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Biomedical ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812979/truth-in-research-labelling
#1
John H Noble
This report describes the background and context of a currently circulating petition to the US Congress that seeks amendment of Section 801 of the Public Health Services Act (42 U.S.C. 282) to close a loophole in existing law which makes possible post hoc adjustment of randomised controlled trial (RCT) results reported to the Food and Drug Administration that differ from those reported to ClinicalTrials.gov and to medical journals. The report describes the petition's rationale, underlying assumptions, and support for its proposed remedy in deontological, consequentialist, and casuist philosophical ethics theories...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811838/ethical-religion-in-primary-care
#2
Malcolm Torry
Religion is increasingly significant in UK society, and is highly significant for many patients and primary care practitioners. An important task for the practitioner is to ensure that the place of religion in the patient/practitioner relationship is treated with the same ethical seriousness as every other aspect of that relationship. The article finds the 'four principles of biomedical ethics' to be applicable, and recent GMC guidelines to be consistent with the four principles. The article applies the four principles to the particular case of practitioners wearing religious symbolism...
July 2017: London Journal of Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806989/maximising-value-from-a-united-kingdom-biomedical-research-centre-study-protocol
#3
Trisha Greenhalgh, Pavel V Ovseiko, Nick Fahy, Sara Shaw, Polly Kerr, Alexander D Rushforth, Keith M Channon, Vasiliki Kiparoglou
BACKGROUND: Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research...
August 14, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803222/biobanking-in-the-subcontinent-exploring-concerns
#4
Aamir M Jafarey, Sualeha Siddiq Shekhani, Bushra Shirazi
Biobanking is an important tool for biomedical research. However, it raises a variety of ethical issues, which are compounded in the developing world. This paper is based on data from three sources on the ethical issues associated with biobanking, including a mixed method pilot study conducted with students in Karachi, Pakistan, a workshop in Karachi, and another workshop held in Bengaluru, India. Findings from these sources reveal a unanimous lack of clarity about what constitutes a biobank. While informed consent was deemed necessary for storage of materials, participants were unsure of how this could be achieved for samples stored indefinitely for future research...
July 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799494/contribution-of-large-animals-to-translational-research-on-prenatal-programming-of-obesity-and-associated-diseases
#5
Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
BACKGROUND: The awareness of factors causing obesity and associated disorders has grown up in the last years from genome to a more complicated concept (developmental programming) in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions markedly modify the phenotype and homeostasis of the individuals and determine juvenile growth, life-time fitness/obesity and disease risks. Experimentation in human beings is impeded by ethical issues plus inherent high variability and confounding factors (genetics, lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity) and preclinical studies in adequate translational animal models are therefore decisive...
August 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774849/comparison-of-different-in-vitro-cell-models-for-the-assessment-of-pesticide-induced-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity
#6
Harm J Heusinkveld, Remco H S Westerink
Biomedical and (neuro) toxicity research on (neuro) degenerative diseases still relies strongly on animal models. However, the use of laboratory animals is often undesirable for both ethical and technical reasons. Current in vitro research thus largely relies on tumor derived- or immortalized cell lines. Notably, the suitability of cell lines for studying neurodegeneration is determined by their intrinsic properties. We therefore characterized PC12, SH-SY5Y, MES23.5 and N27 cells with respect to the presence of functional membrane ion channels and receptors as well as for the effects of five known neurotoxic pesticides on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and parameters of intracellular calcium homeostasis using a combined alamar Blue/CFDA assay, a H2DCFDA assay and single cell fluorescent (Fura-2) calcium imaging, respectively...
July 31, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763076/-study-plan-2016-of-the-licentiate-of-medical-surgery-of-the-faculty-of-higher-studies-iztacala
#7
Adolfo René Méndez-Cruz, Xavier de Jesús Novales-Castro, Lilia Isabel Ramírez-García, Eugenio Camarena-Ocampo, Julia Reyes-Reali, Uriel Calderón-Abundes, Dante Amato
The 2016 undergraduate medical degree curriculum at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) is presented. It is the result of a long institutional reflection and academic dialog process of approximately three years, which culminated in its approval by UNAM's Academic Council for the Biology, Chemistry, and Health Sciences areas on January 25, 2016. Its most relevant characteristics are: modular organization, four knowledge areas (biomedical, methodological, socio-psychological, and humanistic and medical practice), and new modules such as Seminar of socio-psycho-biological integration; Genetics and molecular biology; Biochemistry and cellular biology; Pharmacological basis of therapeutics; Infectious diseases, microbiology and parasitology; Medical ethics; Public health; and Evidence-based medicine - clinical epidemiology...
