Read by QxMD icon Read

Biomedical ethics

M Riishede, C B Laursen, L S Teglbjærg, A T Lassen, G Baatrup
INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory problems poses a diagnostic challenge because similar symptoms can be caused by various pathological conditions. Focused ultrasound examination (f-US) of the heart and lungs has proven to increase the diagnostic accuracy in these patients. In this protocol of a randomised multicentre trial, we study the effect of f-US of the heart and lungs in patients with respiratory problems performed by emergency physicians (EP) as soon as the patient arrives to the emergency department (ED)...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Noor A A Giesbertz, Karen Melham, Jane Kaye, Johannes J M van Delden, Annelien L Bredenoord
Pediatric biobanking is considered important for generating biomedical knowledge and improving (pediatric) health care. However, the inclusion of children's samples in biobanks involves specific ethical issues. One of the main concerns is how to appropriately engage children in the consent procedure. We suggest that children should be involved through a personalized assent procedure, which means that both the content and the process of assent are adjusted to the individual child. In this paper we provide guidance on how to put personalized assent into pediatric biobanking practice and consider both the content and process of personalized assent...
October 12, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Oliver Mauthner, Veerle Claes, Jeremy Walston, Sandra Engberg, Isabelle Binet, Michael Dickenmann, Déla Golshayan, Karine Hadaya, Uyen Huynh-Do, Stefano Calciolari, Sabina De Geest
AIM: To present the rationale, design and methodology of the GERAS project, which examines whether assessment of frailty and mild cognitive impairment could enhance risk prediction for biomedical, psychosocial outcomes and foster efficient resource allocation in kidney transplantation. BACKGROUND: For the burgeoning cohort of older patients considered for kidney transplantation, evidence gaps regarding frailty and mild cognitive impairment limit clinical decision-making and medical management...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Camille Yip, Nian-Lin Reena Han, Ban Leong Sng
Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Gallya Gannot, Mary A Cutting, Dena J Fischer, Laura J Hsu
The biomedical research sciences are currently facing a challenge highlighted in several recent publications: concerns about the rigor and reproducibility of studies published in the scientific literature.Research progress is strongly dependent on published work. Basic science researchers build on their own prior work and the published findings of other researchers. This work becomes the foundation for preclinical and clinical research aimed at developing innovative new diagnostic tools and disease therapies...
October 8, 2016: Oral Diseases
I A Otto, C C Breugem, J Malda, A L Bredenoord
Biofabrication technologies have the potential to improve healthcare by providing highly advanced and personalized biomedical products for research, treatment and prevention. As the combining of emerging techniques and integrating various biological and synthetic components becomes increasingly complex, it is important that relevant stakeholders anticipate the translation of biofabricated 3D tissue products into patients and society. Ethics is sometimes regarded as a brake on scientific progress, yet from our perspective, ethics in parallel with research anticipates societal impacts of emerging technologies and stimulates responsible innovation...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Emmanuel Kabengele Mpinga, Aurélie Macias, Jennifer Hasselgard-Rowe, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Tshimungu Kandolo Félicien, Henk Verloo, Ngoyi K Zacharie Bukonda, Philippe Chastonay
BACKGROUND: Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported...
2016: Global Health Action
Helen Grete Orth, Silke Schicktanz
Outsourcing clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies from industrialized countries to low- (middle)-income countries - summarized as transnational biomedical research (TBR) - has lead to many concerns about ethical standards. Whether study participants are particularly vulnerable is one of those concerns. However, the concept of vulnerability is still vague and varies in its definition. Despite the fact that important international ethical guidelines such as the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association or the Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects by the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences refer to vulnerability as ethical principle, each of their approaches are different...
October 4, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
Sassy Molyneux, Benjamin Tsofa, Edwine Barasa, Mary Muyoka Nyikuri, Evelyn Wanjiku Waweru, Catherine Goodman, Lucy Gilson
There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews...
October 4, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
Vijay Pal Singh, Kunal Pratap, Juhi Sinha, Koundinya Desiraju, Devika Bahal, Ritushree Kukreti
Animal experiments that are conducted worldwide contribute to significant findings and breakthroughs in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of various diseases, bringing up appropriate clinical interventions. However, their predictive value is often low, leading to translational failure. Problems like translational failure of animal studies and poorly designed animal experiments lead to loss of animal lives and less translatable data which affect research outcomes ethically and economically. Due to increasing complexities in animal usage with changes in public perception and stringent guidelines, it is becoming difficult to use animals for conducting studies...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Lesley Henderson, Simon Carter
There has been considerable interest in images of medicine in popular science fiction and in representations of doctors in television fiction. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to doctors administering space medicine in science fiction. This article redresses this gap. We analyse the evolving figure of 'the doctor' in different popular science fiction television series. Building upon debates within Medical Sociology, Cultural Studies and Media Studies we argue that the figure of 'the doctor' is discursively deployed to act as the moral compass at the centre of the programme narrative...
