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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054947/a-case-of-tuberculous-gumma-there-is-more-to-it-than-meets-the-eye
#1
Srikant Mohta, Arvind Kumar, Nayani Singh, Naveet Wig
We present a case of a young girl who presented with multiple cutaneous abscesses over 2 years at different sites. She had no constitutional symptoms or history of tuberculosis. On investigation, she was found to have rifampicin-sensitive tuberculosis presenting as tubercular gumma, a rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis which occurs due to haematogenous spread of the bacilli. She had disseminated disease involving the spinal column with associated psoas abscess. A thorough evaluation was done for immune-deficiency workup but was all negative...
October 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054459/lymphocyte-subset-analysis-in-quantiferon-tb-gold-plus-and-t-spot-tb-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Hidetoshi Igari, Satoru Ishikawa, Takuya Nakazawa, Yoshihiro Oya, Hidekazu Futami, Mizue Tsuyuzaki, Kiminori Suzuki, Ryutaro Matsumura
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune mediated inflammatory disorder, and immune suppressive drugs are prescribed. RA patients receiving treatments are in a kind of immunosuppressive condition that presents increased risk of developing active tuberculosis. Accurate diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended for RA. QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus), a novel IGRA, has two tubes (TB1 and TB2). TB2 is designed to elicit both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, with expected increased sensitivity...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052773/a-systemic-review-of-tuberculosis-with-hiv-coinfection-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Jaishree Naidoo, Nasreen Mahomed, Halvani Moodley
The epidemiology of tuberculosis is adversely impacted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. HIV-infected patients are more prone to opportunistic infections, most commonly tuberculosis, and the risk of death in coinfected patients is higher than in those without HIV. Due to the impaired cellular immunity and reduced immunological response in HIV-infected patients, the classic imaging features of tuberculosis usually seen in patients without HIV may present differently. The aim of this review article is to highlight the imaging features that may assist in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with HIV coinfection...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052771/standardized-radiographic-interpretation-of-thoracic-tuberculosis-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Nathan David P Concepcion, Bernard F Laya, Savvas Andronikou, Pedro A N Daltro, Marion O Sanchez, Jacqueline Austine U Uy, Timothy Reynold U Lim
There is a lack of standardized approach and terminology to classify the diverse spectrum of manifestations in tuberculosis. It is important to recognize the different clinical and radiographic patterns to guide treatment. As a result of changing epidemiology, there is considerable overlap in the radiologic presentations of primary tuberculosis and post-primary tuberculosis. In this article we promote a standardized approach in clinical and radiographic classification for children suspected of having or diagnosed with childhood tuberculosis...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050773/detection-of-mycobacterial-infection-in-non-human-primates-using-the-xpert-mtb-rif-molecular-assay
#5
Duanne Alves da Silva, Amanda M Rêgo, Nicole V Ferreira, Manoela A S de Andrade, Aline R Campelo, Paulo César S Caldas, Márcia Aparecida S Pereira, Paulo Redner, Lucindo C de Pina, Felipe C Resende, Thalita A Pissinatti, Claudia A A Lopes, Tatiana Kugelmeier, Javier A S Perea, Igo V de Souza, Fábio A da Silva, Carla F Campos, Fátima C O Fandinho Montes, L Caetano M Antunes
Tuberculosis is a major public health concern, and diagnostic strategies applied to animal populations are scarce. As part of ongoing efforts to control tuberculosis dissemination at our animal facility, two non-human primates (NHP, Saimiri sciureus) presenting cutaneous lesions were examined for mycobacterial infection. Both animals tested positive for acid-fast bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a molecular assay (IS6110 PCR). Animals were euthanized and several samples were tested for M. tuberculosis using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050768/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-efflux-pumps-genes-in-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-pakistan
#6
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Asho Ali, Ambreen Zaver, Ying Zhang, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Wanliang Shi, Taane G Clark, Ruth McNerney, Jody Phelan, Shoaib Rao, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
It is challenging to understand mechanisms of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) due to the large variability in resistance associated genes. Efflux pump genes contribute to drug resistance and thus add to this complexity. Efflux pump gene protein superfamilies have been characterized by genome analysis of drug resistant strains and through in vitro transcriptional studies. However, there is limited information regarding efflux pump genes in extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) isolates...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049243/rare-case-of-pulmonary-lymphomatoid-granulomatosis-in-conjunction-with-tuberculosis-a-case-report
#7
Young Woo Ha, Chul Hwan Kim, Yong Park, Jang Wook Sohn, Min Ja Kim, Young Kyung Yoon
RATIONALE: Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a very rare Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphoproliferative disease. This disease has high mortality owing to its low incidence in conjunction with nonspecific presentations, which contribute to delays in diagnosis. PATIENT: An 87-year-old male had a week-long history of intermittent fever and general weakness. A chest radiograph showed multifocal patchy consolidations with nodular lesions. DIAGNOSES: Open lung biopsy using video-assisted thoracic surgery resulted in a diagnosis of grade III lymphomatoid granulomatosis...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048873/insights-into-mycobacteria-interactions-with-the-host-innate-immune-system-from-a-novel-array-of-synthetic-mycobacterial-glycans
#8
Ruixiang Blake Zheng, Sabine A F Jégouzo, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Huu-Anh Tran, Ke Shen, Jörn Saupe, Li Xia, Md Faiaz Ahmed, Yu-Hsuan Liu, Pratap Subhashrao Patil, Ashish Tripathi, Shang-Cheng Hung, Maureen E Taylor, Todd L Lowary, Kurt Drickamer
An array of homogenous glycans representing all the major carbohydrate structures present in the cell wall of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria has been probed with a panel of glycan-binding receptors expressed on cells of the mammalian innate immune system. The results provide an overview of interactions between mycobacterial glycans and receptors that mediate uptake and survival in macrophages, dendritic cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. A subset of the wide variety of glycan structures present on mycobacterial surfaces interact with cells of the innate immune system through the receptors tested...
