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Biomedical ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162092/applying-systems-biology-to-biomedical-research-and-health-care-a-pr%C3%A3-cising-definition-of-systems-medicine
#1
Sebastian Schleidgen, Sandra Fernau, Henrike Fleischer, Christoph Schickhardt, Ann-Kristin Oßa, Eva C Winkler
BACKGROUND: Systems medicine has become a key word in biomedical research. Although it is often referred to as P4-(predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory)-medicine, it still lacks a clear definition and is open to interpretation. This conceptual lack of clarity complicates the scientific and public discourse on chances, risks and limits of Systems Medicine and may lead to unfounded hopes. Against this background, our goal was to develop a sufficiently precise and widely acceptable definition of Systems Medicine...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157285/map-of-biomedical-research-in-cameroon-a-documentary-review-of-approved-protocols-from-1997-to-2012
#2
Ebile Akoh Walter, Ateudjieu Jerome, Djuidje Ngounoue Marceline, Martin Ndinakie Yakum, Watcho Pierre
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in biomedical research in Cameroon. However, the question of whether these research projects target major health priorities, vulnerable populations and geographic locations at risk remains to be answered. The aim of this paper is to describe the state of biomedical research in Cameroon which is a key determinant that would guide future health care policies and promote equitable access to healthcare. METHODS: A documentary review of all approved protocols (proposals) of biomedical research projects, from 1997 through 2012, at the Cameroon National Ethics Committee...
November 21, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149267/taiwan-biobank-making-cross-database-convergence-possible-in-the-big-data-era
#3
Jui-Chu Lin, Chien-Te Fan, Chia-Cheng Liao, Yao-Sheng Chen
The Taiwan Biobank (TWB) is a biomedical research database of biopsy data from 200,000 participants. Access to this database has been granted to research communities taking part in the development of precision medicines; however, this has raised issues surrounding TWB's access to electronic medical records (EMR). The Personal Data Protection Act of Taiwan restricts access to EMR for purposes not covered by patients' original consent. This commentary explores possible legal solutions to help ensure that the access TWB has to EMR abides with legal obligations, and with governance frameworks associated with ethical, legal and social implications...
November 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145766/environmental-samples-make-soiled-bedding-sentinels-dispensable-for-hygienic-monitoring-of-ivc-reared-mouse-colonies
#4
Manuel Miller, Markus Brielmeier
Accurate knowledge of the health status of experimental animals is pivotal to high scientific and ethical standards in biomedical research. Individually ventilated cages (IVCs) are becoming the predominant system for housing laboratory mice, as they prevent cage-to-cage infections. However, this feature constitutes a major drawback for hygienic monitoring of mouse colonies, as traditional screening programs build on reliable transmission of infectious agents from experimental animals to sentinel mice commonly tested as representatives for the mouse colonies...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137639/proactive-ethical-design-for-neuroengineering-assistive-and-rehabilitation-technologies-the-cybathlon-lesson
#5
REVIEW
Marcello Ienca, Reto W Kressig, Fabrice Jotterand, Bernice Elger
BACKGROUND: Rapid advancements in rehabilitation science and the widespread application of engineering techniques are opening the prospect of a new phase of clinical and commercial maturity for Neuroengineering, Assistive and Rehabilitation Technologies (NARTs). As the field enters this new phase, there is an urgent need to address and anticipate the ethical implications associated with novel technological opportunities, clinical solutions, and social applications. MAIN IDEA: In this paper we review possible approaches to the ethics of NART, and propose a framework for ethical design and development, which we call the Proactive Ethical Design (PED) framework...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128700/long-term-maintenance-of-frozen-mouse-spermatozoa-at%C3%A2-80%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#6
Marcello Raspa, Martin Fray, Renata Paoletti, Lluis Montoliu, Alessandro Giuliani, Ferdinando Scavizzi
Maintaining mouse stocks as frozen materials offers both ethical and economical advantages over live animal breeding if the lines are not actively used. The European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) promotes the archiving and distribution of important mouse models for biomedical research through the cryopreservation of their embryos and gametes. Embryo freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN2) at -196 °C has traditionally been the method of choice for archiving mouse lines. However, sperm freezing is emerging as a more convenient alternative due to the application of innovative cryopreservation and recovery protocols...
