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typhoid fever

Rosângela Salerno-Gonçalves, James E Galen, Myron M Levine, Alessio Fasano, Marcelo B Sztein
Although immunity induced by typhoid fever is moderated and short-lived, typhoid vaccination with the attenuated Ty21a oral vaccine generates long-lasting protection rates reaching up to 92%. Thus, there are important differences on how wild-type Salmonella and typhoid vaccine strains stimulate host immunity. We hypothesize that vaccine strains with different mutations might affect gut inflammation and intestinal permeability by different mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we used an in vitro organotypic model of the human intestinal mucosa composed of human intestinal epithelial cells, lymphocytes/monocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Winnie C Mutai, Anne W T Muigai, Peter Waiyaki, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains a public health concern in developing countries especially among the poor who live in informal settlements devoid of proper sanitation and clean water supply. In addition antimicrobial resistance poses a major challenge in management of the disease. This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) isolated from typhoid fever cases (2004-2007). METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 144 archived S...
November 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Senjuti Saha, Arif M Tanmoy, Jason R Andrews, Mohammad S I Sajib, Alexander T Yu, Stephen Baker, Stephen P Luby, Samir K Saha
With prequalification of a typhoid conjugate vaccine by the World Health Organization, countries are deciding whether and at what geographic scale to provide the vaccine. Optimal local data to clarify typhoid risk are expensive and often unavailable. To determine whether quantitative real-time PCR can be used as a tool to detect typhoidal Salmonella DNA in the environment and approximate the burden of enteric fever, we tested water samples from urban Dhaka, where enteric fever burden is high, and rural Mirzapur, where enteric fever burden is low and sporadic...
November 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Arif M Tanmoy, Emilie Westeel, Katrien De Bruyne, Johan Goris, Alain Rajoharison, Mohammad S I Sajib, Alex van Belkum, Samir K Saha, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert P Endtz
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is a global public health concern due to increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Characterization of S Typhi genomes for AMR and the evolution of different lineages, especially in countries where typhoid fever is endemic such as Bangladesh, will help public health professionals to better design and implement appropriate preventive measures. We studied whole-genome sequences (WGS) of 536 S Typhi isolates collected in Bangladesh during 1999 to 2013 and compared those sequences with data from a recent outbreak in Pakistan reported previously by E...
November 13, 2018: MBio
Hasan Ahmedullah, Fahmi Yousef Khan, Muna Al Maslamani, Hussam Al Soub, Kadavil Chacko, Mohammed Abu Khattab, Samar Mahmoud, Faraj Howaidy, Maliha Thapur, Eyad Al Madhoun, Manal Hamed, Sanjay Doiphode, Abdulatif Al Khal, Anand Deshmukh
Objectives: We sought to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of typhoid fever in Qatar. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of adult patients treated for typhoid fever at Hamad General Hospital and Alkhor Hospital between 2005 and 2012. Results: The mean age of the 354 patients enrolled in the study was 28.4±9.3 years; 296 (83.6%) were males. There were 42, 48, 39, 44, 46, 47, 52, and 36 cases of adults with typhoid fever in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively...
November 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Samuel Majalija, Patrick Luyombo, Gabriel Tumwine
OBJECTIVE: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired through direct contact with the infected animals and consumption of contaminated milk and meat products. In humans Brucellosis presents similar signs with other febrile diseases like Malaria, typhoid and other febrile conditions. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus among patients with fever but were negative for Malaria. RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Namayumba Health Centre IV, Wakiso district involving 200 participants...
November 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Lofty-John C Anyanwu, Aminu M Mohammad, Lawal B Abdullahi, Mustapha U Ibrahim, Aliyu U Farinyaro, Mohammed S Aliyu, Stephen K Obaro
Intestinal perforation is a life-threatening complication of typhoid fever commonly seen in developing countries, but extraintestinal complications are infrequently reported. We report herein two cases of gangrene seen in children managed for typhoid intestinal perforation, highlighting the challenges faced in their management.
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
Hua Gu, Congcong Yan, Zhenggang Jiang, Xiuyang Li, Enfu Chen, Jianmin Jiang, Qingwu Jiang, Yibiao Zhou
Background : The incidences of typhoid and paratyphoid remain high and these diseases still pose a public health problem in China and in Zhejiang Province in particular. This study aimed to investigate the trend of typhoid and paratyphoid in Zhejiang Province from 1953 to 2014 and to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of these diseases. Methods : Included in this study were compiled epidemiological data of typhoid and paratyphoid cases in Zhejiang from 1953 to 2003 and epidemiological data of those from 2004 to 2014 registered in the China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Akshay Datey, Meghanashree Shreenivas, Giridhar Chandrasekharan, Jeswin Joseph, Shivjee Sah, Srinivas Aluri, Sankhanil Saha, Umesh Varshney, Dipshikha Chakravortty
Live attenuated vaccines are superior to the killed or subunit vaccines. We designed a Salmonella Typhimurium strain by deleting folD gene (encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase) in the presence of a heterologous fhs gene (encoding formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase) and tested its vaccine potential under stringent conditions of lethal and sub-lethal challenges with virulent Salmonella in the murine model. The efficacy of the vaccine in conferring protection against Salmonella infection was determined in a wide range of host conditions of systemic infection, corresponding to human young adults, neonates, geriatric age and, importantly, to the immune compromised state of pregnancy...