October 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046753/melioidosis-the-great-mimicker
#9
Mandeep Singh, Mehvish Mahmood
Melioidosis is an infectious disease endemic in Northern Australia and South East Asia. It is associated with high degrees of morbidity and mortality. On average, around five cases are diagnosed annually in the USA. Diagnosis remains a challenge, as it mimics many other conditions, especially tuberculosis, hence its other name, the 'great mimicker.' The present case involves a recent traveler to the Philippines, who presented with episodic fevers and weight loss to his primary care physician. Blood cultures ordered grew Burkholderia pseudomallei...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046306/a-novel-yeast-based-therapeutic-vaccine-for-tuberculosis-gi-19007
#10
Thomas H King, Crystal A Shanley, Zhimin Guo, Donald Bellgrau, Timothy Rodell, Synthia Furney, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, Ian M Orme
As yet, very few vaccine candidates with activity in animals against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have been tested as therapeutic "post-exposure" vaccines. We recently described two pools of mycobacterial proteins with this activity and here we describe further studies in which four of these proteins (Rv1738, Rv2032, Rv3130, and Rv3841) were generated as a fusion polypeptide, and then delivered in a novel yeast-based platform ("Tarmogen®") which itself has immunostimulatory properties including activation of Toll-like receptors...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046251/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esat6-induces-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-macrophages-via-tlrs-mediated-signaling
#11
Ah-Ra Jang, Joo-Hee Choi, Sung Jae Shin, Jong-Hwan Park
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly virulent bacterium that causes tuberculosis. It infects about one third of the world's population. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a detrimental role in host defense against M. tuberculosis infection. Proteins secreted by M. tuberculosis through ESX-1 secretion system contribute to type I IFNs production. However, the precise mechanism by which 6-kDa early secretory antigen target (ESAT6), one of ESX-1-mediated secretory proteins, induces type I IFNs production in host cells is currently unclear...
October 15, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044084/infectious-chorioretinitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#12
Sudha K Ganesh, B Sowkath Ali, H N Madhavan
A 44-year-old male presented with a history of defective vision in the right eye for the past 5 months with the previous history of tubercular cervical lymphadenitis. On examination, right eye revealed panuveitis with dense vitritis and chorioretinitis in the superotemporal quadrant. His Mantoux test was positive (25 mm × 25 mm induration), QuantiFERON-TB Gold was test positive, aqueous aspirate was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, negative for viruses and toxoplasma, and hence he was initiated on four-drug antitubercular therapy (ATT) with oral steroids...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042938/risk-of-infection-in-patients-with-spondyloarthritis-and-ankylosing-spondylitis-receiving-antitumor-necrosis-factor-therapy-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
Zhigao Xu, Peipei Xu, Wei Fan, Gui Yang, June Wang, Qingyuan Cheng, Mingxia Yu
Antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents have been widely used for the treatment of spondyloarthritis (SpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, these agents may increase the risk of infection due to suppressing the immune response. The present meta-analysis was performed to systematically investigate the risk of overall infection, serious infection and tuberculosis in patients with SpA and AS treated with anti-TNF agents. Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 1998 and December 2015 about infection in patients with SpA receiving anti-TNF therapy...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040263/tuberculosis-detection-and-the-challenges-of-integrated-care-in-rural-china-a-cross-sectional-standardized-patient-study
#14
Sean Sylvia, Hao Xue, Chengchao Zhou, Yaojiang Shi, Hongmei Yi, Huan Zhou, Scott Rozelle, Madhukar Pai, Jishnu Das
BACKGROUND: Despite recent reductions in prevalence, China still faces a substantial tuberculosis (TB) burden, with future progress dependent on the ability of rural providers to appropriately detect and refer TB patients for further care. This study (a) provides a baseline assessment of the ability of rural providers to correctly manage presumptive TB cases; (b) measures the gap between provider knowledge and practice and; (c) evaluates how ongoing reforms of China's health system-characterized by a movement toward "integrated care" and promotion of initial contact with grassroots providers-will affect the care of TB patients...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040020/first-report-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-china
#15
Yun-Jiao Zhao, Yun-Hong Zhao, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Xue-Juan Sun, Yu-Qin Liu, Yan-Jie Hou, Jing-Qiu Wu, Hui Jia, Yi-Nan Han, Wei Dong, Shi-Ming Yan, Ai-Dong Qian
In recent years, coinfection of tuberculosis (TB) and parasitosis in humans is an emerging problem in coendemic areas, which has been increasingly highlighted in developing countries. However, there is limited information about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in TB patients. Therefore, through a case-control study, 924 TB patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in northeastern and eastern China, and 924 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched with gender, age, and residence were examined for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T...
