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Biomedical ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214788/authorship-criteria-and-reporting-of-ethical-compliance-in-indian-biomedical-journals
#1
Pravin Bolshete
The "instructions to authors" of a total of 55 PubMed/MEDLINE indexed Indian biomedical journals were evaluated to assess the authorship criteria and guidance on reporting of research ethics including incorporation of recent updates. Thirty-seven (67.3%) journals recommended the ICMJE guidelines for manuscript preparation. Thirty-two of 55 (58.2%) journals defined authorship; only two journals defined authorship as per the latest (2013) ICMJE criteria. The journals' recommendations which indicated ethical compliance in articles were - the conduct of a study in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki(n=39); ethical approval (n=37); consent (n=26); assent (n=10); and consent for identifiable information (n=31)...
February 1, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190696/ethical-issues-in-research
#2
REVIEW
Raul Artal, Sheldon Rubenfeld
Biomedical research is currently guided by ethical standards that have evolved over many centuries. Historical and political events, social and legal considerations, and continuous medical and technological advances have led to the prevailing research ethics and practice. Currently, patients and research subjects have complete autonomy while under medical care or when volunteering as research subjects. Enrolling volunteers in human subjects research includes a detailed and meaningful informed consent process that follows the cardinal principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice...
January 23, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183413/manuscript-development-and-publishing-a-5-step-approach
#3
Susan M Downey, Stephen A Geraci
Publications in peer-reviewed biomedical journals are essential for sharing knowledge and advancing healthcare. This article will articulate a 5-step approach for developing and publishing a manuscript, and provide academic clinicians with an instructional tool they can provide to their protégés and junior faculty. The authors attempt to distill existing advice for preparing manuscripts, which is found in myriad formats, combine these tutorials with their collective experience and present this approach for developing and publishing successfully a manuscript in a peer-reviewed journal...
February 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177781/-still-rather-hazy-at-present-citizens-and-physicians-views-on-returning-results-from-biobank-research-using-broad-consent
#4
Gaia Barazzetti, Samuele Cavalli, Lazare Benaroyo, Alain Kaufmann
AIMS: Informed consent and return of research results are among the most debated topics in the biobank literature. We discuss ethical, social, and policy issues associated with returning results in the context of biobanks using a broad consent approach, in the light of data from a qualitative survey of citizens' and physicians' views. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected through interviews and focus groups to investigate stakeholders' perspectives about a large-scale hospital-based biobank designed to foster biomedical research, including prospective genomics research, and "personalized" medicine...
February 8, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170171/directing-the-differentiation-of-parthenogenetic-stem-cells-into-tenocytes-for-tissue-engineered-tendon-regeneration
#5
Wei Liu, Lu Yin, Xingrong Yan, Jihong Cui, Wenguang Liu, Yang Rao, Mei Sun, Qi Wei, Fulin Chen
Uniparental parthenogenesis yields pluripotent stem cells without the political and ethical concerns surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for biomedical applications. In the current study, we hypothesized that parthenogenetic stem cells (pSCs) could be directed to differentiate into tenocytes and applied for tissue-engineered tendon. We showed that pSCs displayed fundamental properties similar to those of ESCs, including pluripotency, clonogenicity, and self-renewal capacity. pSCs spontaneously differentiated into parthenogenetic mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs), which were positive for mesenchymal stem cell surface markers and possessed osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic potential...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165673/a-preliminary-survey-of-professionalism-teaching-practices-in-anatomy-education-among-indian-medical-colleges
#6
Ilavenil Karunakaran, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Sheela Das Nalinakumari
Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students...
