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Biomedical ethics

Alberto Pilotto, Raffaella Boi, Jean Petermans
Recently, the interest of industry, government agencies and healthcare professionals in technology for aging people has increased. The challenge is whether technology may play a role in enhancing independence and quality of life and in reducing individual and societal costs of caring. Information and communication technologies, i.e. tools aimed at communicating and informing, assistive technologies designed to maintain older peoples' independence and increasing safety, and human-computer interaction technologies for supporting older people with motility and cognitive impairments as humanoid robots, exoskeletons, rehabilitation robots, service robots and companion-type are interdisciplinary topics both in research and in clinical practice...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Pratima Murthy
While guidelines for psychosocial interventions in addictive disorders in India were earlier rooted in clinical experience and global empirical evidence, recently there have been efforts to develop guidelines for intervention based on the local needs assessments of specific populations and more appreciably, a testing of the effectiveness of the interventions. This supplement on psychosocial interventions for addictive disorders covers some of the important aspects of psychosocial interventions in five sections...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Guowei Li, Meha Bhatt, Mei Wang, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Zainab Samaan, Lehana Thabane
Evidence from a well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) is generally considered to be the gold standard that can inform clinical practice and guide decision-making. However, several deficiencies in the reporting of RCTs have frequently been identified, including incomplete, selective, and biased or inconsistent reporting. Such suboptimal reporting may lead to irreproducible results, substantial waste of resources, impaired study validity, erosion of public trust in science, and a high risk of research misconduct...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jeanette Wassar Kirk, Ann Christine Bodilsen, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Mette Merete Pedersen, Thomas Bandholm, Rasmus Skov Husted, Lise Kronborg Poulsen, Janne Petersen, Ove Andersen, Per Nilsen
INTRODUCTION: Older medical patients (>65 years) represent 54% of the admissions to Danish medical and emergency departments. Acute admissions and bed-rest during hospitalisation are independent risk factors for death and dependency in older patients. Even short hospitalisations are associated with increased dependency in activities of daily living after discharge. Interventions that increase mobility during hospitalisation are therefore important. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the intervention design of the WALK-Copenhagen project, aimed at increasing 24 hours mobility in older medical patients during acute hospitalisations and following discharge...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Corine Mouton Dorey, Holger Baumann, Nikola Biller-Andorno
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in aggregating more biomedical and patient data into large health data sets for research and public benefits. However, collecting and processing patient data raises new ethical issues regarding patient's rights, social justice and trust in public institutions. The aim of this empirical study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the awareness of possible ethical risks and corresponding obligations among those who are involved in projects using patient data, i...
March 7, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Motshedisi B Sabone, Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe, Ellah Matshediso, Sheila Shaibu, Esther I Ntsayagae, Inge B Corless, Yvette P Cuca, William L Holzemer, Carol Dawson-Rose, Solymar S Soliz Baez, Marta Rivero-Mendz, Allison R Webel, Lucille Sanzero Eller, Paul Reid, Mallory O Johnson, Jeanne Kemppainen, Darcel Reyes, Kathleen Nokes, Dean Wantland, Patrice K Nicholas, Teri Lingren, Carmen J Portillo, Elizabeth Sefcik, Ellen Long-Middleton
BACKGROUND: Managing HIV treatment is a complex multi-dimensional task because of a combination of factors such as stigma and discrimination of some populations who frequently get infected with HIV. In addition, patient-provider encounters have become increasingly multicultural, making effective communication and provision of ethically sound care a challenge. PURPOSE: This article explores ethical issues that health service providers in the United States and Botswana encountered in their interaction with patients in HIV care...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Matti Häyry
Justice can be approached from many angles in ethical and political debates, including those involving healthcare, biomedical research, and well-being. The main doctrines of justice are liberal egalitarianism, libertarianism, luck egalitarianism, socialism, utilitarianism, capability approach, communitarianism, and care ethics. These can be further elaborated in the light of traditional moral and social theories, values, ideals, and interests, and there are distinct dimensions of justice that are captured better by some tactics than by others...
