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typhoid fever

Samuel N Frempong, Clare Davenport, Andrew J Sutton, Justice Nonvignon, Pelham Barton
BACKGROUND: Despite their potential, there is limited uptake of formal qualitative methods in model development by modellers and health economists. The aim of this case study was to highlight in a real-world context how a qualitative approach has been applied to gain insight into current practice (delineating existing care pathways) for typhoid fever in Ghana, which can then assist in model structure conceptualisation in a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: The perspectives of a range of healthcare professionals working in different settings and across different practices in the Eastern region of Ghana were captured with a self-administered survey using open-ended questions and analysed using the framework method...
July 18, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Jason R Andrews, Farhana Khanam, Nazia Rahman, Motaher Hossain, Isaac I Bogoch, Krista Vaidya, Meagan Kelly, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri, Richelle C Charles
Background: There is a need for a reliable, simple diagnostic assay for typhoid fever. Available commercial serologic assays for typhoid fever have limited sensitivity and specificity. Using high-throughput immuno-screening technologies, we previously identified several immuno-reactive Salmonella Typhi antigens that appear promising for possible inclusion in a new diagnostic assay: hemolysin E (HlyE); cytolethal distending toxin (CdtB), S. Typhi LPS, and S. Typhi membrane preparation (MP)...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Scott M Baliban, Jessica C Allen, Brittany Curtis, Mohammed N Amin, Andrew Lees, R Nageswara Rao, Gangadhara Naidu, Ramasamy Venkatesan, D Yogeswara Rao, Vadrevu Krishna Mohan, Krishna M Ella, Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Typhoid fever due to Salmonella Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections caused by serovars Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (STm) are major pediatric health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Typhoid has high complication rates, and iNTS infections have high case fatality rates; moreover, emerging antimicrobial resistance is diminishing treatment options. Vi capsule-based typhoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV™), licensed in India and pre-qualified by the World Health Organization, elicits durable immunity when administered to infants, but no iNTS vaccines are licensed or imminent...
July 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rajesh Dhoj Joshi, Sachin Khadka, Deepak Man Joshi, Basudha Shrestha, Ganesh Dangal, Kiran Prasad Acharya, Sanjit Shrestha, Yashad Dongol
BACKGROUND: For diagnosis of enteric fever, the culture of the organism from different body fluids is the gold standard. After diagnosis, it is important to treat with the right antibiotic before any complications can occur. The retrospective study is designed to explore the antibiotic sensitivity trend in blood culture positive typhoid fever cases and the extent of drug resistance before treatment is administered. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out for culture isolated enteric fever patients admitted in Kathmandu Model Hospital...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Wim L Cuypers, Jan Jacobs, Vanessa Wong, Elizabeth J Klemm, Stijn Deborggraeve, Sandra Van Puyvelde
Fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Salmonella spp. were listed by the WHO in 2017 as priority pathogens for which new antibiotics were urgently needed. The overall global burden of Salmonella infections is high, but differs per region. Whereas typhoid fever is most prevalent in South and South-East Asia, non-typhoidal salmonellosis is prevalent across the globe and associated with a mild gastroenteritis. By contrast, invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella cause bloodstream infections associated with high mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa...
July 5, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Jennifer R Tanner, Robert A Kingsley
Within-host evolution has resulted in thousands of variants of Salmonella that exhibit remarkable diversity in host range and disease outcome, from broad host range to exquisite host restriction, causing gastroenteritis to disseminated disease such as typhoid fever. Within-host evolution is a continuing process driven by genomic variation that occurs during each infection, potentiating adaptation to a new niche resulting from changes in animal husbandry, the use of antimicrobials, and emergence of immune compromised populations...
June 25, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Tarang Sharma, Chandresh Sharma, Anurag Sankhyan, Sanjiv Pal Bedi, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Navin Khanna, Vikas Gautam, Sunil Sethi, Sudhanshu Vrati, Ashutosh Tiwari
Typhoid fever caused by human restricted Salmonella typhi presents a considerable health burden on developing South-Asian nations like India. The suboptimal sensitivity and specificity associated with culture-based isolation of etiological agent and the extensively used surface antigen-based serological assays often lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate antimicrobial treatment. The increasing reports of the emergence of resistant strains and undefined disease burden signify the critical need for an inexpensive, reliable, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic test for typhoid fever...
