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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684428/validation-of-a-cd1b-tetramer-assay-for-studies-of-human-mycobacterial-infection-or-vaccination
#1
Erik D Layton, Krystle K Q Yu, Malisa T Smith, Thomas J Scriba, Stephen C De Rosa, Chetan Seshadri
CD1 tetramers loaded with lipid antigens facilitate the identification of rare lipid-antigen specific T cells present in human blood and tissue. Because CD1 proteins are structurally non-polymorphic, these tetramers can be applied to genetically diverse human populations, unlike MHC-I and MHC-II tetramers. However, there are no standardized assays to quantify and characterize lipid antigen-specific T cells present within clinical samples. We incorporated CD1b tetramers loaded with the mycobacterial lipid glucose monomycolate (GMM) into a multi-parameter flow cytometry assay...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683992/the-risk-of-nephrotoxicity-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-treated-with-kanamycin-capreomycin-with-or-without-concomitant-use-of-tenofovir-containing-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
R Perumal, N Abdelghani, N Naidu, N Yende-Zuma, H Dawood, K Naidoo, N Singh, N Padayatchi
BACKGROUND: The intersection of HIV and drug-resistant TB presents the challenge of managing convergent drug toxicities. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of adult drug-resistant TB patients treated with a kanamycin/capreomycin-based(KM) regimen, with or without concomitant ART. We estimated the incidence of nephrotoxicity (defined as an increase in serum creatinine greater than 26.5µmol, or an increase in serum creatinine to 1.5 times the baseline value, or a decline in eGFR to less than 60ml/min/1...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682364/gastrointestinal-tuberculosis-presenting-as-malnutrition-and-distal-colonic-bowel-obstruction
#3
Raja Chandra Chakinala, Zahava C Farkas, Benjamin Barbash, Khwaja F Haq, Shantanu Solanki, Muhammad Ali Khan, Edward Esses, Taliya Farooq, Brad Dworkin
Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) is rare and can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or as a primary infection with no pulmonary symptoms. It typically presents with vague abdominal symptoms, making it difficult to discern from alternative disease processes. Although the ileocecal region is the most commonly affected site, tuberculous enteritis can involve any aspect of the GI tract. To demonstrate the importance of maintaining a high clinical suspicion for the disease, we present a case of GI TB presenting as severe malnutrition and segmental colitis of the left colon...
2018: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681409/recombinant-bcg-rv2645-elicits-enhanced-protective-immunity-compared-to-bcg-in-vivo-with-induced-isgylation-related-genes-and-th1-and-th17-responses
#4
Wei Luo, Zilu Qu, Lingyun Zhang, Yan Xie, Fengling Luo, Yang Tan, Qin Pan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
There is a need to develop protective vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Recently, we identified an immunodominant T-cell antigen, Rv2645, from the region of deletion 13 (RD13) of M. tuberculosis (M. tb) H37Rv, which is absent in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Here, a recombinant BCG expressing Rv2645, namely, BCG::Rv2645, was constructed. Compared to BCG, we found that BCG::Rv2645 improved the antigen presentation capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) and elicited much stronger Th1 and Th17 responses, higher CD44high CD62low effector memory CD4+ T cells (TEM ), and fewer T regulated cells (Treg) and regulatory B10 in mice...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680795/monomac-syndrome-with-associated-neurological-deficits-and-longitudinally-extensive-cord-lesion
#5
Mastura Monif, Aamira Huq, Lynette Chee, Trevor Kilpatrick
We present a case of monocytopaenia and mycobacteria-related infection (MonoMac) syndrome in a 30-year-old man of Indian origin. The clinical diagnosis of GATA2 haploinsufficiency was suspected after an unusual neurological presentation on a background of myelodysplastic syndrome and childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient had a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion and a lesion in the medulla. No obvious infective cause for the spinal cord MRI abnormality was found, and the lesions were presumed to be inflammatory in nature...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680106/cost-of-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-patients-with-hiv-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Noemia Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha, Rosa Legood, Aracele Cavalcanti, Andreia Costa Santos
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the costs of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and to assess the methodological quality of these studies. METHODS: We included cost, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility studies that reported primary costing data, conducted worldwide and published between 1990 and August 2016. We retrieved articles in PubMed, Embase, EconLit, CINAHL plus, and LILACS databases. The quality assessment was performed using two guidelines-the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards and the Tool to Estimate Patient's Costs...
