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Biomedical ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730063/community-stakeholders-perspectives-on-the-role-of-occupational-therapy-in-primary-healthcare-implications-for-practice
#1
Deshini Naidoo, Jacqueline Van Wyk, Robin Joubert
BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare (PHC) is central to increased access and transformation in South African healthcare. There is limited literature about services required by occupational therapists in PHC. Despite policy being in place, the implementation of services at grassroots level does not always occur adequately. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at gaining an understanding of the challenges of being disabled and the services required by occupational therapists (OTs) in rural communities in order to better inform the occupational therapy (OT) training curriculum...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716389/biomedical-ethics-and-clinical-oversight-in-multisite-observational-neuroimaging-studies-with-children-and-adolescents-the-abcd-experience
#2
REVIEW
Duncan B Clark, Celia B Fisher, Susan Bookheimer, Sandra A Brown, John H Evans, Christian Hopfer, James Hudziak, Ivan Montoya, Margaret Murray, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713128/introduction-community-academic-partnerships-in-research-and-public-health
#3
Emily E Anderson, Kevin J Valadares
This symposium includes twelve personal narratives from individuals and teams who have been engaged in community-academic partnerships in research and public health. This issue also includes four commentaries on these narratives by experts in patient and research subject advocacy, healthcare and biomedical ethics, social science, and health education funding. While much has been written about community-academic partnerships, what appears in the literature does not include in-depth, personal reflection on the challenges and obstacles faced in these partnerships...
2017: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710837/quality-of-life-anxiety-prevalence-depression-symptomatology-and-suicidal-ideation-among-acne-patients-in-lithuania
#4
L Lukaviciute, P Navickas, A Navickas, J Grigaitiene, R Ganceviciene, C C Zouboulis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression symptomatology and suicidal ideation among patients with acne and the impact of this skin condition on the quality of life in Lithuania. METHODS: The mental health of patients with acne was assessed using an adapted Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Dermatology Quality of Life Index, questions about characteristics of acne. The study was authorized by the Regional Biomedical Research Ethics Committee...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699364/assistive-technologies-to-address-capabilities-of-people-with-dementia-from-research-to-practice
#5
Paul-Ariel Kenigsberg, Jean-Pierre Aquino, Alain Bérard, François Brémond, Kevin Charras, Tom Dening, Rose-Marie Droës, Fabrice Gzil, Ben Hicks, Anthea Innes, Mai Nguyen, Louise Nygård, Maribel Pino, Guillaume Sacco, Eric Salmon, Henriëtte van der Roest, Hervé Villet, Marion Villez, Philippe Robert, Valeria Manera
Assistive technologies became pervasive and virtually present in all our life domains. They can be either an enabler or an obstacle leading to social exclusion. The Fondation Médéric Alzheimer gathered international experts of dementia care, with backgrounds in biomedical, human and social sciences, to analyze how assistive technologies can address the capabilities of people with dementia, on the basis of their needs. Discussion covered the unmet needs of people with dementia, the domains of daily life activities where assistive technologies can provide help to people with dementia, the enabling and empowering impact of technology to improve their safety and wellbeing, barriers and limits of use, technology assessment, ethical and legal issues...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699208/being-in-a-standstill-of-life-women-s-experience-of-being-diagnosed-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-hermeneutic-phenomenological-study
#6
Janni Lisander Larsen, Elisabeth O C Hall, Søren Jacobsen, Regner Birkelund
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a highly unpredictable and potentially lethal disease which ultimately challenges identity, future and the meaning of life. In a caring context, the experience of good health is perceived to be a balance between biomedical health and the existential experience of having a good life. This balance is jeopardised in the face of severe chronic illness and leads to extensive suffering if not handled carefully. Research suggests that patients suffering from severe chronic illness need support on an existential level, but also emphasises that, given its elusive nature, caring for the existential dimension is difficult to manage...
July 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696950/the-role-of-stigma-and-denormalization-in-suicide-prevention-laws-in-east-asia-a-sociocultural-historical-and-ethical-perspective
#7
Justin A Chen, Andrew Courtwright, Kevin Chien-Chang Wu
In many Western countries, the criminalization and stigmatization of suicide has given way to a biomedical approach aimed at destigmatizing suicide and treating underlying mental illness. By contrast, in many East Asian countries, suicide has never historically been criminalized or stigmatized. High rates of suicide in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan have recently led policy makers in those countries to pursue innovative suicide-prevention strategies. The intentional denormalization of harmful behaviors has been discussed in the public health and ethics literatures, particularly with regard to smoking cessation, and could represent a novel mechanism for preventing suicides in East Asia...