February 6, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146646/returning-results-in-biobank-research-global-trends-and-solutions
#7
Eva De Clercq, Jane Kaye, Susan M Wolf, Barbara A Koenig, Bernice S Elger
In many countries around the world, biobanks have become crucial resources for the conduct of biomedical research, facilitating many kinds of research, including international collaborations. The focus of this special issue is on a looming ethical issue that has become a focus of debate-the return of research results and incidental findings to biobank participants. Although the articles in this issue do not provide a final answer to the ethical, legal, and social dilemmas that arise in the context of the return of results, the intent of the collection is to approach this issue from multiple perspectives and within an international context spanning the United Kingdom, continental Europe including Eastern Europe, the United States, and the Middle East...
February 1, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144901/investigating-public-trust-in-expert-knowledge-narrative-ethics-and-engagement
#8
Silvia Camporesi, Maria Vaccarella, Mark Davis
"Public Trust in Expert Knowledge: Narrative, Ethics, and Engagement" examines the social, cultural, and ethical ramifications of changing public trust in the expert biomedical knowledge systems of emergent and complex global societies. This symposium was conceived as an interdisciplinary project, drawing on bioethics, the social sciences, and the medical humanities. We settled on public trust as a topic for our work together because its problematization cuts across our fields and substantive research interests...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129753/measuring-value-sensitivity-in-medicine
#9
Christian Ineichen, Markus Christen, Carmen Tanner
BACKGROUND: Value sensitivity - the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice - is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity...
January 28, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122615/dynamic-consent-a-potential-solution-to-some-of-the-challenges-of-modern-biomedical-research
#10
Isabelle Budin-Ljøsne, Harriet J A Teare, Jane Kaye, Stephan Beck, Heidi Beate Bentzen, Luciana Caenazzo, Clive Collett, Flavio D'Abramo, Heike Felzmann, Teresa Finlay, Muhammad Kassim Javaid, Erica Jones, Višnja Katić, Amy Simpson, Deborah Mascalzoni
BACKGROUND: Innovations in technology have contributed to rapid changes in the way that modern biomedical research is carried out. Researchers are increasingly required to endorse adaptive and flexible approaches to accommodate these innovations and comply with ethical, legal and regulatory requirements. This paper explores how Dynamic Consent may provide solutions to address challenges encountered when researchers invite individuals to participate in research and follow them up over time in a continuously changing environment...
January 25, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122027/-well-it-s-the-risk-of-the-unknown%C3%A2-right-a-qualitative-study-of-perceived-risks-and-benefits-of-hiv-cure-research-in-the-united-states
#11
Karine Dubé, Jeff Taylor, Laurie Sylla, David Evans, Lynda Dee, Alasdair Burton, Loreen Willenberg, Stuart Rennie, Asheley Skinner, Joseph D Tucker, Bryan J Weiner, Sandra B Greene
INTRODUCTION: Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114401/a-comparison-of-the-quality-of-informed-consent-for-clinical-trials-of-an-experimental-hookworm-vaccine-conducted-in-developed-and-developing-countries
#12
David J Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli
Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104841/human-tissues-in-a-dish-the-research-and-ethical-implications-of-organoid-technology
#13
REVIEW
Annelien L Bredenoord, Hans Clevers, Juergen A Knoblich
The ability to generate human tissues in vitro from stem cells has raised enormous expectations among the biomedical research community, patients, and the general public. These organoids enable studies of normal development and disease and allow the testing of compounds directly on human tissue. Organoids hold the promise to influence the entire innovation cycle in biomedical research. They affect fields that have been subjects of intense ethical debate, ranging from animal experiments and the use of embryonic or fetal human tissues to precision medicine, organoid transplantation, and gene therapy...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095758/ethical-difficulties-in-healthcare
#14
Cinzia Leuter, Carmen La Cerra, Santina Calisse, Danila Dosa, Cristina Petrucci, Loreto Lancia
BACKGROUND: Advances in biomedical sciences, technologies and care practices have resulted in an increase in ethical problems and a resulting growth of difficulties encountered by health workers in their professional activity. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to analyse knowledge in the ethical field and experience with and the propensity for using ethics consultations by nurses and physicians. METHODS: Between March and June 2014, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted on a sample of 351 nurses and 128 physicians in four central Italian hospitals...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081116/the-sharing-experimental-animal-resources-coordinating-holdings-search-framework-encouraging-reduction-replacement-and-refinement-in-animal-research
