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typhoid fever

Nikolaus Ackermann, Durdica Marosevic, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Eberle, Gabriele Rieder, Bianca Treis, Anja Berger, Heribert Bischoff, Katja Bengs, Regina Konrad, Wolfgang Hautmann, Katharina Schönberger, Anne Belting, Gisela Schlenk, Gabriele Margos, Martin Hoch, Friedrich Pürner, Volker Fingerle, Bernhard Liebl, Andreas Sing
Background and aimAs a consequence of socioeconomic and political crises in many parts of the world, many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have faced an increasing number of migrants. In the German federal state of Bavaria, a mandatory health screening approach is implemented, where individuals applying for asylum have to undergo a medical examination that includes serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B, screening for tuberculosis, and until September 2015, stool examination for Salmonella spp...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Natalia Rodriguez-Valero, Helena Moza Moriñigo, Miguel J Martínez, Aida Peiró, Ines Oliveira, Marta Bodro, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Joaquim Gascon, Jose Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis worldwide, nevertheless is often poor recognized in non tropical settings. In Thailand is becoming an emerging disease and Chiang Mai could become a popular spot to acquire the disease amongst travelers. METHODS: We describe three cases of imported leptospirosis undifferentiated fever after travelling to Thailand during the summer of 2015 diagnosed at two Spanish hospitals. RESULTS: Our three patients probably acquired leptospirosis while swimming in freshwater around Chiang Mai, a Thailand's northern region with moderate incidence of leptopirosis...
March 8, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Whittney N Burda, Karen E Brenneman, Amanda Gonzales, Roy Curtiss
The vast majority of live attenuated typhoid vaccines are constructed from the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty2, which is devoid of a functioning alternative sigma factor, RpoS, due to the presence of a frameshift mutation. RpoS is a specialized sigma factor that plays an important role in the general stress response of a number of Gram-negative organisms, including Salmonella . Previous studies have demonstrated that this sigma factor is necessary for survival following exposure to acid, hydrogen peroxide, nutrient-limiting conditions, and starvation...
January 2018: MSphere
Kazuki Hirata, Taku Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujikura, Yoshihiko Ogawa, Nobuyasu Hirai, Tomoko Nakagawa-Onishi, Kenji Uno, Masahiro Takeyama, Kei Kasahara, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Mitsuru Konishi, Keiichi Mikasa
Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Rini Bandyopadhyay, Veeraghavan Balaji, Bijesh Yadav, Sudha Jasmine, Sowmya Sathyendra, Priscilla Rupali
The epidemiology of typhoid fever in South Asia has changed. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella typhi ( S. typhi) is now frequently resistant to nalidixic acid and thus labelled NARST. Treatment failure with the use of fluoroquinolones has been widely noted, forcing clinicians to adopt alternative treatment strategies. In this observational study, we looked at various treatment regimens and correlated clinical and microbiological outcomes. In 146 hospitalised adults, the median minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin was 0...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
Enrique Laval
During the historical development of typhoid fever in Chile, its confusion with other infectious diseases is particularly noteworthy, especially with murine typhus, a problem that was mainly resolved during the 1918 epidemic. The importance of chloramphenicol treatment is also highlighted, which meant an enormous improvement in typhoid/paratyphoid fevers, in combination with public health and health education actions that allowed to almost eliminate these infectious diseases in our country.
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
J Mushanyu, F Nyabadza, G Muchatibaya, P Mafuta, G Nhawu
Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi and occurs predominantly in association with poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. Despite recent progress in water and sanitation coverage, the disease remains a substantial public health problem in many developing countries. A mathematical model for the spread of typhoid has been formulated using non linear ordinary differential equations. The model includes a special treatment function to assess the effects of limited treatment resources on the spread of typhoid...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Sarah D Bennett, Sara A Lowther, Felix Chingoli, Benson Chilima, Storn Kabuluzi, Tracy L Ayers, Thomas A Warne, Eric Mintz
On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth J Klemm, Sadia Shakoor, Andrew J Page, Farah Naz Qamar, Kim Judge, Dania K Saeed, Vanessa K Wong, Timothy J Dallman, Satheesh Nair, Stephen Baker, Ghazala Shaheen, Shahida Qureshi, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Muhammad Khalid Saleem, Zahra Hasan, Gordon Dougan, Rumina Hasan
Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often associated with the dominant H58 haplotype. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel S  Typhi clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) as well as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Sindh, Pakistan, which we classify as extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
February 20, 2018: MBio
Lin H Chen, Karin Leder, Kira A Barbre, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Michael Libman, Jay Keystone, Marc Mendelson, Philippe Gautret, Eli Schwartz, Marc Shaw, Sue MacDonald, Anne McCarthy, Bradley A Connor, Douglas H Esposito, Davidson Hamer, Mary E Wilson
Background: Analysis of a large cohort of business travelers will help clinicians focus on frequent and serious illnesses. We aimed to describe travel-related health problems in business travelers. Methods: GeoSentinel Surveillance Network consists of 64 travel and tropical medicine clinics in 29 countries; descriptive analysis was performed on ill business travelers, defined as persons traveling for work, evaluated after international travel 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2014...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Tamding Wangdi, Gabriel Lock, Cheng Saechao, Manuela Raffatellu, Brian A Cobb, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi differs in its clinical presentation from gastroenteritis caused by S. Typhimurium and other non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. The different clinical presentations are attributed in part to the virulence-associated capsular polysaccharide (Vi antigen) of S. Typhi, which prevents phagocytes from triggering a respiratory burst by preventing antibody-mediated complement activation. Paradoxically, the Vi antigen is absent from S. Paratyphi A, which causes a disease that is indistinguishable from typhoid fever...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Nathan C Lo, Ribhav Gupta, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Denise O Garrett, Isaac I Bogoch, Stephen P Luby, Jason R Andrews
Background: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem globally. While new Vi conjugate vaccines hold promise for averting disease, the optimal programmatic delivery remains unclear. We aimed to identify the strategies and associated epidemiologic conditions under which Vi conjugate vaccines would be cost-effective. Methods: We developed a dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness model that simulated multiple vaccination strategies with a typhoid Vi conjugate vaccine from a societal perspective...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Madeeha Subhan, Waleed Sadiq
Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Typhoid has its own contribution to the disease burden, especially in Pakistan and other tropical countries. Herein, we present a case of enteric fever with a rare presentation. Our patient is a 20-year-old man who gradually developed high-grade fever lasting seven days associated with rigors and chills. No additional accompanying systemic signs helped to localize the infection. After extensive laboratory testing, his typhoid serology was positive along with leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia...