July 11, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688334/-behind-closed-doors-with-open-minds-a-qualitative-study-exploring-nursing-home-staff-s-narratives-towards-their-roles-and-duties-within-the-context-of-sexuality-in-dementia
#8
T Vandrevala, T Chrysanthaki, E Ogundipe
BACKGROUND: Despite sexual expression being recognised as a fundamental human need, sexuality in old age is often ignored and frequently misunderstood, with residents with dementia in a nursing home often viewed as asexual or incapable of being sexually active. OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to understand the views held by nursing care home staff towards dementia and sexuality and explore the roles they may adopt whilst responding and managing sexual needs and expression for residents with dementia...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686333/ehealth-provides-a-novel-opportunity-to-exploit-the-advantages-of-the-nordic-countries-in-psychiatric-genetic-research-building-on-the-public-health-care-system-biobanks-and-registries
#9
REVIEW
Ole A Andreassen
Nordic countries have played an important role in the recent progress in psychiatric genetics, both with large well-characterized samples and expertise. The Nordic countries have research advantages due to the organization of their societies, including system of personal identifiers, national health registries with information about diseases, treatment and prescriptions, and a public health system with geographical catchment areas. For psychiatric genetic research, the large biobanks and population surveys are a unique added value...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672802/bioethical-considerations-of-advancing-the-application-of-marine-biotechnology-and-aquaculture
#10
Reginal M Harrell
Normative ethical considerations of growth of the marine biotechnology and aquaculture disciplines in biopharming, food production, and marine products commercialization from a bioethical perspective have been limited. This paucity of information begs the question of what constitutes a bioethical approach (i.e., respect for individuals or autonomy; beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice) to marine biotechnology and aquaculture, and whether it is one that is appropriate for consideration. Currently, thoughtful discussion on the bioethical implications of use, development, and commercialization of marine organisms or their products, as well as potential environmental effects, defaults to human biomedicine as a model...
June 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669523/-animal-experiment-can-we-replace
#11
H Combrisson
Animal experiment is a subject of controversies. Some people, defenders of animals, think that it is not acceptable to use for scientific purposes at the risk of making them suffer or assert that the results obtained with animals are not transposable in the human beings. Others, in particular researchers in biology or medicine, think that the animal models are essential for the biomedical search. This confrontation of the opinions bases largely on an evolution of the place of animals in our society. The regulations authorize the use of animals for scientific purposes but oblige to make it under restrictive conditions...
June 29, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661753/rethinking-the-belmont-report
#12
Phoebe Friesen, Lisa Kearns, Barbara Redman, Arthur L Caplan
This article reflects on the relevance and applicability of the Belmont Report nearly four decades after its original publication. In an exploration of criticisms that have been raised in response to the report and of significant changes that have occurred within the context of biomedical research, five primary themes arise. These themes include the increasingly vague boundary between research and practice, unique harms to communities that are not addressed by the principle of respect for persons, and how growing complexity and commodification in research have shed light on the importance of transparency...
July 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661731/at-last-aye-and-there-s-the-rub
#13
Alexander M Capron
Mea culpa. In 1981 the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, of which I was the Executive Director, recommended to the President and Congress that all federal departments and agencies that conduct or support human subjects research adopt "as a common core" the HHS regulations, "while permitting additions needed by any department or agency that are not inconsistent with these core provisions." The commission believed-rightly, I still think-that having uniformity would ease administration, reduce regulatory burdens, simplify oversight, and make research more efficient...
July 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659258/acceptance-of-mobile-health-in-communities-underrepresented-in-biomedical-research-barriers-and-ethical-considerations-for-scientists
#14
Camille Nebeker, Kate Murray, Christina Holub, Jessica Haughton, Elva M Arredondo
BACKGROUND: The rapid expansion of direct-to-consumer wearable fitness products (eg, Flex 2, Fitbit) and research-grade sensors (eg, SenseCam, Microsoft Research; activPAL, PAL Technologies) coincides with new opportunities for biomedical and behavioral researchers. Underserved communities report among the highest rates of chronic disease and could benefit from mobile technologies designed to facilitate awareness of health behaviors. However, new and nuanced ethical issues are introduced with new technologies, which are challenging both institutional review boards (IRBs) and researchers alike...