May 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763073/-construction-and-validation-of-the-la-salle-instrument-to-evaluate-the-ethical-aspects-in-biomedical-research-on-human-beings
#8
Gilberto Guzmán Valdivia-Gómez, María Teresa Velasco-Jiménez, Alejandro Domínguez-González, Dulce María Meneses-Ruíz, Raúl Amauri Padilla-García
INTRODUCTION: Research projects must demonstrate not only a rigorous scientific methodology, but also the ethical aspects that require profound reflection of the reviewers. Current regulations establish criteria for research projects on human health, but many of these aspects are subjective. How can the evaluation of such projects be standardized? This is the main subject of the current project. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This project comprises two phases. First, the design and construction of an instrument of evaluation based on the fundamental principles of bioethics, which are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, and other aspects...
May 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759585/today%C3%A2-s-medical-self-and-the-other-challenges-and-evolving-solutions-for-enhanced-humanization-and-quality-of-care
#9
Perla Sueiras, Victoria Romano-Betech, Alejandro Vergil-Salgado, Adalberto de Hoyos, Silvia Quintana-Vargas, William Ruddick, Anaclara Castro-Santana, Sergio Islas-Andrade, Nelly F Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
BACKGROUND: Recent scientific developments, along with growing awareness of cultural and social diversity, have led to a continuously growing range of available treatment options; however, such developments occasionally lead to an undesirable imbalance between science, technology and humanism in clinical practice. This study explores the understanding and practice of values and value clusters in real-life clinical settings, as well as their role in the humanization of medicine and its institutions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749063/patients-as-rights-holders
#10
Johan Brännmark
Autonomy and consent have been central values in Western moral and political thought for centuries. One way of understanding the bioethical models that started to develop, especially in the 1970s, is that they were about the fusion of a long-standing professional ethics with the core values underpinning modern political institutions. That there was a need for this kind of fusion is difficult to dispute, especially since the provision of health care has in most developed countries become an ever more important concern of our political institutions, with governments playing a significant role in regulating and facilitating the provision of health care and in many countries even largely organizing it...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749054/the-precision-medicine-nation
#11
Maya Sabatello, Paul S Appelbaum
The United States' ambitious Precision Medicine Initiative proposes to accelerate exponentially the adoption of precision medicine, an approach to health care that tailors disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention to individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. It aims to achieve this by creating a cohort of volunteers for precision medicine research, accelerating biomedical research innovation, and adopting policies geared toward patients' empowerment. As strategies to implement the PMI are formulated, critical consideration of the initiative's ethical and sociopolitical dimensions is needed...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735571/ethics-review-in-compassionate-use
#12
Jan Borysowski, Hans-Jörg Ehni, Andrzej Górski
BACKGROUND: Compassionate use is the use of unapproved drugs outside of clinical trials. So far, compassionate use regulations have been introduced in the US, Canada, many European countries, Australia and Brazil, and treatment on a compassionate use basis may be performed in Japan and China. However, there are important differences between relevant regulations in individual countries, particularly that approval by a research ethics committee (institutional review board) is a requirement for compassionate use in some countries (e...
July 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730063/community-stakeholders-perspectives-on-the-role-of-occupational-therapy-in-primary-healthcare-implications-for-practice
#13
Deshini Naidoo, Jacqueline Van Wyk, Robin Joubert
BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare (PHC) is central to increased access and transformation in South African healthcare. There is limited literature about services required by occupational therapists in PHC. Despite policy being in place, the implementation of services at grassroots level does not always occur adequately. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at gaining an understanding of the challenges of being disabled and the services required by occupational therapists (OTs) in rural communities in order to better inform the occupational therapy (OT) training curriculum...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716389/biomedical-ethics-and-clinical-oversight-in-multisite-observational-neuroimaging-studies-with-children-and-adolescents-the-abcd-experience
#14
REVIEW
Duncan B Clark, Celia B Fisher, Susan Bookheimer, Sandra A Brown, John H Evans, Christian Hopfer, James Hudziak, Ivan Montoya, Margaret Murray, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713128/introduction-community-academic-partnerships-in-research-and-public-health
#15
Emily E Anderson, Kevin J Valadares
This symposium includes twelve personal narratives from individuals and teams who have been engaged in community-academic partnerships in research and public health. This issue also includes four commentaries on these narratives by experts in patient and research subject advocacy, healthcare and biomedical ethics, social science, and health education funding. While much has been written about community-academic partnerships, what appears in the literature does not include in-depth, personal reflection on the challenges and obstacles faced in these partnerships...
