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Biomedical ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336803/facilitating-the-ethical-use-of-health-data-for-the-benefit-of-society-electronic-health-records-consent-and-the-duty-of-easy-rescue
#1
Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Julian Savulescu, Barbara J Sahakian
Advances in data science allow for sophisticated analysis of increasingly large datasets. In the medical context, large volumes of data collected for healthcare purposes are contained in electronic health records (EHRs). The real-life character and sheer amount of data contained in them make EHRs an attractive resource for public health and biomedical research. However, medical records contain sensitive information that could be misused by third parties. Medical confidentiality and respect for patients' privacy and autonomy protect patient data, barring access to health records unless consent is given by the data subject...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330491/orchestrating-differential-data-access-for-translational-research-a-pilot-implementation
#2
Marco Brandizi, Olga Melnichuk, Raffael Bild, Florian Kohlmayer, Benedicto Rodriguez-Castro, Helmut Spengler, Klaus A Kuhn, Wolfgang Kuchinke, Christian Ohmann, Timo Mustonen, Mikael Linden, Tommi Nyrönen, Ilkka Lappalainen, Alvis Brazma, Ugis Sarkans
BACKGROUND: Translational researchers need robust IT solutions to access a range of data types, varying from public data sets to pseudonymised patient information with restricted access, provided on a case by case basis. The reason for this complication is that managing access policies to sensitive human data must consider issues of data confidentiality, identifiability, extent of consent, and data usage agreements. All these ethical, social and legal aspects must be incorporated into a differential management of restricted access to sensitive data...
March 23, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321561/ethics-and-epistemology-in-big-data-research
#3
Wendy Lipworth, Paul H Mason, Ian Kerridge, John P A Ioannidis
Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320595/brain-death-during-pregnancy-and-prolonged-corporeal-support-of-the-body-a-critical-discussion
#4
Lynne Staff, Meredith Nash
AIM: To discuss corporeal support of the brain-dead pregnant woman and to critically examine important aspects of this complex situation that remain as yet unexplored. BACKGROUND: When brain death of the woman occurs during pregnancy, the fetus may be kept inside the corporeally supported body for prolonged periods to enable continued fetal growth and development. This has been increasingly reported in medical literature since 1982 and has received considerable media attention in the past few years...
March 17, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301466/genome-editing-bioethics-shows-the-way
#5
Carolyn P Neuhaus, Arthur L Caplan
When some scientists hear the word "bioethics," they break out in intellectual hives. They shouldn't. Good bioethics is about enabling science to move forward. Bioethics pushes scientists to acknowledge that they operate not within a vacuum but within a society in which diverse perspectives and values must be engaged. Bioethicists give voice to those divergent perspectives and provide a framework to facilitate informed and inclusive discussions that spur progress, rather than stall it. The field is needed to advance cutting-edge biomedical research in domains in which the benefits to be had are enormous, such as genome editing, but ethical concerns persist...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275345/moral-enhancement-using-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#6
REVIEW
R Ryan Darby, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Biomedical enhancement refers to the use of biomedical interventions to improve capacities beyond normal, rather than to treat deficiencies due to diseases. Enhancement can target physical or cognitive capacities, but also complex human behaviors such as morality. However, the complexity of normal moral behavior makes it unlikely that morality is a single capacity that can be deficient or enhanced. Instead, our central hypothesis will be that moral behavior results from multiple, interacting cognitive-affective networks in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274967/effect-of-using-cardiovascular-risk-scoring-in-routine-risk-assessment-in-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-protocol-for-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#7
Krzysztof Studzin Ski, Tomasz Tomasik, Janusz Krzyszton, Jacek Józ Wiak, Adam Windak
INTRODUCTION: Major clinical practice guidelines recommend assessing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using absolute/global/total CVD risk scores. However, the effectiveness of using them in clinical practice, despite publication of numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs), is still poorly understood. To summarise and analyse current knowledge in this field, we will carry out an overview of existing systematic reviews (SRs). The objective of this overview will be to assess the effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of CVD compared with standard care...