December 6, 2017: Curēus
Moisés Francisco, Sofia Santos Costa, Adriana Belas, Jorge Ramos, Isabel Couto, Constança Pomba, Miguel Viveiros
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a common infection in Africa and in spite of scarce surveillance reports, its incidence is commonly considered high by the Angolan Health system. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi has emerged, turning antimicrobial susceptibility testing essential to provide clinical guidance. This is the first report analyzing antimicrobial resistance patterns and population structure of the few S. enterica ser. Typhi isolated from patients with Typhoid fever in Luanda, Angola...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Halima Khatun, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Syed Aminul Islam, Baitun Nahar, Md Nur Haque Alam, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture-proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between January 2010 and December 2014...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ying Zhang, Lin Xia, Liping Lin, Hao Tang, George Osei-Adjei, Shungao Xu, Yiquan Zhang, Xinxiang Huang
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causative agent of human typhoid fever. S. Typhi expresses a major virulence determinant called Vi polysaccharide capsular antigen, which is encoded by the viaB locus containing 10 consecutive genes including tviA and tviB. Expression of Vi antigen is regulated by the two-component regulatory system EnvZ/OmpR and the global RNA-binding factor Hfq. In this study, we show that OmpR coordinates with Hfq to regulate the transcription of Vi antigen genes under osmotic stress conditions...
February 7, 2018: Current Microbiology
Fabienne Huber, Benoît Ehrensperger, Christoph Hatz, François Chappuis, Silja Bühler, Gilles Eperon
Background: Patients increasingly benefit from immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory medications for a range of conditions allowing them a lifestyle similar to healthy individuals, including travel. However, the administration of live vaccines to immunodeficient patients bears the risk of replication of the attenuated vaccine microorganism. Therefore, live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppression. Data on live vaccinations on immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory medication are scarce...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Caroline Evans, Elizabeth Bateman, Rachael Steven, Mark Ponsford, Alice Cullinane, Claire Shenton, Gillian Duthie, Chris Conlon, Stephen Jolles, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Hilary J Longhurst, Tasneem Rahman, Chris Scott, Gregg Wallis, Stephen Harding, Antony R Parker, Berne L Ferry
Vaccine specific antibody responses are essential in the diagnosis of antibody deficiencies. Responses to Pneumovax II are used to assess the response to polysaccharide antigens but interpretation may be complicated. Typhim Vi®, a polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhoid fever, maybe an additional option for assessing humoral responses in patients suspected of having an immunodeficiency. Here we report a UK multicentre study describing the analytical and clinical performance of a Typhi Vi IgG ELISA calibrated to an affinity purified Typhi Vi IgG preparation...
January 29, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Elin Näsström, Pär Jonsson, Anders Johansson, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Buddha Basnyat, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Guy E Thwaites, Henrik Antti, Stephen Baker
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A are the agents of enteric (typhoid) fever; both can establish chronic carriage in the gallbladder. Chronic Salmonella carriers are typically asymptomatic, intermittently shedding bacteria in the feces, and contributing to disease transmission. Detecting chronic carriers is of public health relevance in areas where enteric fever is endemic, but there are no routinely used methods for prospectively identifying those carrying Salmonella in their gallbladder...
January 26, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Pei Li, Qing Liu, Hongyan Luo, Kang Liang, Yue Han, Kenneth L Roland, Roy Curtiss, Qingke Kong
Salmonella Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, responsible for approximately 21 million infections and 222,000 deaths globally each year. The current licensed vaccines provide moderate protection to recipients aged >2 years. Prior work on typhoid vaccines has focused on injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide or Vi-protein conjugates and live, oral attenuated S. Typhi vaccines to induce humoral anti-Vi antibodies, while the value and importance of anti-O9 antibodies is less well established...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
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