated live vaccine, Vivotif/Ty21a, used since more than 30 y against typhoid fever, may be safely used intravesically to improve bladder-tumor treatment. Mice-bearing MB49 orthotopic bladder-tumors treated with intravesical Ty21a or BCG were compared for survival and bacteria recovery...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193398/incidence-of-invasive-salmonella-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multicentre-population-based-surveillance-study
#4
Florian Marks, Vera von Kalckreuth, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Muna Ahmed El Tayeb, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen Baker, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Robert F Breiman, James I Campbell, Leonard Cosmas, John A Crump, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Jessica Fung Deerin, Denise Myriam Dekker, Barry S Fields, Nagla Gasmelseed, Julian T Hertz, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Justin Im, Anna Jaeger, Hyon Jin Jeon, Leon Parfait Kabore, Karen H Keddy, Frank Konings, Ralf Krumkamp, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Valborg Løfberg, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Eric D Mintz, Joel M Montgomery, Aissatou Ahmet Niang, Chelsea Nichols, Beatrice Olack, Gi Deok Pak, Ursula Panzner, Jin Kyung Park, Se Eun Park, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Tiana Mirana Raminosoa, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe, Emmanuel Sampo, Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt, Amy Gassama Sow, Nimako Sarpong, Hye Jin Seo, Arvinda Sooka, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Adama Tall, Mekonnen Teferi, Kamala Thriemer, Michelle R Warren, Biruk Yeshitela, John D Clemens, Thomas F Wierzba
BACKGROUND: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. METHODS: We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites)...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167670/salmonella-typhi-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-modifications-impact-on-serum-resistance-and-antibody-recognition
#5
Erica Kintz, Christian Heiss, Ian Black, Nicholas Donohue, Naj Brown, Mark R Davies, Parastoo Azadi, Stephen Baker, Paul M Kaye, Marjan van der Woude
Salmonella Typhi is a human restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, responsible for causing an estimated 27 million cases of typhoid fever annually leading to 217,000 deaths, and current vaccines do not offer full protection. The O-antigen side chain of the lipopolysaccharide is an immunodominant antigen, can define host-pathogen interactions, and is under consideration as a vaccine target for some Gram-negative species. The composition of the O-antigen can be modified by activity of glycosyltransferase (gtr) operons acquired by horizontal gene transfer...
February 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162821/safety-of-live-vaccinations-on-immunosuppressive-therapy-in-patients-with-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-solid-organ-transplantation-or-after-bone-marrow-transplantation-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-trials-observational-studies-and-case-reports
#6
REVIEW
Evelina Croce, Christoph Hatz, Emile F Jonker, L G Visser, Veronika K Jaeger, Silja Bühler
BACKGROUND: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in electronic databases (Cochrane, Pubmed, Embase) and additional literature was identified by targeted searches...
February 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130144/blood-culture-pcr-to-optimise-typhoid-fever-diagnosis-after-controlled-human-infection-identifies-frequent-asymptomatic-cases-and-evidence-of-primary-bacteraemia
#7
Thomas C Darton, Liqing Zhou, Christoph J Blohmke, Claire Jones, Claire S Waddington, Stephen Baker, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Improved diagnostics for typhoid are needed; a typhoid controlled human infection model may accelerate their development and translation. Here, we evaluated a blood culture-PCR assay for detecting infection after controlled human infection with S. Typhi and compared test performance with optimally performed blood cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Culture-PCR amplification of blood samples was performed alongside daily blood culture in 41 participants undergoing typhoid challenge...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124965/-bacteremia-caused-by-ciprofloxacin-resistant-salmonella-serotype-kentucky-a-case-report-and-the-review-of-literature
#8
Tuba Müderris, Fatma Yekta Ürkmez, Şeref Alp Küçüker, Muhammet Fethi Sağlam, Gül Ruhsar Yılmaz, Rahmet Güner, Revasiye Güleşen, Ziya Cibali Açıkgöz
Salmonella infections can be seen in four clinical types, namely gastroenteritis, bacteremia/sepsis, enteric fever and carriage. These infections can result in uncomplicated diarrhea in most cases, but can lead to invasive disease requiring antimicrobial therapy and can be life-threatening in elderly or immunocomprimised patients. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are crucial options in the treatment of the invasive infections. Ciprofloxacin resistance is rarely seen in non-typhoid Salmonella enterica isolates, and only in S...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104997/poverty-related-diseases-prds-unravelling-complexities-in-disease-responses-in-cameroon
#9
Valerie Makoge, Harro Maat, Lenneke Vaandrager, Maria Koelen
BACKGROUND: In Cameroon, poverty-related diseases (PRDs) are a major public health concern. Research and policies addressing PRDs are based on a particular understanding of the interaction between poverty and disease, usually an association between poverty indicators and health indicators for a specific country or region. Such indicators are useful but fail to explain the nature of the linkages between poverty and disease or poverty and health. This paper presents results of a study among university students, unravelling how they perceive diseases, the linkages with poverty, their responses to diseases and the motivations behind reported responses...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098123/typhoid-associated-acute-kidney-injury-masquerading-as-a-relapse-of-takayasu-arteritis
#10
Revanasiddappa Manjunath, Anupama Kaul, Raj Kumar Sharma, Dharmendra Singh Bhadauria, Narayan Prasad, Amit Gupta
Renal dysfunction is common in Takayasu arteritis. Uncommonly, renal failure in a case of Takayasu arteritis can be due to an unrelated disease, and if the disease is a rare complication, it is even more difficult to diagnose. We report a 21-year-old male with type IV Takayasu arteritis presenting with fever and renal failure, who was diagnosed to have enteric fever- related glomerulonephritis which was successfully treated.