March 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244829/regenerative-capacity-of-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-elderly-a-report-of-biomedical-outcomes
#8
Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Garza, Delia Elva Cruz-Vega
The occurrence of chronic diseases such as neurological, metabolic and cardiovascular degenerative disorders increases with age. Cell therapy is an emerging approach to the treatment of these conditions. Of particular interest is the application of autologous stem cells because it eliminates post-transplantation immune rejection and there are less ethical concerns associated with their use. The regenerative capacity of stem cells harvested from elderly people is however controversial. In this review, we analyze if self-renewal potential, differentiation capability and expression of stemness genes in stem cells collected from elderly patients validate their application in clinical trials and examine the results...
March 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240821/-invited-review-genetic-research-on-alcohol-use-outcomes-in-african-american-populations-a-review-of-the-literature-associated-challenges-and-implications
#9
REVIEW
Danielle M Dick, Peter Barr, Mignonne Guy, Aashir Nasim, Denise Scott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There have been remarkable advances in understanding genetic influences on complex traits; however, individuals of African descent have been underrepresented in genetic research. METHODS: We review the limitations of existing genetic research on alcohol phenotypes in African Americans (AA) including both twin and gene identification studies, possible reasons for underrepresentation of AAs in genetic research, the implications of the lack of racially diverse samples, and special considerations regarding conducting genetic research in AA populations...
February 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214788/authorship-criteria-and-reporting-of-ethical-compliance-in-indian-biomedical-journals
#10
Pravin Bolshete
The "instructions to authors" of a total of 55 PubMed/MEDLINE indexed Indian biomedical journals were evaluated to assess the authorship criteria and guidance on reporting of research ethics including incorporation of recent updates. Thirty-seven (67.3%) journals recommended the ICMJE guidelines for manuscript preparation. Thirty-two of 55 (58.2%) journals defined authorship; only two journals defined authorship as per the latest (2013) ICMJE criteria. The journals' recommendations which indicated ethical compliance in articles were - the conduct of a study in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki(n=39); ethical approval (n=37); consent (n=26); assent (n=10); and consent for identifiable information (n=31)...
February 1, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190696/ethical-issues-in-research
#11
REVIEW
Raul Artal, Sheldon Rubenfeld
Biomedical research is currently guided by ethical standards that have evolved over many centuries. Historical and political events, social and legal considerations, and continuous medical and technological advances have led to the prevailing research ethics and practice. Currently, patients and research subjects have complete autonomy while under medical care or when volunteering as research subjects. Enrolling volunteers in human subjects research includes a detailed and meaningful informed consent process that follows the cardinal principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice...
January 23, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183413/manuscript-development-and-publishing-a-5-step-approach
#12
Susan M Downey, Stephen A Geraci
Publications in peer-reviewed biomedical journals are essential for sharing knowledge and advancing healthcare. This article will articulate a 5-step approach for developing and publishing a manuscript, and provide academic clinicians with an instructional tool they can provide to their protégés and junior faculty. The authors attempt to distill existing advice for preparing manuscripts, which is found in myriad formats, combine these tutorials with their collective experience and present this approach for developing and publishing successfully a manuscript in a peer-reviewed journal...
February 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177781/-still-rather-hazy-at-present-citizens-and-physicians-views-on-returning-results-from-biobank-research-using-broad-consent
#13
Gaia Barazzetti, Samuele Cavalli, Lazare Benaroyo, Alain Kaufmann
AIMS: Informed consent and return of research results are among the most debated topics in the biobank literature. We discuss ethical, social, and policy issues associated with returning results in the context of biobanks using a broad consent approach, in the light of data from a qualitative survey of citizens' and physicians' views. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected through interviews and focus groups to investigate stakeholders' perspectives about a large-scale hospital-based biobank designed to foster biomedical research, including prospective genomics research, and "personalized" medicine...