June 21, 2018: Immunologic Research
Sarah L Jaslow, Kyle D Gibbs, W Florian Fricke, Liuyang Wang, Kelly J Pittman, Mark K Mammel, Joshua T Thaden, Vance G Fowler, Gianna E Hammer, Johanna R Elfenbein, Dennis C Ko
Salmonella enterica is an important foodborne pathogen that uses secreted effector proteins to manipulate host pathways to facilitate survival and dissemination. Different S. enterica serovars cause disease syndromes ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever and vary in their effector repertoire. We leveraged this natural diversity to identify stm2585, here designated sarA (Salmonella anti-inflammatory response activator), as a Salmonella effector that induces production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Zainab Mbarack, Josephine Samaka, Tarsis Mlaganile, Aline Mamin, Blaise Genton, Laurent Kaiser, Thierry Calandra, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) is a three-item clinical instrument for bedside identification of sepsis patients at risk of poor outcome. qSOFA could be a valuable triage tool in emergency departments of low-income countries, yet its performance in resource-limited settings remains unknown. The prognostic accuracy of qSOFA for 28-day all-cause mortality in febrile adults treated at the EDs in a low-income country was evaluated. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients (≥18 years) with fever (tympanic temperature ≥38°C and fever ≤7 days) who presented between July 2013 and May 2014 at four emergency departments in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
Awais Abbas, Mohammad Raza, Aamina Majid, Yumna Khalid, Syed Hamza Bin Waqar
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to an infection is a great impersonator. It is caused by hyperimmune activation, which leads to a wide array of hematological abnormalities. If the disease is untreated, it is usually fatal. We report the case of a four-year-old girl who presented to our tertiary care hospital with high-grade fever, frequent loose stools, and bleeding from the lips and gums. Investigations showed pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypertriglyceridemia whereas the bone marrow biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis with trilineage suppression...
April 12, 2018: Curēus
Paula Sánchez-Moreno, Peter Olbrich, Lola Falcón-Neyra, Jose Manuel Lucena, Javier Aznar, Olaf Neth
INTRODUCTION: Development of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) in the context of typhoid fever (TF) is a very rare but serious complication. METHODS: Description of the first pediatric case of typhoid fever acquired in a non-endemic area complicated by sHLH. A systematic literature review of sHLH in the context of TF was performed with extraction of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. RESULTS: The literature search revealed 17 articles (22 patients)...
June 7, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Namrata Prasad, Aaron P Jenkins, Lanieta Naucukidi, Varanisese Rosa, Aalisha Sahu-Khan, Mike Kama, Kylie M Jenkins, Adam W J Jenney, Susan J Jack, Debasish Saha, Pierre Horwitz, Stacy D Jupiter, Richard A Strugnell, E Kim Mulholland, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is endemic in Fiji, with high reported annual incidence. We sought to identify the sources and modes of transmission of typhoid fever in Fiji with the aim to inform disease control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified and surveyed patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever from January 2014 through January 2017. For each typhoid fever case we matched two controls by age interval, gender, ethnicity, and residential area...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mohamed El Amraoui, Naoufal Hjira
Salmonelloses are bacterial infections of the faecal peril; they are endemic in some regions of the world. They can colonize almost any organ hematogenously, hence, severe forms may be observed. We report a case of typhoid fever in a 16-year old young adolescent with no medical history, sexually transmitted diseases or sexual intercourses, presenting with necrotic scrotal ulcerations evolving over the past 3 weeks in a context of fever, diarrhoea, weight loss and alteration of the general state. Paraclinical assessment showed 7g/dl hypochromic microcyticanemia with target cells in blood smear and normal hemoglobin electrophoresis, biologic inflammatory syndrome, malabsorption syndrome, cytolysis and hepatic cholestasis 20 times above the normal, hepatosplenomegaly, normal viral serologic testing (HBV, HCV, HIV, EBV and CMV) and positive testing for salmonella...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Théophile Mitima Kashosi, Archippe Birindwa Muhandule, David Lupande Mwenebitu, Nicolas Mihuhi, John Kivukuto Mutendela, Kanigula Mubagwa
