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microbiota newborn

Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Loredana Baffoni, Francesca Gaggìa, Diana Di Gioia
The human intestinal microbiota, establishing a symbiotic relationship with the host, plays a significant role for human health. It is also well known that a disease status is frequently characterized by a dysbiotic condition of the gut microbiota. A probiotic treatment can represent an alternative therapy for enteric disorders and human pathologies not apparently linked to the gastrointestinal tract. Among bifidobacteria, strains of the species Bifidobacterium breve are widely used in paediatrics. B. breve is the dominant species in the gut of breast-fed infants and it has also been isolated from human milk...
November 10, 2018: Nutrients
Rozlyn C T Boutin, Zach Dwyer, Kyle Farmer, Chris Rudyk, Mark R Forbes, Shawn Hayley
Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota shapes developmental processes within the immune system. Early life antibiotic use is one factor which may contribute to immune dysfunction and the recent surge in allergies by virtue of its effects on gut microbiota. Objective and methods: As a first step towards determining whether a relationship exists between perinatal antibiotic induced changes in the gut microbiota and the later development of a peanut allergy, we exposed newborn mice to either the broad-spectrum antibiotic vancomycin or to a vehicle for 6 weeks and then used a novel murine model of peanut allergy...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Hiroshi Makino
The gastrointestinal tract is believed to be colonized rapidly with bacteria immediately from birth. The source of these intestinal microbes is an ongoing topic of interest because increasing evidence suggests that the composition of the initial intestinal bacterial colonization strongly affects health. In particular, the source of bifidobacteria has received marked attention because these bacteria are suggested to play a crucial role in protecting against susceptibility to diverse diseases later in life. However, the source of these microbes has remained unclear...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Anders Brunse, Lena Martin, Torben Sølbeck Rasmussen, Lars Christensen, Malene Skovsted Cilieborg, Maria Wiese, Bekzod Khakimov, Robert Pieper, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Per Torp Sangild, Thomas Thymann
This study examined gut colonization patterns and host responses to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) by different administration routes after preterm birth. In two separate experiments, cesarean-delivered, preterm pigs were administered combined oral + rectal, or exclusively rectal donor feces, and compared with saline controls. After 5 days, stomach and colon bacterial compositions were determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and organic acid metabolites measured. Further, gut pathology, mucosa bacterial adherence, and goblet cell density were assessed...
October 26, 2018: ISME Journal
Anna Strzępa, Francis M Lobo, Monika Majewska-Szczepanik, Marian Szczepanik
The newborn infant emerges from an almost sterile environment into a world of bacteria. Bacteria colonize the infant's skin, lungs, and, of most importance, the gut. The process of bacterial colonization is coordinated, and each body niche acquires a unique composition of bacteria. In the gut, most bacteria belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, while Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are far less abundant. Some of these bacteria possess strong immunoregulatory properties. Bacterial colonization is essential to skew the newborn's immune response away from the allergy-favoring Type-2 response towards a Type-1 immune response, which is essential for pathogen elimination...
October 22, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Mary O'Connell Motherway, Aileen Houston, Grace O'Callaghan, Justus Reunanen, Frances O'Brien, Tara O'Driscoll, Patrick G Casey, Willem M de Vos, Douwe van Sinderen, Fergus Shanahan
Development of the human gut microbiota commences at birth, with certain bifidobacterial species representing dominant and early colonizers of the newborn gastrointestinal tract. The molecular basis of Bifidobacterium colonization, persistence and presumed communication with the host has remained obscure. We previously identified tight adherence (Tad) pili from Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 as an essential colonization factor. Here, we demonstrate that bifidobacterial Tad pili also promote in vivo colonic epithelial proliferation...
October 23, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Shaoming Zhou, Zhangxing Wang, Fusheng He, Huixian Qiu, Yan Wang, Huihui Wang, Jianli Zhou, Jiaxiu Zhou, Guoqiang Cheng, Wenhao Zhou, Ruihuan Xu, Mingbang Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Breast milk jaundice (BMJ) is common and benign, but neonatal cholestasis (NC) is rare and not benign, so early differentiation between NC and non-NC jaundice is important and may facilitate diagnosis and treatment. Gut microbiota plays an important role in enterohepatic circulation, which in turn plays an important role in the secretion of bilirubin. We aimed to determine the composition of gut microbiota in patients with NC and BMJ, and to identify the gut microbiota composition associated with NC and BMJ...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Minglian Su, Yuanyang Nie, Ruocheng Shao, Shihao Duan, Youhui Jiang, Mingyue Wang, Zhichao Xing, Qun Sun, Xinghui Liu, Wenming Xu
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a high-risk pregnancy complication of great effect on the perinatal health of women and newborns, may cause changes of gut microbiota in mothers and further affect gut microbiota in newborns. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of mother GDM on newborns' gut microbiota. Meconium DNA was extracted from a total of 34 full-term and C-sectioned newborns, in which 20 newborns had mothers diagnosed with GDM, while 14 had unaffected mothers. Sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of 16S rRNA indicated that the gut microbiota of GDM newborns showed differences compared to control newborns...