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Terry L Jernigan, Sandra A Brown
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal, observational study of over 10,000 youth recruited at 21 sites throughout the United States. Comprehensive biennial assessments and more limited interim assessments measure health, mental health, neurocognition, family, cultural and environmental variables, substance use, genetic and other biomarkers, and structural and functional brain development. Within this Special Issue, readers will find much information about the rationale and objectives of the study, the broad ranging assessment protocols and new as well as traditional methodologies applied at baseline, the recruitment and retention strategies, and the anticipated final composition of the cohort...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Andrea Lavazza, Marcello Massimini
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Fengwen Yang, Jiahan Zou, Long Ge, Jinhui Tian, Myeong Soo Lee, Ji Hee Jun, Junhua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) are commonly used for the treatment of heart failure in China. Due to the variety of CHIs used in clinic, selecting a suitable CHI for patients with heart failure is vital. This study aims to assess and compare the effect of different CHIs for heart failure using network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: Six electronic databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database will be search from inception to January 2018...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
M K Czerwiec
Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
M Ariel Cascio, Eric Racine
Research ethics is often understood by researchers primarily through the regulatory framework reflected in the research ethics review process. This regulatory understanding does not encompass the range of ethical considerations in research, notably those associated with the relational and everyday aspects of human subject research. In order to support researchers in their effort to adopt a broader lens, this paper presents a "person-oriented research ethics" approach. Five practical guideposts of person-oriented research ethics are identified: (1) respect for holistic personhood; (2) acknowledgement of lived world; (3) individualization; (4) focus on researcher-participant relationships; and (5) empowerment in decision-making...
February 16, 2018: Accountability in Research
Christian Dippmann, Otto Kraemer, Bent Lund, Michael Krogsgaard, Per Hölmich, Martin Lind, Karen Briggs, Marc Philippon, Bjarne Mygind-Klavsen
INTRODUCTION: Hip arthroscopy has become a standard procedure in the treatment of hip joint pain not related to osteoarthritis or dysplasia in the young and active patient. There has been increasing focus on the contribution of the hip capsule to function and on stability following hip arthroscopy. It has been suggested that capsular closure after hip arthroscopy may prevent microinstability and macroinstability of the hip joint and reduce revision rate. However, it remains unknown whether capsular closure should be performed as a standard procedure when performing hip arthroscopies, especially in patients without additional risk factors for instability such as hypermobility or dysplasia of the hip...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Stefanie Broes, Denis Lacombe, Michiel Verlinden, Isabelle Huys
The recent revolution in science and technology applied to medical research has left in its wake a trial of biomedical data and human samples; however, its opportunities remain largely unfulfilled due to a number of legal, ethical, financial, strategic, and technical barriers. Precision oncology has been at the vanguard to leverage this potential of "Big data" and samples into meaningful solutions for patients, considering the need for new drug development approaches in this area (due to high costs, late-stage failures, and the molecular diversity of cancer)...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Gillian F Black, Alun Davies, Dalia Iskander, Mary Chambers
There is a growing body of literature describing conceptual frameworks for working with participatory visual methods (PVM). Through a global health lens, this paper examines some key themes within these frameworks. We reflect on our experiences of working with with an array of PVM to engage community members in Vietnam, Kenya, the Philippines and South Africa in biomedical research and public health. The participants that we have engaged in these processes live in under-resourced areas with high prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases...
2018: Global Bioethics, Problemi di Bioetica
S Richa, R Chammay, A Dargél, C Henry, M Masson
The implications of biomedical ethics principles extend to both medical care and biomedical research. They are particularly relevant for psychiatry in which pathologies are often chronic and disabling. Bipolar disorders impact the ability to make judgements and to take decisions during mood episodes and remain a stigmatised condition. Early interventions, even those in the prodromal phase, pose ethical questions for both clinicians and researchers. The degree of patients' autonomy in their clinical care must also now be considered from a biomedical ethics perspective...
February 4, 2018: L'Encéphale
Karina de Albuquerque Rocha, Sonia M R Vasconcelos
Ethics regulation for human-subject research (HSR) has been established for about 20 years in Brazil. However, compliance with this regulation is controversial for non-biomedical sciences, particularly for human and social sciences (HSS), the source of a recent debate at the National Commission for Research Ethics. We hypothesized that for these fields, formal requirements for compliance with HSR regulation in graduate programs, responsible for the greatest share of Brazilian science, would be small in number...
February 6, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
John D Loike, Alan Kadish
A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.
January 29, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Barbara K Redman
A recent National Academy report on research integrity noted that policies are not evidence-based, with no formal entity responsible to attend to this deficit. Here we describe four areas of research misconduct (RM) regulations governing Public Health Service funded research that are empirically and/or ethically questionable. Policies for human subject protection, RM and conflict of interest are not harmonized, making it extremely difficult to deal with complex cases which often contain allegations in all of these areas...
February 5, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Yang Xie, Jia-Jia Wang, Gao-Yang Li, Xuan-Lin Li, Jian-Sheng Li
BACKGROUND: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) often suffer from progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function. Although 2 drugs are now available for IPF treatment, many gaps are still to be filled. Evidences suggest that there may be some beneficial effect of acupuncture on pulmonary diseases. This review aims to systematically determine the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IPF. METHODS: The following 8 databases will be searched from their inception to March 20, 2017: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP, and Wanfang Data...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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