April 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679545/the-impact-of-ocular-tuberculosis-on-vision-after-two-months-of-intensive-therapy
#7
Suzana Batista Vereza de Oliveira, Ângelo Ferreira Passos, David Jamil Hadad, Lorena Zbyszynski, Pedro Sousa de Almeida Júnior, Luiz Guilherme Schmidt Castellani, Reynaldo Dietze, Moisés Palaci
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of global importance with major economic and social burden accounting for 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. Extrapulmonary involvement may occur either in association with clinically apparent pulmonary tuberculosis or in isolation. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to evaluate the impact of ocular tuberculosis in visual acuity at baseline and after two months of intensive anti-tuberculous therapy. A sample of 133 pulmonary TB patients, seven disseminated TB, and three pleural TB patients was evaluated...
April 18, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678229/the-use-of-serological-tests-in-combination-with-the-intradermal-tuberculin-test-maximizes-the-detection-of-tuberculosis-infected-goats
#8
Javier Bezos, Álvaro Roy, José Antonio Infantes-Lorenzo, Isabel González, Ángel Venteo, Beatriz Romero, Anna Grau, Olga Mínguez, Lucas Domínguez, Lucía de Juan
The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats is based mainly on the single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and CIT) tests and, exceptionally, on the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay, however they are not perfect in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, various serological assays that provide a potential cost-effective approach for the control of TB are also available or under development, and a variety of results have been reported regarding the ability of these tests to detect infected animals, particularly in the early stages of infection...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676630/international-approach-to-environmental-and-lung-health-a-perspective-from-the-fogarty-international-center
#9
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676622/low-to-moderate-arsenic-exposure-and-respiratory-health-in-american-indian-communities
#10
Martha Powers, Tiffany R Sanchez, Maria Grau-Perez, Fawn Yeh, Kevin Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Christine M George, Christopher Heaney, Lyle G Best, Jason Umans, Robert H Brown, Ana Navas-Acien
RATIONALE: Exposure to inorganic arsenic, through drinking naturally-contaminated water, is an established cause of lung cancer. Evidence on the impact of arsenic exposure on lung function, however, is less conclusive. The evidence available, mostly from populations exposed to water arsenic levels >100 μg/L, suggests that arsenic exposure is associated with lower lung function. Prospective studies and studies examining low-to-moderate levels of water arsenic exposure (<50 μg/L) the level relevant for U...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675489/female-genital-tuberculosis-cases-with-distinct-clinical-symptoms-four-case-reports
#11
Gonul Aslan, Mahmut Ulger, Seda Tezcan Ulger, Huseyin Durukan, Faik Gurkan Yazici, Gurol Emekdas
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genital TB (GTB) is a form of extrapulmonary TB that occurs more frequently in women, in whom it classically presents in association with menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss and short and long-term sequelae especially infertility in infected women. Patients with GTB are usually young women diagnosed during workup for infertility. GTB is rare in postmenopausal women and responsible for only approximately 1% of postmenopausal bleeding...
January 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675476/peritoneal-tuberculosis-after-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-with-extended-lymph-node-dissection
#12
Suruga Saito, Katsuhiro Ito, Keiyu Matsumoto, Motofumi Tajima, Takayuki Goto, Haruki Ito, Yumi Manabe, Mutsuki Mishina, Hiroshi Okuno
Background: Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively uncommon presentation of extrapulmonary TB. Early diagnosis of peritoneal TB is difficult because of its nonspecific clinical manifestation such as abdominal pain, fever, or ascites. Especially early after surgery of abdomen or pelvis, these symptoms can be misdiagnosed as septic peritonitis. There are few reports of peritoneal TB as a postoperative complication of laparoscopic surgery. Here, we describe a first case of peritoneal TB after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) with extended lymph node dissection...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675357/radiological-signs-associated-with-pulmonary-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-an-analysis-of-published-evidences
#13
Yì Xiáng J Wáng, Myung Jin Chung, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Alex Rosenthal, Andrei Gabrielian, Michael Tartakovsky
Background: Despite that confirmative diagnosis of pulmonary drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is determined by microbiological testing, early suspicions of MDR-TB by chest imaging are highly desirable in order to guide diagnostic process. We aim to perform an analysis of currently available literatures on radiological signs associated with pulmonary MDR-TB. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed on January 29, 2018...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675060/utility-and-safety-of-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-in-patients-with-mediastinal-and-hilar-lymphadenopathy-western-region-experience
#14
Ahmed A Aljohaney
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility and safety of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in patients with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy and to explicitly describe the utility of this procedure in patient's outcome. METHODS: A retrospective review and analysis was conducted on 52 patients with mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy who underwent EBUS-TBNA from June 2012 to June 2016. All the patients were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) chest with contrast before EBUS examination...