September 30, 2016: Medical Humanities
Joeri K Tijdink, Lex M Bouter, Coosje L S Veldkamp, Peter M van de Ven, Jelte M Wicherts, Yvo M Smulders
BACKGROUND: Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. METHODS: Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands...
2016: PloS One
Shuang Wang, Xiaoqian Jiang, Siddharth Singh, Rebecca Marmor, Luca Bonomi, Dov Fox, Michelle Dow, Lucila Ohno-Machado
Accessing and integrating human genomic data with phenotypes are important for biomedical research. Making genomic data accessible for research purposes, however, must be handled carefully to avoid leakage of sensitive individual information to unauthorized parties and improper use of data. In this article, we focus on data sharing within the scope of data accessibility for research. Current common practices to gain biomedical data access are strictly rule based, without a clear and quantitative measurement of the risk of privacy breaches...
September 28, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sagar Sanyal
Allen Buchanan has argued for a linking of the ethics of human enhancement to the ethics of development more generally. The promise of the 'enhancement enterprise' is that it may help develop society, just as other technological advances have in the past. He proposes a framework of intellectual property rights, government action to ensure the poor can access the enhancements, an international organization to administer the diffusion of new enhancement technologies from the West to poor countries, and the diffusion within countries to the poorer populations...
September 26, 2016: Bioethics
Nicola Di Lorenzo, Livia Cenci, Massimiliano Simi, Claudio Arcudi, Valeria Tognoni, Achille Lucio Gaspari, Pietro Valdastri
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is rising in popularity generating a revolution in operative medicine during the past few decades. Although laparoscopic techniques have not significantly changed in the last 10 years, several advances have been made in visualization devices and instrumentation. METHODS: Our team, composed of surgeons and biomedical engineers, developed a magnetic levitation camera (MLC) with a magnetic internal mechanism dedicated to MIS...
September 22, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Timothy Caulfield
There has been growing concern about the phenomenon of science hype, the tendency to exaggerate the value or near-future application of research results. Although this is a problem that touches every area of biomedicine, the topic of genetics seems to be particularly prone to enthusiastic predictions. The world has been told for over two decades-by the media, researchers, politicians, and the biotech industry-that a genome-driven health care revolution is just around the corner. And while the revolution never seems to arrive, the hopeful rhetoric continues...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Andreas H Brandt, Jonas Jensen, Kristoffer L Hansen, Peter Hansen, Theis Lange, Marianne Rix, Jørgen A Jensen, Lars Lönn, Michael B Nielsen
PURPOSE: To investigate if ultrasound vector-flow imaging (VFI) is equal to the reference method ultrasound dilution technique (UDT) in estimating volume flow and changes over time in arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) for hemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2015, patients with end-stage renal disease and matured functional AVFs were consecutively solicited to participate in this prospective study. All patients were included after written informed consent and approval by the National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics and the local Ethics Committee (journal no...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
Jocelyn Lim Chua
The unprecedented reliance today on psychiatric drugs to maintain mission readiness in war and to treat veterans at home has been the subject of ethical debate in the United States. While acknowledging these debates, I advocate for an ethnography of how US soldiers and veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars themselves articulate political and ethical tensions in their experiences of psychiatric drug treatment. Detailing one army veteran's interpretations of drug effects as narrated through the lens of his current antiwar politics, I examine the radicalizing transformations of self and subjectivity that he attributes both to his witnessing drug use in Iraq and to the neurochemical effects of his own medications...
September 20, 2016: Medical Anthropology
Angeliki Kerasidou
In biomedical research lack of trust is seen as a great threat that can severely jeopardise the whole biomedical research enterprise. Practices, such as informed consent, and also the administrative and regulatory oversight of research in the form of research ethics committees and Institutional Review Boards, are established to ensure the protection of future research subjects and, at the same time, restore public trust in biomedical research. Empirical research also testifies to the role of trust as one of the decisive factors in research participation and lack of trust as a barrier for consenting to research...
September 15, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Aasim I Padela, Omar Qureshi
The ever-increasing technological advances of modern medicine have increased physicians' capacity to carry out a wide array of clinical interventions near the end-of-life. These new procedures have resulted in new "types" of living where a patient's cognitive functions are severely diminished although many physiological functions remain active. In this biomedical context, patients, surrogate decision-makers, and clinicians all struggle with decisions about what clinical interventions to pursue and when therapeutic intent should be replaced with palliative goals of care...
September 9, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"