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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471565/fibrolamellar-carcinoma-recent-advances-and-unresolved-questions-on-the-molecular-mechanisms
#1
Gadi Lalazar, Sanford M Simon
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare form of primary liver cancer that affects adolescents and young adults without underlying liver disease. Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy; however, most patients are either not surgical candidates or suffer from recurrence. There is no approved systemic therapy and the overall survival remains poor. Historically classified as a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), FLC has a unique clinical, histological, and molecular presentation. At the genomic level, FLC contains a single 400kB deletion in chromosome 19, leading to a functional DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion protein...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470839/embryonic-neurogenesis-in-echinoderms
#2
REVIEW
Veronica F Hinman, Robert D Burke
The phylogenetic position of echinoderms is well suited to revealing shared features of deuterostomes that distinguish them from other bilaterians. Although echinoderm neurobiology remains understudied, genomic resources, molecular methods, and systems approaches have enabled progress in understanding mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis. Even though the morphology of echinoderm larvae is diverse, larval nervous systems, which arise during gastrulation, have numerous similarities in their organization. Diverse neural subtypes and specialized sensory neurons have been identified and details of neuroanatomy using neuron-specific labels provide hypotheses for neural function...
February 22, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468980/updates-on-gmscs-treatment-for-autoimmune-diseases
#3
Feng Huang, Zhong-Min Liu, Song Guo Zheng
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune disease is a refractory disease. Accumulating Evidence has revealed that the manipulation of mesenchymal stem cells may have the potential to control or even treat autoimmune diseases. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) are emerging as a new line of mesenchymal stem cells that have displayed some potential advantages in controlling and treating autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we briefly update the current understanding on the biology of GMSCs and their effects on preventing and treating autoimmune diseases...
February 20, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468433/merging-perspectives-genotype-directed-molecular-therapy-for-hereditary-diffuse-gastric-cancer-hdgc-and-e-cadherin-egfr-crosstalk
#4
Dandan Li, Winifred Lo, Udo Rudloff
Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with germline mutations of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1; NM_004360). Male CDH1 germline mutation carriers have by the age of 80 years an estimated 70% cumulative incidence of gastric cancer, females of 56% for gastric and of 42% for lobular breast cancer. Metastatic HDGC has a poor prognosis which is worse than for sporadic gastric cancer. To date, there have been no treatment options described tailored to this molecular subtype of gastric cancer...
February 22, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468422/molecular-profiling-and-comprehensive-genome-wide-analysis-of-somatic-copy-number-alterations-in-gastric-intramucosal-neoplasias-based-on-microsatellite-status
#5
Tamotsu Sugai, Makoto Eizuka, Noriyuki Arakawa, Mitsumasa Osakabe, Wataru Habano, Yasuko Fujita, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Hiroo Yamano, Masaki Endoh, Takayuki Matsumoto, Hiromu Suzuki
BACKGROUND: We attempted to identify the molecular profiles of gastric intramucosal neoplasia (IMN; low-grade dysplasia, LGD; high-grade dysplasia, HGD; intramucosal cancer, IMC) by assessing somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) stratified by microsatellite status (microsatellite stable, MSS; microsatellite instable, MSI). Thus, microsatellite status was determined in 84 tumors with MSS status and 16 tumors with MSI status. METHODS: One hundred differentiated type IMNs were examined using SCNAs...
February 21, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468306/paratesticular-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcomas-do-not-harbor-typical-translocations-a-distinct-entity-with-favorable-prognosis
#6
Tobias M Dantonello, Christian Vokuhl, Monika Scheer, Monika Sparber-Sauer, Sabine Stegmaier, Guido Seitz, Heike Scheithauer, Jörg Faber, Iris Veit-Friedrich, Peter Kaatsch, Stefan S Bielack, Thomas Klingebiel, Ewa Koscielniak
The alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMA) is a strong risk factor. Cases of RMA located in paratesticular sites have however been reported to have similar outcomes to those of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RME). We wanted to re-evaluate the impact of subtype in paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (PT-RMS). Patients from a population-based cohort diagnosed with paratesticular RMA in 1990-2013 were analyzed. All tumor samples were re-reviewed using conventional morphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular testing...
