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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742135/salmonella-enterica-serovar-specific-transcriptional-reprogramming-of-infected-cells
#1
Sebastian Hannemann, Jorge E Galán
Despite their high degree of genomic similarity, different Salmonella enterica serovars are often associated with very different clinical presentations. In humans, for example, the typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease. In contrast, the non-typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhimurium causes self-limiting gastroenteritis. The molecular bases for these different clinical presentations are incompletely understood. The ability to re-program gene expression in host cells is an essential virulence factor for typhoidal and non-typhoidal S...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739115/a-recombinant-protein-of-salmonella-typhi-induces-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-including-memory-responses
#2
Sayan Das, Rimi Chowdhury, Shubhamoy Ghosh, Santasabuj Das
Gram negative enteric bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the etiological agent of typhoid fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. While a permanent solution to the problem would require improved sanitation, food and water hygiene, controlling the infection by vaccination is urgently required due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains in multiple countries. The currently licensed vaccines are moderately efficacious with limited applicability, and no recommended vaccines exist for younger children...
July 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730976/salmonella-intracellular-lifestyles-and-their-impact-on-host-to-host-transmission
#3
M Graciela Pucciarelli, Francisco García-Del Portillo
More than a century ago, infections by Salmonella were already associated with foodborne enteric diseases with high morbidity in humans and cattle. Intestinal inflammation and diarrhea are hallmarks of infections caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, and these pathologies facilitate pathogen transmission to the environment. In those early times, physicians and microbiologists also realized that typhoid and paratyphoid fever caused by some Salmonella serovars could be transmitted by "carriers," individuals outwardly healthy or at most suffering from some minor chronic complaint...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727726/a-cross-sectional-seroepidemiological-survey-of-typhoid-fever-in-fiji
#4
Conall H Watson, Stephen Baker, Colleen L Lau, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Niel Hens, John Lowry, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Jorge Cano, Kylie Jenkins, E Kim Mulholland, Eric J Nilles, Mike Kama, W John Edmunds
Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720886/spatio-temporal-variations-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fevers-in-zhejiang-province-china-from-2005-to-2015
#5
Hua Gu, Wenjie Fan, Kui Liu, Shuwen Qin, Xiuyang Li, Jianmin Jiang, Enfu Chen, Yibiao Zhou, Qingwu Jiang
Typhoid and paratyphoid are two common enteric infectious diseases with serious gastrointestinal symptoms. Data was collected of the registered cases in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2015. The epidemiological characteristics were investigated and high-risk regions were detected with descriptive epidemiological methods and in-depth spatio-temporal statistics. A sharp decline in the incidences of both diseases was observed. The seasonal patterns were identified with typhoid and paratyphoid, one in summer from May to September was observed from 2005 to 2010 and the other lesser one in spring from January to March only observed from 2005 to 2007...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717307/traditional-treatment-of-human-and-animal-salmonelloses-in-southern-benin-knowledge-of-farmers-and-traditherapists
#6
T V Dougnon, E Déguénon, L Fah, B Lègba, Y M G Hounmanou, J Agbankpè, A Amadou, H Koudokpon, K Fabiyi, A Aniambossou, P Assogba, E Hounsa, M de Souza, F Avlessi, T J Dougnon, F Gbaguidi, M Boko, H S Bankolé, L Baba-Moussa
AIM: This study aimed to report medicinal plants that are likely to be used in the control of salmonellosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Southern Benin. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 150 farmers and 100 traditional therapists in seven high municipalities. This step helped to collect plants that are used in the treatment of animal salmonellosis and typhoid fever in human. RESULTS: The results revealed a low level of use of medicinal plants among breeders who prefer antibiotics such as oxytetracycline (53...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681816/clinical-and-laboratory-profile-of-dengue-viral-infections-in-and-around-mangalore-india
#7