2017: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710837/quality-of-life-anxiety-prevalence-depression-symptomatology-and-suicidal-ideation-among-acne-patients-in-lithuania
#16
L Lukaviciute, P Navickas, A Navickas, J Grigaitiene, R Ganceviciene, C C Zouboulis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression symptomatology and suicidal ideation among patients with acne and the impact of this skin condition on the quality of life in Lithuania. METHODS: The mental health of patients with acne was assessed using an adapted Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Dermatology Quality of Life Index, questions about characteristics of acne. The study was authorized by the Regional Biomedical Research Ethics Committee...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699364/assistive-technologies-to-address-capabilities-of-people-with-dementia-from-research-to-practice
#17
Paul-Ariel Kenigsberg, Jean-Pierre Aquino, Alain Bérard, François Brémond, Kevin Charras, Tom Dening, Rose-Marie Droës, Fabrice Gzil, Ben Hicks, Anthea Innes, Mai Nguyen, Louise Nygård, Maribel Pino, Guillaume Sacco, Eric Salmon, Henriëtte van der Roest, Hervé Villet, Marion Villez, Philippe Robert, Valeria Manera
Assistive technologies became pervasive and virtually present in all our life domains. They can be either an enabler or an obstacle leading to social exclusion. The Fondation Médéric Alzheimer gathered international experts of dementia care, with backgrounds in biomedical, human and social sciences, to analyze how assistive technologies can address the capabilities of people with dementia, on the basis of their needs. Discussion covered the unmet needs of people with dementia, the domains of daily life activities where assistive technologies can provide help to people with dementia, the enabling and empowering impact of technology to improve their safety and wellbeing, barriers and limits of use, technology assessment, ethical and legal issues...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699208/being-in-a-standstill-of-life-women-s-experience-of-being-diagnosed-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-hermeneutic-phenomenological-study
#18
Janni Lisander Larsen, Elisabeth O C Hall, Søren Jacobsen, Regner Birkelund
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a highly unpredictable and potentially lethal disease which ultimately challenges identity, future and the meaning of life. In a caring context, the experience of good health is perceived to be a balance between biomedical health and the existential experience of having a good life. This balance is jeopardised in the face of severe chronic illness and leads to extensive suffering if not handled carefully. Research suggests that patients suffering from severe chronic illness need support on an existential level, but also emphasises that, given its elusive nature, caring for the existential dimension is difficult to manage...
July 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696950/the-role-of-stigma-and-denormalization-in-suicide-prevention-laws-in-east-asia-a-sociocultural-historical-and-ethical-perspective
#19
Justin A Chen, Andrew Courtwright, Kevin Chien-Chang Wu
In many Western countries, the criminalization and stigmatization of suicide has given way to a biomedical approach aimed at destigmatizing suicide and treating underlying mental illness. By contrast, in many East Asian countries, suicide has never historically been criminalized or stigmatized. High rates of suicide in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan have recently led policy makers in those countries to pursue innovative suicide-prevention strategies. The intentional denormalization of harmful behaviors has been discussed in the public health and ethics literatures, particularly with regard to smoking cessation, and could represent a novel mechanism for preventing suicides in East Asia...
July 11, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688334/-behind-closed-doors-with-open-minds-a-qualitative-study-exploring-nursing-home-staff-s-narratives-towards-their-roles-and-duties-within-the-context-of-sexuality-in-dementia
#20
T Vandrevala, T Chrysanthaki, E Ogundipe
BACKGROUND: Despite sexual expression being recognised as a fundamental human need, sexuality in old age is often ignored and frequently misunderstood, with residents with dementia in a nursing home often viewed as asexual or incapable of being sexually active. OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to understand the views held by nursing care home staff towards dementia and sexuality and explore the roles they may adopt whilst responding and managing sexual needs and expression for residents with dementia...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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