March 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170171/directing-the-differentiation-of-parthenogenetic-stem-cells-into-tenocytes-for-tissue-engineered-tendon-regeneration
#14
Wei Liu, Lu Yin, Xingrong Yan, Jihong Cui, Wenguang Liu, Yang Rao, Mei Sun, Qi Wei, Fulin Chen
Uniparental parthenogenesis yields pluripotent stem cells without the political and ethical concerns surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for biomedical applications. In the current study, we hypothesized that parthenogenetic stem cells (pSCs) could be directed to differentiate into tenocytes and applied for tissue-engineered tendon. We showed that pSCs displayed fundamental properties similar to those of ESCs, including pluripotency, clonogenicity, and self-renewal capacity. pSCs spontaneously differentiated into parthenogenetic mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs), which were positive for mesenchymal stem cell surface markers and possessed osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic potential...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165673/a-preliminary-survey-of-professionalism-teaching-practices-in-anatomy-education-among-indian-medical-colleges
#15
Ilavenil Karunakaran, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Sheela Das Nalinakumari
Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students...
February 6, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146646/returning-results-in-biobank-research-global-trends-and-solutions
#16
REVIEW
Eva De Clercq, Jane Kaye, Susan M Wolf, Barbara A Koenig, Bernice S Elger
In many countries around the world, biobanks have become crucial resources for the conduct of biomedical research, facilitating many kinds of research, including international collaborations. The focus of this special issue is on a looming ethical issue that has become a focus of debate-the return of research results and incidental findings to biobank participants. Although the articles in this issue do not provide a final answer to the ethical, legal, and social dilemmas that arise in the context of the return of results, the intent of the collection is to approach this issue from multiple perspectives and within an international context spanning the United Kingdom, continental Europe including Eastern Europe, the United States, and the Middle East...
March 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144901/investigating-public-trust-in-expert-knowledge-narrative-ethics-and-engagement
#17
Silvia Camporesi, Maria Vaccarella, Mark Davis
"Public Trust in Expert Knowledge: Narrative, Ethics, and Engagement" examines the social, cultural, and ethical ramifications of changing public trust in the expert biomedical knowledge systems of emergent and complex global societies. This symposium was conceived as an interdisciplinary project, drawing on bioethics, the social sciences, and the medical humanities. We settled on public trust as a topic for our work together because its problematization cuts across our fields and substantive research interests...
March 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129753/measuring-value-sensitivity-in-medicine
#18
Christian Ineichen, Markus Christen, Carmen Tanner
BACKGROUND: Value sensitivity - the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice - is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity...
January 28, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122615/dynamic-consent-a-potential-solution-to-some-of-the-challenges-of-modern-biomedical-research
#19
Isabelle Budin-Ljøsne, Harriet J A Teare, Jane Kaye, Stephan Beck, Heidi Beate Bentzen, Luciana Caenazzo, Clive Collett, Flavio D'Abramo, Heike Felzmann, Teresa Finlay, Muhammad Kassim Javaid, Erica Jones, Višnja Katić, Amy Simpson, Deborah Mascalzoni
BACKGROUND: Innovations in technology have contributed to rapid changes in the way that modern biomedical research is carried out. Researchers are increasingly required to endorse adaptive and flexible approaches to accommodate these innovations and comply with ethical, legal and regulatory requirements. This paper explores how Dynamic Consent may provide solutions to address challenges encountered when researchers invite individuals to participate in research and follow them up over time in a continuously changing environment...
January 25, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122027/-well-it-s-the-risk-of-the-unknown%C3%A2-right-a-qualitative-study-of-perceived-risks-and-benefits-of-hiv-cure-research-in-the-united-states
#20
Karine Dubé, Jeff Taylor, Laurie Sylla, David Evans, Lynda Dee, Alasdair Burton, Loreen Willenberg, Stuart Rennie, Asheley Skinner, Joseph D Tucker, Bryan J Weiner, Sandra B Greene
INTRODUCTION: Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016...
2017: PloS One
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