Tina Damodar, Meena Dias, Reeta Mani, K A Shilpa, Ashwini Manoor Anand, V Ravi, Jutang Tiewsoh
BACKGROUND: Dengue (DEN) is being recognised as the world's major emerging tropical disease. Clinically, DEN may resemble other infections such as malaria, leptospirosis, and typhoid, and thus, laboratory investigations are required for definitive diagnosis. Secondary DEN infection, caused most often by dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 2 and 3, is known to present with severe disease manifestations. This study was undertaken to examine the clinical and laboratory profile of DEN viral infections and to determine the circulating serotypes in and around Mangalore, India...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674312/molecular-subtyping-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-by-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-and-multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-in-india-their-association-with-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles
#8
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Indranil Roy, Sathish Sankar, Rajni Gaind, Monorama Deb, Raghavendra Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar Paul, Shanta Dutta
Molecular subtyping, and recently DNA sequencing based methods, which are commonly used for discriminating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, leads to improved molecular epidemiological investigations for prevention and control of typhoid fever. We included S. Typhi blood isolates (n=66) from India during 2007-14 for molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in association with antibiotic resistance profiles...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674145/the-strataa-study-protocol-a-programme-to-assess-the-burden-of-enteric-fever-in-bangladesh-malawi-and-nepal-using-prospective-population-census-passive-surveillance-serological-studies-and-healthcare-utilisation-surveys
#9
Thomas C Darton, James E Meiring, Susan Tonks, Md Arifuzzaman Khan, Farhana Khanam, Mila Shakya, Deus Thindwa, Stephen Baker, Buddha Basnyat, John D Clemens, Gordon Dougan, Christiane Dolecek, Sarah J Dunstan, Melita A Gordon, Robert S Heyderman, Kathryn E Holt, Virginia E Pitzer, Firdausi Qadri, K Zaman, Andrew J Pollard
INTRODUCTION: Invasive infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A are estimated to account for 12-27 million febrile illness episodes worldwide annually. Determining the true burden of typhoidal Salmonellae infections is hindered by lack of population-based studies and adequate laboratory diagnostics.The Strategic Typhoid alliance across Africa and Asia study takes a systematic approach to measuring the age-stratified burden of clinical and subclinical disease caused by typhoidal Salmonellae infections at three high-incidence urban sites in Africa and Asia...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658831/enteric-cholestatic-hepatitis-with-ascites-a-rare-entity
#10
Samarth Virmani, Rama Bhat, Raghavendra Rao, Savio Dsouza, Nitin Bhat
Typhoid fever is a very common illness in developing countries. Patients most often present with a history of fever, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, etc. Rarely there is hepatic involvement due to the disease process. This is a case report of a 26-year-old male who had presented with fever, jaundice and ascites. The widal titres were found to be within normal limits (1:80) however the patient was found to have Salmonella typhi on ascitic fluid culture. The patient was treated with the appropriate antibiotics and was later discharged...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656014/the-role-of-typhoid-toxin-in-salmonella-typhi-virulence%C3%A2
#11
REVIEW
Alexander Chong, Sohyoung Lee, Yi-An Yang, Jeongmin Song
Unlike many of the nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars such as S. Typhimurium that cause restricted gastroenteritis, Salmonella Typhi is unique in that it causes life-threatening typhoid fever in humans. Despite the vast difference in disease outcomes that S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium cause in humans, there are few genomic regions that are unique to S. Typhi. Of these regions, the most notable is the small locus encoding typhoid toxin, an AB toxin that has several distinct characteristics that contribute to S. Typhi's pathogenicity...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653456/detecting-ebola-with-limited-laboratory-access-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-evaluation-of-a-clinical-passive-surveillance-reporting-system
#12
Hayley R Ashbaugh, Brandon Kuang, Adva Gadoth, Vivian H Alfonso, Patrick Mukadi, Reena H Doshi, Nicole A Hoff, Cyrus Sinai, Mathias Mossoko, Benoit Ilunga Kebela, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Anne W Rimoin
BACKGROUND: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. METHODS: Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR...