#15
Bethny Morrissey, Karen Blyth, Phil Carter, Claude Chelala, Louise Jones, Ingunn Holen, Valerie Speirs
While significant medical breakthroughs have been achieved through using animal models, our experience shows that often there is surplus material remaining that is frequently never revisited but could be put to good use by other scientists. Recognising that most scientists are willing to share this material on a collaborative basis, it makes economic, ethical, and academic sense to explore the option to utilise this precious resource before generating new/additional animal models and associated samples. To bring together those requiring animal tissue and those holding this type of archival material, we have devised a framework called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources, Coordinating Holdings (SEARCH) with the aim of making remaining material derived from animal studies in biomedical research more visible and accessible to the scientific community...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071731/in-silico-experiments-of-zebrafish-behaviour-modeling-swimming-in-three-dimensions
#16
Violet Mwaffo, Sachit Butail, Maurizio Porfiri
Zebrafish is fast becoming a species of choice in biomedical research for the investigation of functional and dysfunctional processes coupled with their genetic and pharmacological modulation. As with mammals, experimentation with zebrafish constitutes a complicated ethical issue that calls for the exploration of alternative testing methods to reduce the number of subjects, refine experimental designs, and replace live animals. Inspired by the demonstrated advantages of computational studies in other life science domains, we establish an authentic data-driven modelling framework to simulate zebrafish swimming in three dimensions...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065430/informed-consent-in-dental-care-and-research-for-the-older-adult-population-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Amrita Mukherjee, Alicia A Livinski, Joseph Millum, Steffany Chamut, Shahdokht Boroumand, Timothy J Iafolla, Margo R Adesanya, Bruce A Dye
BACKGROUND: Ethics in health care and research is based on the fundamental principle of informed consent. However, informed consent in geriatric dentistry is not well documented. Poor health, cognitive decline, and the passive nature of many geriatric patients complicate this issue. METHODS: The authors completed this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The authors searched the PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063033/reproducibility-issues-avoiding-pitfalls-in-animal-inflammation-models
#18
Jon D Laman, Susanne M Kooistra, Björn E Clausen
In light of an enhanced awareness of ethical questions and ever increasing costs when working with animals in biomedical research, there is a dedicated and sometimes fierce debate concerning the (lack of) reproducibility of animal models and their relevance for human inflammatory diseases. Despite evident advancements in searching for alternatives, that is, replacing, reducing, and refining animal experiments-the three R's of Russel and Burch (1959)-understanding the complex interactions of the cells of the immune system, the nervous system and the affected tissue/organ during inflammation critically relies on in vivo models...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057608/acupuncture-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review-protocol
#19
Taipin Guo, Bowen Zhu, Qian Zhang, Yejiao Yang, Qi He, Xinghe Zhang, Xiantao Tai
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP), a childhood disease of high morbidity and serious harmfulness, has no effective therapies to completely relieve the associated pain. Acupuncture has been used widely in China to alleviate several CP symptoms, such as pain and motion disorders, despite the deficiency of high-quality evidence related to this practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review protocol is to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of children with CP...
January 5, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057389/-priority-setting-of-health-interventions-review-of-criteria-approaches-and-role-of-assessment-agencies
#20
Leonor Varela-Lema, Gerardo Atienza-Merino, Marisa López-García
OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to develop an explicit health priority setting methodology to support decision-making regarding the technologies to be assessed for inclusion in the National Health Service service portfolio. The primary objective is to identify and analyse the criteria, approaches and conceptual frameworks used for national/international priority setting. METHOD: An exhaustive review of the literature was carried out. For this purpose, a search of the main biomedical databases was performed and assessment agency websites were reviewed, among other sources...
January 2, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
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