October 31, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127672/responsible-conduct-of-human-subjects-research-in-islamic-communities
#7
Aceil Al-Khatib, Michael Kalichman
In order to increase understanding of the ethical implications of biomedical, behavioral and clinical research, the Fogarty International Center, part of the United States National Institutes of Health, established an International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Award (R25) to support programs in low- and middle-income countries. To develop research ethics expertise in Jordan, the University of California San Diego fellowship program in collaboration with Jordan University of Science and Technology provides courses that enable participants to develop skills in varied research ethics topics, including research with human subjects...
November 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124449/the-evolution-of-public-health-ethics-frameworks-systematic-review-of-moral-values-and-norms-in-public-health-policy
#8
REVIEW
Mahmoud Abbasi, Reza Majdzadeh, Alireza Zali, Abbas Karimi, Forouzan Akrami
Given the evolution of the public health (PH) and the changes from the phenomenon of globalization, this area has encountered new ethical challenges. In order to find a coherent approach to address ethical issues in PH policy, this study aimed to identify the evolution of public health ethics (PHE) frameworks and the main moral values and norms in PH practice and policy. According to the research questions, a systematic search of the literature, in English, with no time limit was performed using the main keywords in databases Web of Science (ISI) and PubMed...
November 9, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121942/ethical-aspects-of-brain-computer-interfaces-a-scoping-review
#9
Sasha Burwell, Matthew Sample, Eric Racine
BACKGROUND: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a set of technologies that are of increasing interest to researchers. BCI has been proposed as assistive technology for individuals who are non-communicative or paralyzed, such as those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or spinal cord injury. The technology has also been suggested for enhancement and entertainment uses, and there are companies currently marketing BCI devices for those purposes (e.g., gaming) as well as health-related purposes (e...
November 9, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114481/ethics-of-translational-medical-research
#10
Jharna Mandal, Dinoop Korol Ponnambath, Subhash Chandra Parija
Translational research is the science of application of basic research knowledge to develop novel methods of improving public health outcome. This review briefly discusses the various phases involved and the hurdles faced in the translational pathway, how translational science originated, and the infrastructures consigned for translational research. Translational research also faces numerous diverse ethical issues similar to those observed in biomedical research. The various types of ethical issues faced whereas conducting translational research are discussed briefly in this review to help researchers identify and prevent unethical practices while conducting or regulating translational research...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112494/proposal-for-the-creation-of-a-national-strategy-for-precision-medicine-in-cancer-a-position-statement-of-seom-seap-and-sefh
#11
Pilar Garrido, Azucena Aldaz, Miguel Ángel Calleja, Enrique De Álava, María Jesús Lamas, Miguel Martín, Xavier Matías-Guiu, José Palacios, Ruth Vera
Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. Precision medicine is transforming clinical and biomedical research, as well as health care itself from a conceptual, as well as a methodological viewpoint, providing extraordinary opportunities to improve public health and lower the costs of the healthcare system. However, the implementation of precision medicine poses ethical-legal, regulatory, organizational and knowledge-related challenges...
November 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110730/a-meta-science-for-a-global-bioethics-and-biomedicine
#12
David S Basser
BACKGROUND: As suggested by Shook and Giordano, understanding and therefore addressing the urgent international governance issues around globalizing bio-medical/technology research and applications is limited by the perception of the underlying science. METHODS: A philosophical methodology is used, based on novel and classical philosophical reflection upon existent literature, clinical wisdoms and narrative theory to discover a meta-science and telos of humankind for the development of a relevant and defendable global biomedical bioethics...
