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Jawed Iqbal, Mairaj Ahmed Ansari, Binod Kumar, Dipanjan Dutta, Arunava Roy, Leela Chikoti, Gina Pisano, Sujoy Dutta, Shahrooz Vahedi, Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Bala Chandran
IFI16 (gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16), a predominantly nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation, also functions as an innate immune response DNA sensor and induces the IL-1β and antiviral type-1 interferon-β (IFN-β) cytokines. We have shown that IFI16, in association with BRCA1, functions as a sequence independent nuclear sensor of episomal dsDNA genomes of KSHV, EBV and HSV-1. Recognition of these herpesvirus genomes resulted in IFI16 acetylation, BRCA1-IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic translocation, and IL-1β generation...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Jing Zhang, Chi Shu, Yanlin Song, Qingfang Li, Jingwen Huang, Xuelei Ma
BACKGROUND: The plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA level in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) performs as an appealing prognostic factor, but conclusions of its prognostic values from previous studies are inconsistent. In this study, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic value of EBV DNA level in patients with NPC. METHODS: Published studies were searched in PubMed. The baseline characteristics of patients, overall survival (OS), and other survival outcomes were extracted...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Eric R Weiss, Galit Alter, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer L Henderson, Barbara Tabak, Yasin Bakiş, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga
: The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis; AIM) and again 6 months later (convalescence, CONV)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Susanne Fink, Ming-Han Tsai, Paul Schnitzler, Martin Zeier, Peter Dreger, Patrick Wuchter, Olcay Cem Bulut, Uta Behrends, Henri-Jacques Delecluse
Transplant recipients frequently exhibit an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in the peripheral blood. Here we quantitated the EBV-infected cells in the peripheral blood of these patients and defined the mode of viral infection, latent or lytic. These data indicated that there is no strong correlation between the number of infected cells and the EBV load. This can be explained by a highly variable number of EBV copies per infected cell and by lytic replication in some cells. The plasma of these patients did not contain any free infectious viruses, but contained nevertheless EBV DNA, sometimes in large amounts, that probably originates from cell debris and contributed to the total EBV load...
October 7, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Kit-San Yuen, Chi-Ping Chan, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system is a powerful genome-editing tool for both chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA. DNA viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which undergoes episomal replication in human cells, can be effectively edited by CRISPR/Cas9. We have demonstrated targeted editing of the EBV genome by CRISPR/Cas9 in several lines of EBV-infected cells. CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis and genome engineering of EBV provides a new method for genetic analysis, which has some advantages over bacterial artificial chromosome-based recombineering...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wei Zhang, Dongjie Han, Pin Wan, Pan Pan, Yanhua Cao, Yingle Liu, Kailang Wu, Jianguo Wu
DNA demethylation plays an essential role in the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latency infection. However, it is unclear how epigenetic modification is initiated in responding to stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that ERK/c-Jun signaling is involved in DNA demethylation of EBV immediate early (IE) gene Zta in response to 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation. Remarkably, Ser73 phosphorylation of c-Jun facilitates Zta promoter demethylation and EBV reactivation, whereas knockdown of c-Jun attenuates Zta demethylation and viral reactivation...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Junguo Wang, Fang Mei, Xia Gao, Shoulin Wang
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating from the nasopharynx, and can be induced by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). To study the mechanisms of EBV-associated NPC, a microarray of the GSE12452 dataset was analyzed. GSE12452 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and consisted of 31 NPC samples and 10 normal healthy nasopharyngeal tissue samples. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the linear models for microarray data package in R. Using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software, potential functions of the DEGs were predicted by Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Mahua Sinha, Clementina Rama Rao, C S Premalata, Mohammed Shafiulla, K C Lakshmaiah, Linu Abraham Jacob, Govind K Babu, B K Viveka, L Appaji, Jayshree R Subramanyam
CONTEXT: There is a need to study potential infective etiologies in lymphomas. Lymphocyte-transforming viruses can directly infect lymphocytes, disrupt normal cell functions, and promote cell division. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with several lymphomas, especially Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs). And recently, the lymphocyte-transforming role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been emphasized. AIMS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of two potentially oncogenic, widely prevalent latent DNA viruses, EBV and HBV, in non-HL (NHL)...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Nobuyuki Hirai, Naohiro Wakisaka, Satoru Kondo, Mitsuharu Aga, Makiko Moriyama-Kita, Takayoshi Ueno, Yosuke Nakanishi, Kazuhira Endo, Hisashi Sugimoto, Shigeyuki Murono, Hiroshi Sato, Tomokazu Yoshizaki
OBJECTIVES: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related micoRNAs (miRNAs), BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BART)-miRNAs, are released in a stable form from viable cells, which are abundant in patients with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We estimated copy numbers of circulating miR-BART2-5p, miR-BART17-5p, and miR-BART18-5p as well as BamHI-W DNA as biomarkers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serums from 31 EBV-positive (confirmed by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNAs) NPC patients and 40 non-NPC controls were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
Q Lin, B Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Helen Auburn, Mark Zuckerman, Melvyn Smith