October 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038191/obstructive-uropathy-as-initial-presentation-of-genitourinary-tuberculosis-and-masquerading-as-a-postsurgical-complication
#16
Grace Igiraneza, Theobald Hategekimana, Olivier M Manzi, Onyema Ogbuagu
A 46-year-old woman who had a recent total abdominal hysterectomy presented with a 1 month history of lower abdominal pain, 1 week of nausea and vomiting as well as decreased urinary output preceded by a year of significant unintentional weight loss. On renal imaging, she was found to have bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureters in the setting of bilateral distal ureteric obstruction complicated with acute kidney injury and severe hyperkalaemia requiring haemodialysis. The initial concern was for ureteric injury, a known complication of abdominal hysterectomy procedures, however, a urological intervention, performed 9 months later to relieve the ureteric obstruction, revealed purulent material within the left ureter that was smear positive for acid fast bacilli...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037505/in-vitro-antimicrobial-and-antimycobacterial-activity-and-hplc-dad-screening-of-phenolics-from-chenopodium-ambrosioides-l
#17
Roberta S Jesus, Mariana Piana, Robson B Freitas, Thiele F Brum, Camilla F S Alves, Bianca V Belke, Natália Jank Mossmann, Ritiel C Cruz, Roberto C V Santos, Tanise V Dalmolin, Bianca V Bianchini, Marli M A Campos, Liliane de Freitas Bauermann
The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12...
July 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037296/tuberculosis-in-recipients-of-solid-organ-transplants-during-1995-2015-in-cali-colombia
#18
J F García-Goez, G A Munera, V Rojas, R Pacheco, J A Caylá, J M Miro
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) in solid-organ transplants (SOTs) is an important opportunistic infection associated with mortality and graft loss. SOT recipients carry a higher risk of contracting active TB than the general population. Clinical and radiographic presentations are non-specific, and sputum smear and culture have low yields. TB patients with SOTs require standard anti-tuberculosis treatment. However, rifampicin (RMP) use is associated with a 30% rate of acute graft rejection (AGR) and a 20% rate of transplant loss...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037291/the-devil-we-know-is-the-use-of-injectable-agents-for-the-treatment-of-mdr-tb-justified
#19
A Reuter, P Tisile, D von Delft, H Cox, V Cox, L Ditiu, A Garcia-Prats, S Koenig, E Lessem, R Nathavitharana, J A Seddon, J Stillo, A von Delft, J Furin
For decades, second-line injectable agents (IAs) have been the cornerstone of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Although evidence on the efficacy of IAs is limited, there is an expanding body of evidence on the serious adverse events caused by these drugs. Here, we present the results of a structured literature review of the safety and efficacy of IAs. We review the continued widespread use of these agents in the context of therapeutic alternatives-most notably the newer TB drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid-and from the context of human rights, ethics and patient-centered care...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036759/can-a-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-occur-due-to-miliary-tuberculosis
#20
Sang-Ki Min, Ji-Ho Shin, Seog-Kyun Mun
Miliary tuberculosis is a severe form of tuberculosis resulting from dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. Since symptoms appearing in patients due to miliary TB are diverse and atypical, depending on the site of invasion, early diagnosis and treatment are important. A paradoxical response of tuberculosis is a rare phenomenon and it can be a clinical difficulty to treatment especially when involving the central nervous system. We present a case report with a review of related literature about the patient who developed sudden hearing loss due to tuberculosis infection in vestibulocochlear area...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
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