February 21, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468261/in-vivo-molecular-profiling-of-human-glioma-cross-sectional-observational-study-using-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-magnetic-resonance-perfusion-imaging
#7
Johann-Martin Hempel, Jens Schittenhelm, Uwe Klose, Benjamin Bender, Georg Bier, Marco Skardelly, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Salvador Castaneda Vega, Ulrike Ernemann, Cornelia Brendle
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic performance of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (DSC-MRI) for in vivo human glioma molecular profiling. METHODS: In this study 100 patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma who provided written informed consent were retrospectively assessed between January 2016 and February 2017 in two prospective trials that were approved by the local institutional review board. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurements from DSC-MRI were assessed, and histogram parameters of relative CBV (rCBV) results were compared among World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 based histological findings and molecular characteristics...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467743/genotypic-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-cryptococcus-gattii-vgii-clinical-isolates-and-its-impact-on-virulence
#8
Vanessa A Barcellos, Liline M S Martins, Alide C L Fontes, Julia C V Reuwsaat, Eamim D Squizani, Glauber R de Sousa Araújo, Susana Frases, Charley C Staats, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene H Vainstein
The Cryptococcus gattii species complex harbors the main etiological agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. C. gattii molecular type VGII predominates in the north and northeastern regions of Brazil, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii species complex isolates suggest that some strains are more virulent than others, but little information is available related to the pathogenic properties of those strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467630/neural-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-active-forgetting
#9
REVIEW
Jorge H Medina
The neurobiology of memory formation attracts much attention in the last five decades. Conversely, the rules that govern and the mechanisms underlying forgetting are less understood. In addition to retroactive interference, retrieval-induced forgetting and passive decay of time, it has been recently demonstrated that the nervous system has a diversity of active and inherent processes involved in forgetting. In Drosophila , some operate mainly at an early stage of memory formation and involves dopamine (DA) neurons, specific postsynaptic DA receptor subtypes, Rac1 activation and induces rapid active forgetting...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467616/molecular-characterization-of-gaba-a-receptor-subunit-diversity-within-major-peripheral-organs-and-their-plasticity-in-response-to-early-life-psychosocial-stress
#10
Ethan A Everington, Adina G Gibbard, Jerome D Swinny, Mohsen Seifi
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) subtype A receptors (GABAA Rs) are integral membrane ion channels composed of five individual proteins or subunits. Up to 19 different GABAA R subunits (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, θ, π, and ρ1-3) have been identified, resulting in anatomically, physiologically, and pharmacologically distinct multiple receptor subtypes, and therefore GABA-mediated inhibition, across the central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, GABAA R-modulating drugs are important tools in clinical medicine, although their use is limited by adverse effects...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467289/protonation-state-of-inhibitors-determines-interaction-sites-within-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#11
Amanda Buyan, Delin Sun, Ben Corry
Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for carrying electrical signals throughout the body, and mutations in these proteins are responsible for a variety of disorders, including epilepsy and pain syndromes. As such, they are the target of a number of drugs used for reducing pain or combatting arrhythmias and seizures. However, these drugs affect all sodium channel subtypes found in the body. Designing compounds to target select sodium channel subtypes will provide a new therapeutic pathway and would maximize treatment efficacy while minimizing side effects...
February 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467182/somatic-il4r-mutations-in-primary-mediastinal-large-b-cell-lymphoma-lead-to-constitutive-jak-stat-signaling-activation
#12
Elena Viganò, Jay Gunawardana, Anja Mottok, Tessa Van Tol, Katina Mak, Fong Chun Chan, Lauren Chong, Elizabeth Chavez, Bruce Woolcock, Katsuyoshi Takata, David Twa, Hennady P Shulha, Adèle Telenius, Olga Kutovaya, Stacy S Hung, Shannon Healy, Susana Ben-Neriah, Karen Leroy, Philippe Gaulard, Arjan Diepstra, Robert Kridel, Kerry J Savage, Lisa Rimsza, Randy Gascoyne, Christian Steidl
Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is a distinct subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma thought to arise from thymic medullary B cells. Gene mutations underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the disease are incompletely characterized. Here, we describe novel somatic IL4R mutations in 15 out of 62 primary cases of PMBCL (24.2%) and in all PMBCL-derived cell lines tested. The majority of mutations (11/21; 52%) were hotspot single nucleotide variants in exon 8 leading to an I242N amino acid change in the transmembrane domain...