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092833/study-of-molecular-interactions-between-chitosan-and-vi-antigen
#11
Natália de Farias Silva, Raimundo Lopes da Silva, Kalene de Oliveira Almeida, Antônio Edilson Sousa do Nascimento-Júnior, Davi do Socorro Barros Brasil, José Otávio Carréra Silva-Júnior, Francisco Martins Teixeira, Roseane Maria Ribeiro-Costa
Chitosan has attracted much interest due to its special physical and chemical properties related to drug administration. Nanoparticles delivery systems from Vi Antigen are a promising approach in the struggle against typhoid fever. In this paper, we reported the obtainment and the characterization of Vi Antigen by Infrared spectroscopy as well as Molecular Modeling and Computational Chemistry studies of the Chitosan-Vi Antigen interaction through theoretical models. The results of the theoretical and experimental Infrared spectroscopy showed important bands related to N-Acetyl and O-Acetyl groups present in Vi Antigen...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061850/food-safety-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-institutional-food-handlers-in-ghana
#12
Fortune Akabanda, Eli Hope Hlortsi, James Owusu-Kwarteng
BACKGROUND: In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. METHODS: The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235) institutional food-handlers...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060810/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-salmonella-typhi-isolated-in-thailand-before-and-after-the-introduction-of-a-national-immunization-program
#13
Zoe A Dyson, Duy Pham Thanh, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Carl Jeffries Mason, Apichai Srijan, Maia A Rabaa, Phat Voong Vinh, Tuyen Ha Thanh, Guy E Thwaites, Stephen Baker, Kathryn E Holt
Vaccines against Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, are commonly used by travellers, however, there are few examples of national immunization programs in endemic areas. There is therefore a paucity of data on the impact of typhoid immunization programs on localised populations of S. Typhi. Here we have used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise 44 historical bacterial isolates collected before and after a national typhoid immunization program that was implemented in Thailand in 1977 in response to a large outbreak; the program was highly effective in reducing typhoid case numbers...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056940/a-large-and-persistent-outbreak-of-typhoid-fever-caused-by-consuming-contaminated-water-and-street-vended-beverages-kampala-uganda-january-june-2015
#14
Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Lilian Bulage, Fred Nsubuga, Gerald Pande, David Were Oguttu, Richardson Mafigiri, Christine Kihembo, Benon Kwesiga, Ben Masiira, Allen Eva Okullo, Henry Kajumbula, Joseph Matovu, Issa Makumbi, Milton Wetaka, Sam Kasozi, Simon Kyazze, Melissa Dahlke, Peter Hughes, Juliet Nsimire Sendagala, Monica Musenero, Immaculate Nabukenya, Vincent R Hill, Eric Mintz, Janell Routh, Gerardo Gómez, Amelia Bicknese, Bao-Ping Zhu
BACKGROUND: On 6 February 2015, Kampala city authorities alerted the Ugandan Ministry of Health of a "strange disease" that killed one person and sickened dozens. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation to identify the nature of the disease, mode of transmission, and risk factors to inform timely and effective control measures. METHODS: We defined a suspected case as onset of fever (≥37.5 °C) for more than 3 days with abdominal pain, headache, negative malaria test or failed anti-malaria treatment, and at least 2 of the following: diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, constipation, fatigue...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051046/typhoid-perforation-post-operative-intensive-care-unit-care-and-outcome
#15
Mukaila Oyegbade Akinwale, Arinola A Sanusi, Oluwaseun K Adebayo
BACKGROUND: Typhoid perforation ileitis is a serious complication of typhoid fever, a common and unfortunate health problem in a resource-poor country like Nigeria. Following bowel perforation, treatment is usually by simple closure or bowel resection and anastomosis after adequate aggressive fluid resuscitation and electrolyte correction. Postoperatively, some of these patients do require management in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on account of sepsis or septic shock and to improve survival...
