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tuberculosis presentation

Landry Blanc, Isaac B Daudelin, Brendan K Podell, Pei-Yu Chen, Matthew Zimmerman, Amanda J Martinot, Rada M Savic, Brendan Prideaux, Veronique Anne Dartois
Understanding the distribution patterns of antibiotics at the site of infection is paramount to selecting adequate drug regimens and developing new antibiotics. Tuberculosis (TB) lung lesions are made of various immune cell types, some of which harbor persistent forms of the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis . By combining high resolution MALDI MSI with histology staining and quantitative image analysis in rabbits with active TB, we have mapped the distribution of a fluoroquinolone at high resolution, and identified the immune-pathological factors driving its heterogeneous penetration within TB lesions, in relation to where bacteria reside...
November 14, 2018: ELife
Ashish Gupta
Tuberculosis(TB) is one of the most common infections affecting the population in the developing countries. With the rising human immunodeficiency(HIV) infection its incidence is on a rise even in the developed countries. Pulmonary TB is the commonest form of infection, However, multiple extrapulmonary sites have also been reported. The spleen is thought to be a rare organ involved in this infection. Various presentations of the splenic TB have been reported in the literature. The definitive diagnosis of this is essentially formulated on the post-splenectomy specimen...
August 6, 2018: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
Jose Ruiz, Maedeh Ganji, Catarina Canha, Carmen Isache
Approximately 2 billion people, which is about one third of the world's population, are infected with tuberculosis (TB). Around 10% of infected people will develop active TB at one point in their lifetime. We present a rare case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with a 2-week progressive dyspnea. In addition, the patient complained of generalized weakness, subjective fevers, and abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Ascites was noted on physical exam, and the patient underwent a diagnostic paracentesis with initial workup that was unrevealing for underlying etiology...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Priyatam Khadka, Pratap Khadka, Januka Thapaliya, Dhana Bikram Karkee
Introduction: Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease with global prevalence. Under some cases of immune suppression (especially with corticosteroid administration), the nematode involved disseminates, leading to an amplified, possibly lethal hyper-infection syndrome. Case presentation: A 56-year-old Nepalese man presenting with chief complaints of nausea, vomiting, joint pain and abdominal cramps was admitted to Sumeru Hospital. His past history revealed: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), systemic hypertension and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis...
September 2018: JMM Case Reports
W A Wells, G Stallworthy, Z Balsara
<h2>SUMMARY</h2>Many countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden are adopting social health insurance (SHI) schemes. However, the national TB programs (NTPs) of these countries are only just starting to grapple with the effects of SHI on their operations. Here, we review the rationale for analyzing TB programs in light of the changes brought by SHI. We consider the influence of certain purchasing decisions on TB care and prevention, and the opportunities that SHI may present for NTPs to broaden private sector engagement, extract TB data across the health sector, and facilitate quality improvement efforts...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Felix Neugebauer, Jan Tuma, Andreas L Serra, Roland Stieger, Martin Rohacek
Point-of-Care Ultrasound: Teaching and Learning in Ifakara, Tanzania Abstract. Presentation of two practical cases from the point-of-care ultrasound class in Ifakara, Tanzania. The first case shows the sonographic findings of tuberculosis with findings in the lungs, heart, abdominal lymph nodes and spleen. In the second case, detection of an enterobiliary fistula by sonographic live imaging of air passing from the intestine into the gall bladder and causing non-iatrogenic pneumobilia.
November 2018: Praxis
Toshitaka Suzuki, Tatsuo Kato, Ryoko Ohnishi, Shigeo Yasuda, Kimiyasu Sano, Yohei Shirakami, Masahito Shimizu, Nobuo Murakami
Tuberculosis remains a serious health problem worldwide. Patients with tuberculosis who also require nursing care due to aging and underlying diseases are considered to have a high mortality rate; however, there are few studies describing detailed examinations of such disease conditions. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate differences in clinical features of elderly tuberculosis patients according to the levels of nursing and healthcare required. DESIGN: The study participants included 146 elderly (≥65 years) patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis among patients hospitalized with tuberculosis at a single center...