February 21, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466405/molecular-phylogeny-of-panicum-s-str-poaceae-panicoideae-paniceae-and-insights-into-its-biogeography-and-evolution
#13
Fernando Omar Zuloaga, Diego Leonel Salariato, Amalia Scataglini
Panicum sensu stricto is a genus of grasses (Poaceae) with nearly, according to this study, 163 species distributed worldwide. This genus is included in the subtribe Panicinae together with Louisiella, the latter with 2 species. Panicum and subtribe Panicinae are characterized by including annual or perennial taxa with open and lax panicles, and spikelets with the lower glume reduced; all taxa also share a basic chromosome number of x = 9 and a Kranz leaf blade anatomy typical of the NAD-me subtype photosynthetic pathway...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466297/a-metabolomic-approach-to-predict-breast-cancer-behavior-and-chemotherapy-response
#14
REVIEW
Marcella Regina Cardoso, Juliana Carvalho Santos, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro, Maria Cecília Ramiro Talarico, Lais Rosa Viana, Sophie Françoise Mauricette Derchain
Although the classification of breast carcinomas into molecular or immunohistochemical subtypes has contributed to a better categorization of women into different therapeutic regimens, breast cancer nevertheless still progresses or recurs in a remarkable number of patients. Identifying women who would benefit from chemotherapy could potentially increase treatment effectiveness, which has important implications for long-term survival. Metabolomic analyses of fluids and tissues from cancer patients improve our knowledge of the reprogramming of metabolic pathways involved in resistance to chemotherapy...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466296/sarcoma-spheroids-and-organoids-promising-tools-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Gianluca Colella, Flavio Fazioli, Michele Gallo, Annarosaria De Chiara, Gaetano Apice, Carlo Ruosi, Amelia Cimmino, Filomena de Nigris
Cancer treatment is rapidly evolving toward personalized medicine, which takes into account the individual molecular and genetic variability of tumors. Sophisticated new in vitro disease models, such as three-dimensional cell cultures, may provide a tool for genetic, epigenetic, biomedical, and pharmacological research, and help determine the most promising individual treatment. Sarcomas, malignant neoplasms originating from mesenchymal cells, may have a multitude of genomic aberrations that give rise to more than 70 different histopathological subtypes...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464534/a-hedgehog-pathway-dependent-gene-signature-is-associated-with-poor-clinical-outcomes-in-luminal-a-breast-cancer
#16
M Rudolph, S T Sizemore, Y Lu, K Y Teng, M M Basree, R Reinbolt, C D Timmers, G Leone, M C Ostrowski, S Majumder, B Ramaswamy
PURPOSE: High expression of glioma-associated oncogene homolog-1 (GLI1) is associated with poor prognosis in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers. We sought to define a GLI1-dependent gene signature in ER-positive tumors that could further stratify patients at higher risk for disease recurrence and potentially lead to novel combination therapies. METHODS: We identified an inverse correlation between GLI1 expression and distant disease-free survival (DFS) using a dataset developed at MD Anderson Cancer Center (Hatzis dataset) containing clinical data from 508 breast cancer patients...
February 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464061/natural-and-molecular-history-of-prolactinoma-insights-from-a-prlr-mouse-model
#17
Valérie Bernard, Chiara Villa, Aurélie Auguste, Sophie Lamothe, Anne Guillou, Agnès Martin, Sandrine Caburet, Jacques Young, Reiner A Veitia, Nadine Binart
Lactotroph adenoma, also called prolactinoma, is the most common pituitary tumor but little is known about its pathogenesis. Mouse models of prolactinoma can be useful to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal lactotroph cell proliferation and secretion. We have previously developed a prolactin receptor deficient ( Prlr -/- ) mouse, which develops prolactinoma. The present study aims to explore the natural history of prolactinoma formation in Prlr -/- mice, using hormonal, radiological, histological and molecular analyses to uncover mechanisms involved in lactotroph adenoma development...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464036/breast-cancer-stem-cells-in-her2-negative-breast-cancer-cells-contribute-to-her2-mediated-radioresistance-and-molecular-subtype-conversion-clinical-implications-for-serum-her2-in-recurrent-her2-negative-breast-cancer
#18
Yun Gyoung Kim, Yi Na Yoon, Hyang Suk Choi, Ji-Hyun Kim, Hyesil Seol, Jin Kyung Lee, Min-Ki Seong, In Chul Park, Kwang Il Kim, Hyun-Ah Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Woo Chul Noh
Although it has been proposed that the beneficial effect of HER2-targeted therapy in HER2-negative breast cancer is associated with the molecular subtype conversion, the underlying mechanism and the clinical biomarkers are unclear. Our study showed that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) mediated HER2 subtype conversion and radioresistance in HER2-negative breast cancer cells and evaluated serum HER2 as a clinical biomarker for HER2 subtype conversion. We found that the CD44+ /CD24-/low BCSCs from HER2-negative breast cancer MCF7 cells overexpressed HER2 and EGFR and showed the radioresistant phenotype...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463860/the-path-to-metastatic-mouse-models-of-colorectal-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Gabriele Romano, Sharmeen Chagani, Lawrence N Kwong
The study and comprehension of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer biology strongly rely on mouse modeling. An ideal mouse model should have molecular, histopathological, and etiological characteristics as close as possible to those of the corresponding human tumors. Among solid tumors, colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the malignancies that best suits reproduction in an animal model: it evolves through a progressive set of molecular events and is generally associated with a precise histopathology and a neat cataloging of stages and grades...
February 21, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463737/pulmonary-alveolar-type-i-cell-population-consists-of-two-distinct-subtypes-that-differ-in-cell-fate
#20
Yanjie Wang, Zan Tang, Huanwei Huang, Jiao Li, Zheng Wang, Yuanyuan Yu, Chengwei Zhang, Juan Li, Huaping Dai, Fengchao Wang, Tao Cai, Nan Tang
Pulmonary alveolar type I (AT1) cells cover more than 95% of alveolar surface and are essential for the air-blood barrier function of lungs. AT1 cells have been shown to retain developmental plasticity during alveolar regeneration. However, the development and heterogeneity of AT1 cells remain largely unknown. Here, we conducted a single-cell RNA-seq analysis to characterize postnatal AT1 cell development and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (Igfbp2) as a genetic marker specifically expressed in postnatal AT1 cells...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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