October 2016: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010144/frosted-branch-angiitis-in-a-patient-with-typhoid-fever
#16
Mamta Agarwal, Jambulingam Malathi, Jyotirmay Biswas
Frosted branch angiitis (FBA), a rare form of retinal vasculitis presenting as bilateral perivascular sheathing, resembling the appearance of frosted tree branches in winter, was first reported by Ito et al.(1) in 1976, in a young immunocompetent boy. FBA predominantly affects healthy young patients, the youngest reported in an 11-month-old infant(2) and oldest in a 42-year-old patient.(3) Classical symptoms include sudden onset of blurred vision with floaters and photopsiae. Fundus examination shows widespread perivascular translucent sheathing affecting both arterioles and venules, more commonly latter...
December 23, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999166/the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-produced-by-nontyphoidal-salmonella-serotypes-javiana-montevideo-oranienburg-and-mississippi-induces-dna-damage-in-a-manner-similar-to-that-of-serotype-typhi
#17
Rachel A Miller, Martin Wiedmann
: Select nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serotypes were recently found to encode the Salmonella cytolethal distending toxin (S-CDT), an important virulence factor for serotype Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever. Using a PCR-based assay, we determined that among 21 NTS serotypes causing the majority of food-borne salmonellosis cases in the United States, genes encoding S-CDT are conserved in isolates representing serotypes Javiana, Montevideo, and Oranienburg but that among serotype Mississippi isolates, the presence of S-CDT-encoding genes is clade associated...
December 20, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992422/role-of-t3ss-1-sipd-protein-in-protecting-mice-against-non-typhoidal-salmonella-typhimurium
#18
Bakhos Jneid, Karine Moreau, Marc Plaisance, Audrey Rouaix, Julie Dano, Stéphanie Simon
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica species are enteric pathogens that cause severe diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to enteric fever and sepsis in humans. These infectious diseases are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, especially in children younger than 5 years and immunocompromised adults. Vaccines targeting typhoidal diseases are already marketed, but none protect against non-typhoidal Salmonella. The existence of multiple non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes as well as emerging antibiotic resistance highlight the need for development of a broad-spectrum protective vaccine...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975062/identification-of-five-novel-salmonella-typhi-specific-genes-as-markers-for-diagnosis-of-typhoid-fever-using-single-gene-target-pcr-assays
#19
Yuan Xin Goay, Kai Ling Chin, Clarissa Ling Ling Tan, Chiann Ying Yeoh, Ja'afar Nuhu Ja'afar, Abdul Rahman Zaidah, Suresh Venkata Chinni, Kia Kien Phua
Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever which is a disease characterised by high mortality and morbidity worldwide. In order to curtail the transmission of this highly infectious disease, identification of new markers that can detect the pathogen is needed for development of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. In this study, genomic comparison of S. Typhi with other enteric pathogens was performed, and 6 S. Typhi genes, that is, STY0201, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, were found to be specific in silico...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974800/near-atomic-resolution-cryo-em-analysis-of-the-salmonella-t3s-injectisome-basal-body
#20
L J Worrall, C Hong, M Vuckovic, W Deng, J R C Bergeron, D D Majewski, R K Huang, T Spreter, B B Finlay, Z Yu, N C J Strynadka
The type III secretion (T3S) injectisome is a specialized protein nanomachine that is critical for the pathogenicity of many Gram-negative bacteria, including purveyors of plague, typhoid fever, whooping cough, sexually transmitted infections and major nosocomial infections. This syringe-shaped 3.5-MDa macromolecular assembly spans both bacterial membranes and that of the infected host cell. The internal channel formed by the injectisome allows for the direct delivery of partially unfolded virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm...
December 14, 2016: Nature
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