November 11, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Long Viet Bui, Zohar Mor, Daniel Chemtob, Son Thai Ha, Hagai Levine
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the potential of combining routine tuberculosis (TB) surveillance and demographic and socioeconomic variables into the Geographic Information System (GIS) to describe the geographical distribution of TB notified incidence in relation to distances to health services as well as local demographic and socioeconomic factors, including population density, urban/rural status, and household poverty rates in Nam Dinh, Vietnam. It also aimed to compare the conventional Generalized Linear Models (GLM) Poisson regression model and Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) models in order to determine the best fitting model that can be used to investigate the relationship between TB notified incidence and distances and the social risk factors...
2018: PloS One
Emna Romdhane, Soumaya Rammeh, Hend Riahi, Yosra Chebbi, Chelli Bouaziz Mouna, Wafa Achour, Leila Slim-Saidi, Hanène Tiouiri Benaissa, Mohamed Fethi Ladeb
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous spondylodiscitis (TS) is the most common form of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Currently, histology is widely used to distinguish tuberculous from nontuberculous disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of histology compared with bacteriology in the diagnosis of TS. METHODS: This is a single-center case series carried out from January 2014 to February 2018 in a pathology department...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Kevin Brunet, Alexandre Alanio, Olivier Lortholary, Blandine Rammaert
OBJECTIVES: Latent infections are well-known for bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for viruses such as Herpesviridae and parasites like Leishmania spp. or Toxoplasma gondii. However, invasive fungi may also be latent and come to reactivate. The aim of this review is to clarify the reactivation concept in major fungal invasive diseases. METHOD: We have searched for PUBMED publications from 1980 to 2017 with the keywords "fungi", "reactivation", "latency", "dormancy", "granuloma", "Aspergillus", "Mucorales", "Dimorphic fungi", "Histoplasma", "Cryptococcus", "Pneumocystis", "Yeast", "Candida" and "Mold"...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Infection
Elva Borja, Leo F Borja, Ronil Prasad, Tomasi Tunabuna, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is globally significant due to its impacts on cattle production. A Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication and Control (BTEC) program commenced in Fiji during the 1980's and has since been sustained by government funding and industry cooperation. A retrospective study of bTB data obtained during the Fiji BTEC program from 1999 to 2014 was undertaken at the University of Sydney with support from the Government of Fiji. It confirmed that bTB is well-established in dairy cattle farms in Naitasiri and Tailevu provinces of Central Division on the main island of Viti Levu, and suggested that the disease is present among cattle on farms in all or most provinces across three (Central, Northern, Western) of the four divisions in the country...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sebastiano Cicco, Antonio G Solimando, Patrizia Leone, Stefano Battaglia, Roberto Ria, Angelo Vacca, Vito Racanelli
Primary systemic amyloidosis is not easily diagnosed. The immunoglobulin deposits are usually localized in the kidney, heart, and liver. We describe an unusual case of a patient suffering from a pericardial amyloidoma with internal calcifications and air bubbles that compressed the right ventricle and shifted the heart to the left. Since the patient was in shock, urgent pericardiotomy was performed. This site showed PET uptake. A monoclonal component was present. On these findings, differential diagnoses included multiple myeloma and atypical pericardial tuberculosis, whereas a periumbilical fat tissue biopsy demonstrated amyloidosis...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
Yuichi Kano, Hideko Yamamoto, Takehito Naito, Masahiro Yamada, Hiroshi Matsubara, Keiichi Sakamaki, Matsuyoshi Maeda, Shinji Ohashi, Fumihiro Urano
A woman in her 70s presented to our hospital with epigastric pain, back pain, and weight loss. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed, and numerous protuberances, which were suspected to be submucosal tumors, were found at the gastric corpus. The patient was diagnosed with gastric tuberculosis based on the biopsy results of these protuberances. Histopathological analysis demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid granuloma. A positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also obtained on gastric juice analysis and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction assay...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Ashok Aspatwar, Jean-Yves Winum, Fabrizio Carta, Claudiu T Supuran, Milka Hammaren, Mataleena Parikka, Seppo Parkkila
Mycobacteria cause a variety of diseases, such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and opportunistic diseases in immunocompromised people. The treatment of these diseases is problematic, necessitating the development of novel treatment strategies. Recently, β-carbonic anhydrases (β-CAs) have emerged as potential drug targets in mycobacteria. The genomes of mycobacteria encode for three β-CAs that have been cloned and characterized from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and the crystal structures of two of the enzymes have been determined...