October 29, 2018: Vaccine
Robert Jakubowski, Lisa L Steed, Susan E Dorman, Camelia Marculescu
We describe a febrile adult returning to the U.S. from Nigeria. Malaria was diagnosed by rapid antigen testing, but recognition of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease was delayed. While the moniker, "typhomalaria," once used to describe an illness with features of malaria and typhoid fever, has fallen out of favor, it may nevertheless be a helpful reminder to clinicians that both infectious diseases can arise in the same patient. Blood cultures should be obtained routinely in febrile returning travelers from malaria-endemic regions, including those in whom the diagnosis of malaria has already been established...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Jacob Steere-Williams
This article recovers the history of Victorian epidemiology through the career of British physician Edward Ballard (1820-1897). Ballard's career provides a useful window into the practices of epidemiology in the 19th century because he held notable public health posts as medical officer of health for Islington and inspector at the Medical Department of the Local Government Board. By the time of his death, in 1897, he typified the transition toward professional epidemiology. In exploring some of the most important environmental and health-related problems in preventive medicine in the 19th century, Ballard was part of a group of influential epidemiologists who studied infectious disease...
December 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Olumide Ajibola, Mari B Mshelia, Bashar H Gulumbe, Anthonius A Eze
Typhoid fever causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries, with inaccurate estimates in some countries affected, especially those situated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Disease burden assessment is limited by lack of a high degree of sensitivity and specificity by many current rapid diagnostic tests. Some of the new technologies, such as PCR and proteomics, may also be useful but are difficult for low-resource settings to apply as point-of-care diagnostics. Weak laboratory surveillance systems may also contribute to the spread of multidrug resistant Salmonella serovar Typhi across endemic areas...
April 25, 2018: Medicina
Romain Guery, Anoosha Habibi, Jean-Benoît Arlet, François Lionnet, Victoire de Lastours, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Keyvan Razazi, Laurence Baranes, Pablo Bartolucci, Bertrand Godeau, Fréderic Galacteros, Marc Michel, Matthieu Mahevas
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) often occurs in children with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and remains a significant cause of mortality in developing countries. However, there is lack of reports on the clinical presentation, outcome and complications of NTS in adults with SCD. METHODS: We performed a chart review between 2006 and 2016 of adults SCD diagnosed with NTS in 3 referral centers monitoring approximately 3500 SCD adults. RESULTS: Twenty-three episodes of NTS were diagnosed among 22 SCD adults...
October 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Divek V T Nair, Kumar Venkitanarayanan, Anup Kollanoor Johny
Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition to its extra-animal environmental strongholds. The last few decades have witnessed the emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic-resistant Salmonella , causing greater morbidity and mortality in humans...
October 11, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Dipika Sur, Caitlin Barkume, Bratati Mukhopadhyay, Kashmira Date, Nirmal Kumar Ganguly, Denise Garrett
Background: Enteric fever remains a threat to many countries with minimal access to clean water and poor sanitation infrastructure. As part of a multisite surveillance study, we conducted a retrospective review of records in 5 hospitals across India to gather evidence on the burden of enteric fever. Methods: We examined hospital records (laboratory and surgical registers) from 5 hospitals across India for laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi cases and intestinal perforations from 2014-2015...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marina Antillon, Neil J Saad, Stephen Baker, Andrew J Pollard, Virginia E Pitzer
Background: Blood culture is the standard diagnostic method for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever in surveillance studies and clinical trials, but sensitivity is widely acknowledged to be suboptimal. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine sources of heterogeneity across studies and quantified the effect of blood volume. Methods: We searched the literature to identify all studies that performed blood culture alongside bone marrow culture (a gold standard) to detect cases of enteric fever...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alexander T Yu, Nuhu Amin, Muhammad Waliur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, Kazi Mizanur Rahman, Stephen P Luby
With impending rollout of new conjugate typhoid vaccines, better estimates of typhoid case-fatality ratio are needed for countries to set priorities for public health programs. We enrolled 1425 patients of all ages with blood culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhi from laboratory networks serving inpatients and outpatients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Participants were asked about symptoms and complications including death experienced over a median 3-month period following blood culture diagnosis. Four fatal cases were identified (case-fatality ratio of 0...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shao-Chieh Chien, Tsong-Him Iap, Yin-Rong Chiu, Shian-Sen Shie, Chih-Jung Chen
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever was rare in Taiwan but approximately two-third of the cases were indigenous. The transmission source of the indigenous cases and the relatedness to the imported cases remained unknown. METHODS: Patients with any site culture positive for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were identified in a teaching hospital during 2001-2014. The isolates were determined for antibiotic susceptibilities, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) types...
October 6, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Biruk Zerfu, Girmay Medhin, Gezahegne Mamo, Gezahegn Getahun, Rea Tschopp, Mengistu Legesse
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, where there is the scarcity of proper diagnostic tools, febrile illness related symptoms are often misdiagnosed as malaria. Information on causative agents of febrile illness related symptoms among pastoral communities in Ethiopia have rarely been described. METHODS: In this a community based cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence of typhoid fever, typhus, brucellosis and malaria among individuals with a set of given symptoms in Amibara district, Afar Region, Ethiopia...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Julii Brainard, Rob D'hondt, Engy Ali, Rafael Van den Bergh, Anja De Weggheleire, Yves Baudot, Frederic Patigny, Vincent Lambert, Rony Zachariah, Peter Maes, Donat Kuma-Kuma Kenge, Paul R Hunter
During 2011 a large outbreak of typhoid fever affected an estimated 1430 people in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreak started in military camps in the city but then spread to the general population. This paper reports the results of an ecological analysis and a case-control study undertaken to examine water and other possible transmission pathways. Attack rates were determined for health areas and risk ratios were estimated with respect to spatial exposures. Approximately 15 months after the outbreak, demographic, environmental and exposure data were collected for 320 cases and 640 controls residing in the worst affected areas, using a structured interview questionnaire...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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