2018: PloS One
Saisai Cheng, Xin Ma, Shijie Geng, Xuemei Jiang, Yuan Li, Luansha Hu, Jianrong Li, Yizhen Wang, Xinyan Han
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is one of the most effective ways to regulate the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated the effect of exogenous fecal microbiota on gut function from the perspective of analysis of the mucosal proteomes in a piglet model. A total of 289 differentially expressed proteins were annotated with 4,068 gene ontology (GO) function entries in the intestinal mucosa, and the levels of autophagy-related proteins in the forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling pathway were increased whereas the levels of proteins related to inflammation response were decreased in the recipient...
September 2018: MSystems
Elisa Borghi, Valentina Massa, Marco Severgnini, Grazia Fazio, Laura Avagliano, Elena Menegola, Gaetano Pietro Bulfamante, Giulia Morace, Francesca Borgo
The widely accepted dogma of intrauterine sterility and initial colonization of the newborn during birth has been blurred by recent observations of microbial presence in meconium, placenta, and amniotic fluid. Given the importance of a maternal-derived in utero infant seeding, it is crucial to exclude potential environmental or procedural contaminations and to assess fetal colonization before parturition. To this end, we analyzed sterilely collected intestinal tissues, placenta, and amniotic fluid from rodent fetuses and tissues from autoptic human fetuses...
October 11, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Jiří Hrdý, Kateřina Vlasáková, Viktor Černý, Lenka Súkeníková, Olga Novotná, Petra Petrásková, Kristýna Boráková, Rája Lodinová-Žádníková, Libuše Kolářová, Ludmila Prokešová
The growing knowledge of the key role of microbiota in the maturation of neonatal immune system suggests that manipulation of microbiota could be exploited in hampering allergy development. In this study, Escherichia coli O83:K24:H31 (EcO83) was administered to newborns that were followed prospectively. Several immunological characteristics (cytokines, specific IgE, total T regulatory cells (Treg) and subpopulation of natural Treg (nTreg) and induced Treg (iTreg)) were tested in peripheral blood of eight year old children...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Tianyu Dong, Ting Chen, Richard Allen White, Xu Wang, Weiyue Hu, Yali Liang, Yuqing Zhang, Chuncheng Lu, Minjian Chen, Heidi Aase, Yankai Xia
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal jaundice is a common disease that affects up to 60% of newborns. Gut microbiota mediated the excretion of bilirubin from the human body. However, the relationship between early gut microbiome and development of neonatal jaundice is not fully understood. Here we sought to characterize meconium microbiome of newborns and to clarify its association with risk of neonatal jaundice. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study with 301 newborns providing meconium samples from 2014 to 2015...
September 20, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Eva Fuglsang, Lukasz Krych, Mia Thorup Lundsager, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Hanne Frøkiaer
SCOPE: This study addresses whether administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 could mitigate the effects of a compromised gut microbiota on the composition of mature leukocytes and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GMPs) in newborn mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant dams receive oral broad-spectrum antibiotics, which dramatically decrease the gut microbial composition analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Perinatal antibiotic treatment decreases the proportions of bone marrow (BM) GMPs (postnatal day (PND2): 0...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Hsin-Wen Chang, Di Yan, Rasnik Singh, Jared Liu, Xueyan Lu, Derya Ucmak, Kristina Lee, Ladan Afifi, Douglas Fadrosh, John Leech, Kimberly S Vasquez, Margaret M Lowe, Michael D Rosenblum, Tiffany C Scharschmidt, Susan V Lynch, Wilson Liao
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis impacts 1-3% of the world's population and is characterized by hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes and increased inflammation. At the molecular level, psoriasis is commonly driven by a Th17 response, which serves as a major therapeutic target. Microbiome perturbations have been associated with several immune-mediated diseases such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. Although a few studies have investigated the association between the skin microbiome and psoriasis, conflicting results have been reported plausibly due to the lack of standardized sampling and profiling protocols, or to inherent microbial variability across human subjects and underpowered studies...