November 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stephen P Carter, Andrew Robertson, Kate L Palphramand, Mark A Chambers, Robbie A McDonald, Richard J Delahay
The deployment of baits containing vaccines or toxins has been used successfully in the management of wildlife populations, including for disease control. Optimisation of deployment strategies seeks to maximise uptake by the targeted population whilst ensuring cost-effectiveness. Tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis affects a broad range of mammalian hosts across the globe, including cattle, wildlife and humans. The control of TB in cattle in the UK and Republic of Ireland is hampered by persistent infection in European badgers (Meles meles)...
2018: PloS One
Raymonde B Bekale, Su-Mari Du Plessis, Nai-Jen Hsu, Jyoti R Sharma, Samantha L Sampson, Muazzam Jacobs, Mervin Meyer, Gene D Morse, Admire Dube
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a deadly infectious disease. The thin pipeline of new drugs for TB, the ineffectiveness in adults of the only vaccine available, i.e. the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, and increasing global antimicrobial resistance, has reinvigorated interest in immunotherapies. Nanoparticles (NPs) potentiate the effect of immune modulating compounds (IMC), enabling cell targeting, improved transfection of antigens, enhanced compound stability and provide opportunities for synergistic action, via delivery of multiple IMCs...
November 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Karima Sahmoudi, Hassan Abbassi, Nada Bouklata, Mohamed Nouredine El Alami, Abderrahmane Sadak, Christopher Burant, W Henry Boom, Rajae El Aouad, David H Canaday, Fouad Seghrouchni
BACKGROUND: Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis (TB). Studies of human tuberculosis at sites of disease are limited. LNTB provides a unique opportunity to compare local in situ and peripheral blood immune response in active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disease. The present study analysed T regulatory cells (Treg) frequency and activation along with CD4+ T cell function in lymph nodes from LNTB patients. RESULTS: Lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMC) were compared to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
November 8, 2018: BMC Immunology
Brunella Maria Pavan Taffner, Felipe Berno Mattos, Mariana Cartaxo da Cunha, Fábio Petersen Saraiva
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, through (OCT), alterations in retinal thickness, secondary to use of ethambutol in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis. In addition to studying the use of simpler semiological tools, such as Amsler and Ishihara, in the screening of these cases. METHODS: Thirty patients with ethambutol were recruited from the reference service of tuberculosis treatment at the Federal University of Espírito Santo from May 2015 to July 2016. After clinical history, the following parameters were analyzed; best corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopy, tonometry, photomotor reflex testing, Ishihara test, Amsler's grid test, color digital retinography and optical coherence tomography with CIRRUS HD-OCT (Humphrey-Zeiss) every 2 months during treatment with ethambutol...
2018: PloS One
Rafael Laniado-Laborín, Kenia Carrera-López, Ana Hernández-Pérez
Several drugs used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have been reported as teratogenic. Treatment of such cases during gestation is disputable. Some experts favor the termination of pregnancy, whereas others suggest reducing the dose of teratogenic drugs or even suspending the regimen during pregnancy. There have been no clinical trials on the subject, but case reports and case series show excellent outcomes for children exposed during pregnancy to second-line agents, indicating that aggressive management of gestational MDR-TB may benefit not only the mother but also the fetus...
June 19, 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Divya Khanna, Prashant Singh Rana
Development of an effective machine-learning model for T-cell Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) epitopes is beneficial for saving biologist's time and effort for identifying epitope in a targeted antigen. Existing NetMHC 2.2, NetMHC 2.3, NetMHC 3.0 and NetMHC 4.0 estimate binding capacity of peptide. This is still a challenge for those servers to predict whether a given peptide is M. tuberculosis epitope or non-epitope. One of the servers, CTLpred, works in this category but it is limited to peptide length of 9-mers...
November 7, 2018: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
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