November 7, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107620/lacking-quality-in-research-is-behavioral-neuroscience-affected-more-than-other-areas-of-biomedical-science
#13
Anton Bespalov, Thomas Steckler
There are many reasons why novel therapeutics fail in clinical trials but these failures are often attributed to lacking quality of preclinical data. These problems are not limited to any specific therapeutic area, academic or industrial research and are due in large part to several generic factors influencing research quality (e.g., related to definition of pre-specified endpoints, principles of study design and analysis, biased reporting, and lack of proper training). Yet, Neuroscience drug discovery is often said to be affected more than the other fields...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070642/exploring-the-theory-barriers-and-enablers-for-patient-and-public-involvement-across-health-social-care-and-patient-safety-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#14
Josephine Ocloo, Sarah Garfield, Shoba Dawson, Bryony Dean Franklin
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare in the UK can be traced as far back as the 1970s. More recently, campaigns by harmed patients and their relatives have emerged as a result of clinical failings in the NHS, challenging paternalistic healthcare, which have led to a new focus on PPI in quality and safety, nationally and internationally. Evidence suggests that PPI within patient safety is often atheoretical and located within a biomedical discourse...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070032/collaborative-partnership-and-the-social-value-of-clinical-research-a-qualitative-secondary-analysis
#15
Sanna-Maria Nurmi, Arja Halkoaho, Mari Kangasniemi, Anna-Maija Pietilä
BACKGROUND: Protecting human subjects from being exploited is one of the main ethical challenges for clinical research. However, there is also a responsibility to protect and respect the communities who are hosting the research. Recently, attention has focused on the most efficient way of carrying out clinical research, so that it benefits society by providing valuable research while simultaneously protecting and respecting the human subjects and the communities where the research is conducted...
October 25, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061619/a-scoping-review-protocol-on-the-roles-and-tasks-of-peer-reviewers-in-the-manuscript-review-process-in-biomedical-journals
#16
Ketevan Glonti, Daniel Cauchi, Erik Cobo, Isabelle Boutron, David Moher, Darko Hren
INTRODUCTION: The primary functions of peer reviewers are poorly defined. Thus far no body of literature has systematically identified the roles and tasks of peer reviewers of biomedical journals. A clear establishment of these can lead to improvements in the peer review process. The purpose of this scoping review is to determine what is known on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers. METHODS: We will use the methodological framework first proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and subsequently adapted by Levac et al and the Joanna Briggs Institute...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059597/justification-and-authority-in-institutional-review-board-decision-letters
#17
Justin T Clapp, Katharine A Gleason, Steven Joffe
While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis...
October 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042394/effects-of-e-learning-in-a-continuing-education-context-on-nursing-care-a-review-of-systematic-qualitative-quantitative-and-mixed-studies-reviews-protocol
#18
Geneviève Rouleau, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, José Côté, Julie Payne-Gagnon, Emilie Hudson, Julien Bouix-Picasso, Carl-Ardy Dubois
INTRODUCTION: Continuing education (CE) is imperative to the future of professional nursing. The use of e-learning by registered nurses for CE is spreading. A review of systematic reviews will be conducted to develop a broad picture of the effects of e-learning in a CE context on nursing care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Systematic qualitative, quantitative and mixed studies reviews published in English, French or Spanish from 1 January 2006 will be included. The outcomes of interest will be extracted and analysed inductively and deductively from the Nursing Care Performance Framework; some themes include nursing resources, nurses' practice environment, processes, professional satisfaction, and nursing sensitive outcomes...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031040/-treatment-refusal-in-pediatric-oncology
#19
A Špótová, K Husáková, A Hrašková, M Mikesková, J Puškáčová, S Hederová, M Jamárik, E Rabenseifertová, Z Jalovecká, A Kolenová, Z Šubová
BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncologists are often faced with situations in which parents or guardians refuse recommended treatment for curable childhood cancer. Deciding how to proceed in such situations is an ethical dilemma. The aim of this article is to consider optimal approaches when parents are strongly against oncological treatment, potentially compromising their childrens rights for health care and to the chance for cure. CASES: In this paper, we report two cases of treatment refusal from our department and the impact of such decisions on the children themselves...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022172/the-president-s-physician-an-african-play-emmanuel-babatunde-omobowale-2004-all-saints-publishers-ibadan-978-978-37727-3-1-77-pp
#20
Joseph Ajagunmolu Mayaki
This review examines issues relating to biomedical ethics and literature in the African drama The President's Physician by Emmanuel Babatunde Omobowale. The play investigates the psychological dilemma of Doctor Bituki Warunga, a personal physician to General Kalunga Ntibantunganyah who brutally and inhumanely rules Wavaria, a fictional African country. The doctor is faced with deciding to uphold the ethics of his profession versus terminating the tyrant's life to set the nation free. The play aims to help budding medical doctors rightly inculcate the principles of medical ethics-autonomy, beneficence, competence, and power-by providing a fictional platform to investigate difficult issues that can arise in clinical practice...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
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