AbstractIn order to develop novel host/pathogen real- time PCR assays for routine diagnostic use, early gene expression patterns from both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Raji cells were examined after inducing the lytic life cycle using 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol ester (TPA) and sodium butyrate. Real-time PCR identified several highly induced (>90-fold) EBV lytic genes over a 48 hr time-course during the lytic induction phase. Latent genes were induced at low levels during this phase. The cellular response to lytic viral replication is poorly understood...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sonia P Bohórquez, Juliana Díaz, Claudia M Rincón, Marcela Estupiñán, Mauricio Chaparro, Ana María Low-Calle, Jaime E Castellanos
INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients is an alternative treatment for different diseases. The conditioning regimen for transplant predisposes recipients to the development of infections. Viral infections by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are the most common, and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients. These viruses lie dormant in various cell types and the reactivation of latent infections may lead to asymptomatic viral shedding in saliva...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Pragya Yadav, Matthew T Carr, Ruby Yu, Alice Mumbey-Wafula, Linda A Spatz
INTRODUCTION: The Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) has been associated with the autoimmune disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). EBV nuclear antigen-I (EBNA-1) is the major nuclear protein of EBV. We previously generated an IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb) to EBNA-1, 3D4, and demonstrated that it cross-reacts with double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and binds the 148 amino acid viral binding site (VBS) in the carboxyl region of EBNA-1. The aim of the present study was to characterize another antibody to EBNA-1 that cross-reacts with dsDNA, compare its immunoglobulin genes to 3D4, and finely map the epitope in EBNA-1 that is recognized by these cross-reactive antibodies...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Aleksandar Jakovljevic, Miroslav Andric, Aleksandra Knezevic, Biljana Milicic, Katarina Beljic-Ivanovic, Neda Perunovic, Nadja Nikolic, Jelena Milasin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the presence of herpesviruses and periodontopathic bacteria and to establish their potential association with pericoronitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty samples obtained with paper points (30 from pericoronitis and 20 controls) were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. A single-stage and nested PCR assays were used to detect herpesviruses: human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and six periodontopathic anaerobic bacteria: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, and Tannarella forsythia...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Jingshi Wang, Yini Wang, Lin Wu, Jia Zhang, Wenyuan Lai, Zhao Wang
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is the most frequent subtype of secondary HLH triggered by infections. Previous studies have shown that ~30 % or more of patients with EBV-HLH do not respond to standard therapy. This study investigated the efficacy and safety profile of a modified DEP regimen in combination with PEG-aspargase (L-DEP) as a salvage therapy for refractory EBV-HLH. METHODS: In this study from October 2014 to October 2015, 28 patients with refractory EBV-HLH received a L-DEP regimen at the Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University...
2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Davey M Smith, Masato Nakazawa, Michael L Freeman, Christy M Anderson, Michelli F Oliveira, Susan J Little, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND:  A low CD4/CD8 ratio in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is associated with inflammation and higher risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the effect of subclinical cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell dynamics when antiretroviral therapy (ART) is started during early infection. METHODS:  We investigated 604 peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 108 CMV- and EBV-seropositive HIV-infected men who have sex with men, who started ART within a median of 4 months from their estimated date of infection and were followed for a median of 29...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Octavia Ramayanti, Hedy Juwana, Sandra A M W Verkuijlen, Marlinda Adham, Michiel D Pegtel, Astrid E Greijer, Jaap M Middeldorp
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is 100% associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as oncogenic driver. NPC is often diagnosed late due to initial vague complaints and obscured location. Prior studies suggest that measurement of EBV DNA load and RNA transcripts in nasopharyngeal (NP) brushings is useful for minimally invasive NPC diagnosis. However, whether these EBV markers relate to local virus replication or reflect tumor origin remains to be demonstrated. To resolve this, we analysed EBV-DNA characteristics and quantified latent and lytic viral RNA transcripts in NP brushings and matching frozen NP-biopsy specimens from patients suspected of having NPC...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jennifer M Grimm, David O Schmeling, Samantha K Dunmire, Jennifer A Knight, Beth D Mullan, Julie A Ed, Richard C Brundage, Kristin A Hogquist, Henry H Balfour
We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years)...
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Hongda Huang, Zhong Deng, Olga Vladimirova, Andreas Wiedmer, Fang Lu, Paul M Lieberman, Dinshaw J Patel
The histone H3.3 chaperone DAXX is implicated in formation of heterochromatin and transcription silencing, especially for newly infecting DNA virus genomes entering the nucleus. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can efficiently establish stable latent infection as a chromatinized episome in the nucleus of infected cells. The EBV tegument BNRF1 is a DAXX-interacting protein required for the establishment of selective viral gene expression during latency. Here we report the structure of BNRF1 DAXX-interaction domain (DID) in complex with DAXX histone-binding domain (HBD) and histones H3...
2016: Nature Communications
Arnold Reynaldi, Timothy E Schlub, Erwan Piriou, Sidney Ogolla, Odada P Sumba, Ann M Moormann, Rosemary Rochford, Miles P Davenport
The combination of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and high malaria exposure are risk factors for endemic Burkitt lymphoma, and evidence suggests that infants in regions of high malaria exposure have earlier EBV infection and increased EBV reactivation. Here we analysed the longitudinal antibody response to EBV in Kenyan infants with different levels of malaria exposure. We found that high malaria exposure was associated with a faster decline of maternally-derived IgG antibody to both the EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA1), followed by a more rapid rise in antibody response to EBV antigens in children from the high malaria region...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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