Introduction: Typhoid fever is a major public health problem in developing countries because of the obsolescence of health infrastructure and of an almost non-existent water distribution network. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in general, and in Bukavu, in particular, blood culture is inaccessible to the majority of patients. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity of Salmonella spp to antibiotics commonly used for the tratment of typhoid fever in Bukavu. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a period of 6 months...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Nsoh Godwin Anabire, Paul Armah Aryee, Francis Addo, Frank Anaba, Osman Nabayire Kanwugu, Jacob Ankrah, Gordon Akanzuwine Awandare, Gideon Kofi Helegbe
BACKGROUND: Although hematological indices cannot in entirety be used to diagnose diseases or defects, the appropriate interpretation of these indices could complement diagnostics such as microscopy and serology for numerous illnesses in children. This study sought to evaluate distinct hematological indices characterizing different childhood illnesses. METHODS: Full blood counts from 150 children (age range from 1 to 15 year) presenting different disease conditions at the Tamale Central Hospital were assessed...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
K Mehta, A Pajai, S Bhurke, A Shirkande, R Bhadade, R D'Souza
The epidemiological pattern of acute kidney injury (AKI) in tropical countries during monsoon reflects infectious disease as the most important cause. AKI is a confounding factor and may be overlooked by primary health-care providers and underreported in health statistics. The present study prospectively helps estimate the burden of disease and analyze etiology, clinical profile, and outcome in a tertiary care hospital of a metropolitan city in a tropical country. The study period included monsoon season of 2012 and 2013, a total of 8 months...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Rachael Milligan, Mical Paul, Marty Richardson, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia. Two typhoid vaccines are widely available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral). Newer typhoid conjugate vaccines are at varying stages of development and use. The World Health Organization has recently recommended a Vi tetanus toxoid (Vi-TT) conjugate vaccine, Typbar-TCV, as the preferred vaccine for all ages...
May 31, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Riccardo Conventi, Giorgio Pellis, Giandomenico Arzu, John Bosco Nsubuga, Roberta Gelmini
INTRODUCTION: This is a retrospective analysis of patients operated for typhoid perforation, aiming to analyze epidemiology, clinical-diagnostic and therapeutic aspects, mortality and prognosis. METHODS: 47 patients were operated at Matany Hospital from 2010 to 2016. We examined clinical files to collect data. Microbiological and isthological examinations were unavailable, so etiology was deducted operatively. RESULTS: Median age: 17.85 years, 61...
2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Connor R Tiffany, Denise N Bronner, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are severe systemic infections caused by human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella serovars that are indistinguishable in their clinical presentation, but differ from human gastroenteritis caused by zoonotic non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars evolved from ancestral gastrointestinal pathogens through genetic changes that supported a change in pathogen ecology. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars share virulence properties that were acquired through convergent evolution and therefore this group is not defined by the presence of shared virulence genes that are absent from non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Maria Rosario Capeding, Samuel Teshome, Tarun Saluja, Khalid Ali Syed, Deok Ryun Kim, Ju Yeon Park, Jae Seung Yang, Yang Hee Kim, Jiwook Park, Sue-Kyoung Jo, Yun Chon, Sudeep Kothari, Seon-Young Yang, Dong Soo Ham, Ji Hwa Ryu, Hee-Seong Hwang, Ju-Hwan Mun, Julia A Lynch, Jerome H Kim, Hun Kim, Jean-Louis Excler, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries where children aged 2-14 years bear the greatest burden. Vi polysaccharide is poorly immunogenic in children <2 years of age, and protection in adults is modest. The limitations of Vi polysaccharide vaccines can be overcome by conjugation of the Vi to a carrier protein. A typhoid conjugate vaccine composed of Vi polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) has been developed...
June 18, 2018: Vaccine
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