September 5, 2018: Microbiome
Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Kassiana Mafra, Érika de Carvalho, Mateus Eustáquio Lopes, Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Hortência Maciel de Castro Oliveira, Gabriel Henrique Campolina-Silva, Camila Dutra Moreira de Miranda, Maísa Mota Antunes, Ana Carolina Carvalho Silva, Ariane Barros Diniz, Débora Moreira Alvarenga, Maria Alice Freitas Lopes, Viviane Aparecida de Souza Lacerda, Matheus Silvério Mattos, Alan Moreira Araújo, Paula Vieira Teixeira Vidigal, Cristiano Xavier Lima, Germán A B Mahecha, Mila Fernandes Moreira Madeira, Gabriel Rocha Fernandes, Raquel Ferraz Nogueira, Thais Garcias Moreira, Bruna Araújo David, Rafael Machado Rezende, Gustavo Batista Menezes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver is the main hematopoietic site in embryos, becoming a crucial organ in both immunity and metabolism in adults. However, how the liver adapts both immune system and enzymatic profile to face challenges in the initial periods after birth is still elusive. METHODS: We analyzed liver samples from mice on day 0 after birth up to adults. Human biopsies from newborns and adults were also examined. Liver immune cells were phenotyped using mass cytometry (CyTOF) and expression of several genes belonging to immune and metabolic pathways were measured...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Caryn Porter, Maria Ennamorati, Nitya Jain
Enteric bacterial communities are established early in life and influence immune cell development and function. The neonatal microbiota is susceptible to numerous external influences including antibiotics use and diet, which impacts susceptibility to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Disorders such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are characterized by a massive influx of immune cells to the intestines. However, immune cells conditioned by the microbiota may additionally emigrate out of the intestines to influence immune responses at extra-intestinal sites...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kymberleigh A Romano, Federico E Rey
Mounting evidence suggests that environmental stress experienced in utero (for example, maternal nutritional deficits) establishes a predisposition in the newborn to the development of chronic diseases later in life. This concept is often referred to as the "fetal origins hypothesis" or "developmental origins of health and disease". Since its first proposal, epigenetics has emerged as an underlying mechanism explaining how environmental cues become gestationally "encoded". Many of the enzymes that impart and maintain epigenetic modifications are highly sensitive to nutrient availability, which can be influenced by the metabolic activities of the intestinal microbiota...
September 2018: Lab Animal
Christian Milani, Eoghan Casey, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Rebecca Moore, Joanna Kaczorowska, Conor Feehily, Marta Mangifesta, Leonardo Mancabelli, Sabrina Duranti, Francesca Turroni, Francesca Bottacini, Jennifer Mahony, Paul D Cotter, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
BACKGROUND: Despite the relevance of viral populations, our knowledge of (bacterio) phage populations, i.e., the phageome, suffers from the absence of a "gold standard" protocol for viral DNA extraction with associated in silico sequence processing analyses. To overcome this apparent hiatus, we present here a comprehensive performance evaluation of various protocols and propose an optimized pipeline that covers DNA extraction, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis of phageome data...
August 20, 2018: Microbiome
Shuqiang Ren, Yan Hui, Karina Obelitz-Ryom, Anne B Brandt, Witold Kot, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild, Duc Ninh Nguyen
Preterm infants have immature organ functions that predispose them to gut and immune disorders. Developmental delays at preterm birth may affect various organs differently at term-corrected age. We hypothesized that gut and immune maturation in moderately preterm neonates depends more on birth and postnatal factors than on advancing post-conceptional age (PCA). Using preterm pigs as models, we investigated how gut and immune parameters develop until term-corrected age, and how these differ from those in term counterparts...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Julio Plaza-Díaz, Luis Fontana, Angel Gil
Maternal milk contains compounds that may affect newborn immunity. Among these are a group of oligosaccharides that are synthesized in the mammary gland from lactose; these oligosaccharides have been termed human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The amount of HMOs present in human milk is greater than the amount of protein. In fact, HMOs are the third-most abundant solid component in maternal milk after lactose and lipids, and are thus considered to be key components. The importance of HMOs may be explained by their inhibitory effects on the adhesion of microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa, the growth of pathogens through the production of bacteriocins and organic acids, and the expression of genes that are involved in inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
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