June 28, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653171/editing-mammalian-genomes-ethical-considerations
#15
Andy Greenfield
Genome editing is facilitating the manipulation of genomes on an unprecedented scale. It promises to revolutionize our ability to study gene function and generate models of human genetic disease in a range of organisms, most notably in mammals such as the mouse. Is this new technology likely to be disruptive to our research practices in any way? Will it alter the ways in which we implement the ethical imperatives of the 3Rs? In short, what ethical questions are raised by genome editing of mammals in a biomedical research context?...
June 26, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649428/the-uk-me-cfs-biobank-for-biomedical-research-on-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-me-cfs-and-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Eliana M Lacerda, Erinna W Bowman, Jacqueline M Cliff, Caroline C Kingdon, Elizabeth C King, Ji-Sook Lee, Taane G Clark, Hazel M Dockrell, Eleanor M Riley, Hayley Curran, Luis Nacul
The UK ME/CFS Biobank was launched in August 2011 following extensive consultation with professionals and patient representatives. The bioresource aims to enhance research on myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), related to pathophysiology, biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. The cohort includes 18-60 year olds, encompassing 284 clinically-confirmed ME/CFS cases, 60 neurologist-diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) cases, and 135 healthy individuals. The Biobank contains blood samples, aliquoted into serum, plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), red blood cells/granulocyte pellet, whole blood, and RNA (totalling 29,863 aliquots)...
2017: Open J Bioresour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645983/the-effect-of-magnesium-supplementation-on-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-randomised-clinical-trial-magical-ckd-essential-study-design-and-rationale
#17
Iain Bressendorff, Ditte Hansen, Morten Schou, Charlotte Kragelund, Lisbet Brandi
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, which is thought to be caused by increased propensity towards vascular calcification (VC). Magnesium (Mg) inhibits phosphate-induced VC in vitro and in animal models and serum Mg is inversely associated with cardiovascular mortality in predialysis CKD and in end-stage renal disease. This paper will describe the design and rationale of a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial, which will investigate whether oral Mg supplementation can prevent the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in subjects with predialysis CKD...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637736/transcatheter-closure-mini-invasive-closure-and-open-heart-surgical-repair-for-treatment-of-perimembranous-ventricular-septal-defects-in-children-a-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis
#18
Tao You, Kang Yi, Zhao-Hong Ding, Xiao-Dong Hou, Xing-Guang Liu, Xin-Kuan Wang, Long Ge, Jin-Hui Tian
INTRODUCTION: Both transcatheter device closure and surgical repair are effective treatments with excellent midterm outcomes for perimembranous ventricular septal defects (pmVSDs) in children. The mini-invasive periventricular device occlusion technique has become prevalent in research and application, but evidence is limited for the assessment of transcatheter closure, mini-invasive closure and open-heart surgical repair. This study comprehensively compares the efficacy, safety and costs of transcatheter closure, mini-invasive closure and open-heart surgical repair for treatment of pmVSDs in children using Bayesian network meta-analysis...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630534/data-sharing-a-new-editorial-initiative-of-the-international-committee-of-medical-journal-editors-implications-for-the-editors-network
#19
Fernando Alfonso, Karlen Adamyan, Jean-Yves Artigou, Michael Aschermann, Michael Boehm, Alfonso Buendia, Pao-Hsien Chu, Ariel Cohen, Livio Dei Cas, Mirza Dilic, Anton Doubell, Dario Echeverri, Nuray Enç, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Andreas Flammer, Eckart Fleck, Plamen Gatzov, Carmen Ginghina, Lino Goncalves, Habib Haouala, Mahmoud Hassanein, Gerd Heusch, Kurt Huber, Ivan Hulín, Mario Ivanusa, Rungroj Krittayaphong, Chu-Pak Lau, Germanas Marinskis, François Mach, Luiz Felipe Moreira, Tuomo Nieminen, Latifa Oukerraj, Stefan Perings, Luc Pierard, Tatjana Potpara, Walter Reyes-Caorsi, Se-Joong Rim, Olaf Rødevand, Georges Saade, Mikael Sander, Evgeny Shlyakhto, Bilgin Timuralp, Dimitris Tousoulis, Dilek Ural, J J Piek, Albert Varga, Thomas F Lüscher
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship- emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability-, have been proposed...
May 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601921/the-history-of-autonomy-in-medicine-from-antiquity-to-principlism
#20
Toni C Saad
Respect for Autonomy (RFA) has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress' in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility of the RFA are discussed in light of this philosophical-historical account...
June 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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