April 2018: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675017/-de-novo-fatty-acid-synthesis-during-mycobacterial-infection-is-a-prerequisite-for-the-function-of-highly-proliferative-t-cells-but-not-for-dendritic-cells-or-macrophages
#15
Philipp Stüve, Lucía Minarrieta, Hanna Erdmann, Catharina Arnold-Schrauf, Maxine Swallow, Melanie Guderian, Freyja Krull, Alexandra Hölscher, Peyman Ghorbani, Jochen Behrends, Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Christoph Hölscher, Tim D Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is able to efficiently manipulate the host immune system establishing chronic infection, yet the underlying mechanisms of immune evasion are not fully understood. Evidence suggests that this pathogen interferes with host cell lipid metabolism to ensure its persistence. Fatty acid metabolism is regulated by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 and 2; both isoforms catalyze the conversion of acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA, but have distinct roles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674398/intestinal-granulomatous-disease-what-is-the-first-call
#16
Alex Guri, Michal Kori, Pearl Herskovitz, Oren Zimhony
A 15-year-old girl presented with erythema nodosum and mild abdominal complaints. Her intestinal granulomatous disease was erroneously diagnosed as Crohn's disease despite the fact that the possibility of tuberculosis was considered. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was made only when an anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy resulted in further deterioration. The patient was treated with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, with slow and steady clinical improvement until complete recovery was achieved...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673235/the-epidemiological-significance-and-temporal-stability-of-mycobacterial-interspersed-repetitive-units-variable-number-of-tandem-repeats-based-method-applied-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-china
#17
Yang Li, Yi Hu, Mikael Mansjö, Qi Zhao, Weili Jiang, Solomon Ghebremichael, Sven Hoffner, Biao Xu
This study aimed to validate the epidemiological significance and temporal stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing in a genetically and geographically diverse set of clinical isolates from patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in China. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 982 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from four population-based investigations in China. Apart from the currently applied 24-locus MIRU-VNTR, six additional hypervariable loci were analyzed in order to validate the MIRU-VNTR combinations in terms of their epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669541/three-dimensional-models-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteins-rv1555-rv1554-and-their-docking-analyses-with-sildenafil-tadalafil-vardenafil-drugs-suggest-interference-with-quinol-binding-likely-to-affect-protein-s-function
#18
Pallabini Dash, M Bala Divya, Lalitha Guruprasad, Kunchur Guruprasad
BACKGROUND: Earlier based on bioinformatics analyses, we had predicted the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554, among the potential new tuberculosis drug targets. According to the 'TB-drugome' the Rv1555 protein is 'druggable' with sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) drugs. In the present work, we intended to understand via computer modeling studies, how the above drugs are likely to inhibit the M.tb protein's function. RESULTS: The three-dimensional computer models for M...
April 18, 2018: BMC Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669313/role-of-fna-and-special-stains-in-rapid-cytopathological-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-nocardiosis
#19
Ridhi Sood, Ruchita Tyagi, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Gursheen Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Akashdeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Nocardia, a gram-positive aerobic bacillus of the Actinomycetales family, is a significant opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Clinical and radiological features of pulmonary nocardiosis are nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, pneumocystis, staphylococcal or fungal infections, or as malignancy. Aspiration cytology with special stains is a quick and effective approach for accurate diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present 7 cases of pulmonary nocardiosis, admitted to the pathology department in a tertiary-care hospital in Punjab...
April 18, 2018: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668129/-tuberculosis-in-the-era-of-anti-tnf-alpha-therapy-why-does-the-risk-still-exist
#20
John-Leonardo Torres-Castiblanco, Jorge Alberto Carrillo, Daniel Hincapié-Urrego, Adriana Rojas-Villarraga
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune systemic disease characterized mainly by inflammatory compromise of diarthrodial joints. Multiple drug therapies have been developed to control the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, among them, the first line of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), and novel drug therapies such as the anti-TNF alpha therapy, with satisfactory clinical outcomes.Despite this positive fact, the use of this therapy implies the risk of producing negative effects due to its mechanism of action, which has been associated with multiple infections, especially tuberculosis, making it necessary to use screen tests before resorting to this kind of drugs...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
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