June 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650129/in-vitro-efficacy-and-in-silico-analysis-of-cefixime-ofloxacin-combination-for-salmonella-typhi-from-bloodstream-infection
#13
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Thirumal Kumar D, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi, Baby Abirami S, Priyanka Babu, Elakkiya Munusamy, Bhuvaneswari Thukkaram, Raji Ravi, George Priya Doss C, Balaji Veeraraghavan
AIMS: Recently, the cefixime-ofloxacin combination is approved by drug controller general of India (DCGI) to treat typhoid fever. We sought to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of cefixime-ofloxacin combination against S. Typhi. METHODS AND RESULTS: 283 non-duplicate S. Typhi isolates collected during 2012 to 2014 were included in this study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefixime and ofloxacin was determined by using broth microdilution method. Combinational testing was performed by using checkerboard assay...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647977/-surveillance-data-on-typhoid-fever-and-paratyphoid-fever-in-2015-china
#14
F F Liu, S L Zhao, Q Chen, Z R Chang, J Zhang, Y M Zheng, L Luo, L Ran, Q H Liao
Objective: Through analyzing the surveillance data on typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in 2015 to understand the related epidemiological features and most possible clustering areas of high incidence. Methods: Individual data was collected from the passive surveillance program and analyzed by descriptive statistic method. Characteristics on seasonal, regional and distribution of the diseases were described. Spatial-temporal clustering characteristics were estimated, under the retrospective space-time method...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640809/development-of-elisas-for-diagnosis-of-acute-typhoid-fever-in-nigerian-children
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jiin Felgner, Aarti Jain, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Algis Jasinskas, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Joseph M Vinetz, Fabio Miyajima, Munir Pirmohamed, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Dominic Umoru, Binta Wudil Jibir, Safiya Gambo, Kudirat Olateju, Philip L Felgner, Stephen Obaro, D Huw Davies
Improved serodiagnostic tests for typhoid fever (TF) are needed for surveillance, to facilitate patient management, curb antibiotic resistance, and inform public health programs. To address this need, IgA, IgM and IgG ELISAs using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hemolysin E (t1477) protein were conducted on 86 Nigerian pediatric TF and 29 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cases, 178 culture-negative febrile cases, 28 "other" (i.e., non-Salmonella) pediatric infections, and 48 healthy Nigerian children...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637001/a-novel-method-to-generate-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-ghosts-exploiting-the-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-system
#16
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630073/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-lpf-and-stg-fimbriae-in-salmonella-interactions-with-enterocytes-and-m-cells
#17
Amanda M Gonzales, Shyra Wilde, Kenneth L Roland
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes the systemic disease typhoid fever. After ingestion, it adheres to and invades the host epithelium while evading the host innate immune response, causing little if any inflammation. Conversely, S Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans and thrives in the inflamed gut. Upon entering the host, S Typhimurium preferentially colonizes Peyer's patches, a lymphoid organ in which microfold cells (M cells) overlay an arrangement of B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622429/synthesis-and-antigenic-evaluation-of-oligosaccharide-mimics-of-vi-antigen-from-salmonella-typhi
#18
Xinshan Ye, Gao-Lan Zhang, Lin Yang, Jingjing Zhu
Salmonella typhi is responsible for typhoid fever, which is a serious health threat in developing countries. As a virulent factor of Salmonella typhi, the purified Vi polysaccharide (Vi PS) has become an effective vaccine to combat typhoid fever. The chemical synthesis can provide homogeneous and well-defined molecules for the development of Vi-based vaccines. However, the synthesis of Vi oligosaccharides in high yields and with exclusive α-stereoselectivities remains very challenging. In this paper, a series of Vi pseudooligosaccharides, including pseudo tetra-, hexa-, and octa-saccharides were efficiently synthesized...
June 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619415/international-travelers-sociodemographic-health-and-travel-characteristics-an-italian-study
#19
Gianmarco Troiano, Astrid Mercone, Alessandra Bagnoli, Nicola Nante
BACKGROUND: Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617661/molecular-dynamics-approach-to-probe-the-antigenicity-of-pagn-an-outer-membrane-protein-of-salmonella-typhi
#20
Nabajyoti Goswami, Md Iftikar Hussain, Probodh Borah
PagN is a highly immunogenic 27-kDa outer membrane adhesin present in Salmonella Typhi. It plays a major role in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever and has emerged as a strong vaccine candidate. In this report, we predict the three-dimensional structure of PagN and describe the conformational dynamics associated with its four extracellular loops based on two 100-ns molecular dynamics simulations at 300 and 310 K. The formation and deformation of the secondary structures on these loops were also investigated during the simulations which revealed loops L1 and L2 to be highly flexible, whereas the relative flexibility of loops L3 and L4 was minimal...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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