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microbiota newborn

Tianyu Dong, Ting Chen, Richard Allen White, Xu Wang, Weiyue Hu, Yali Liang, Yuqing Zhang, Chuncheng Lu, Minjian Chen, Heidi Aase, Yankai Xia
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal jaundice is a common disease that affects up to 60% of newborns. Gut microbiota mediated the excretion of bilirubin from the human body. However, the relationship between early gut microbiome and development of neonatal jaundice is not fully understood. Here we sought to characterize meconium microbiome of newborns and to clarify its association with risk of neonatal jaundice. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study with 301 newborns providing meconium samples from 2014 to 2015...
September 20, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Eva Fuglsang, Lukasz Krych, Mia Thorup Lundsager, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Hanne Frøkiaer
SCOPE: This study addressed whether administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 could mitigate the effects of a compromised gut microbiota on the composition of mature leukocytes and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GMPs) in newborn mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant dams received oral broad-spectrum antibiotics, which dramatically decreased the gut microbial composition analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Perinatal antibiotic treatment decreased the proportions of bone marrow (BM) GMPs (postnatal day (PND2): 0...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Hsin-Wen Chang, Di Yan, Rasnik Singh, Jared Liu, Xueyan Lu, Derya Ucmak, Kristina Lee, Ladan Afifi, Douglas Fadrosh, John Leech, Kimberly S Vasquez, Margaret M Lowe, Michael D Rosenblum, Tiffany C Scharschmidt, Susan V Lynch, Wilson Liao
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis impacts 1-3% of the world's population and is characterized by hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes and increased inflammation. At the molecular level, psoriasis is commonly driven by a Th17 response, which serves as a major therapeutic target. Microbiome perturbations have been associated with several immune-mediated diseases such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. Although a few studies have investigated the association between the skin microbiome and psoriasis, conflicting results have been reported plausibly due to the lack of standardized sampling and profiling protocols, or to inherent microbial variability across human subjects and underpowered studies...
September 5, 2018: Microbiome
Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Kassiana Mafra, Érika de Carvalho, Mateus Eustáquio Lopes, Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Hortência Maciel de Castro Oliveira, Gabriel Henrique Campolina-Silva, Camila Dutra Moreira de Miranda, Maísa Mota Antunes, Ana Carolina Carvalho Silva, Ariane Barros Diniz, Débora Moreira Alvarenga, Maria Alice Freitas Lopes, Viviane Aparecida de Souza Lacerda, Matheus Silvério Mattos, Alan Moreira Araújo, Paula Vieira Teixeira Vidigal, Cristiano Xavier Lima, Germán A B Mahecha, Mila Fernandes Moreira Madeira, Gabriel Rocha Fernandes, Raquel Ferraz Nogueira, Thais Garcias Moreira, Bruna Araújo David, Rafael Machado Rezende, Gustavo Batista Menezes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver is the main hematopoietic site in embryos, becoming a crucial organ in both immunity and metabolism in adults. However, how the liver adapts both immune system and enzymatic profile to face challenges in the initial periods after birth is still elusive. METHODS: We analyzed liver samples from mice on day 0 after birth up to adults. Human biopsies from newborns and adults were also examined. Liver immune cells were phenotyped using mass cytometry (CyTOF) and expression of several genes belonging to immune and metabolic pathways were measured...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Caryn Porter, Maria Ennamorati, Nitya Jain
Enteric bacterial communities are established early in life and influence immune cell development and function. The neonatal microbiota is susceptible to numerous external influences including antibiotics use and diet, which impacts susceptibility to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Disorders such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are characterized by a massive influx of immune cells to the intestines. However, immune cells conditioned by the microbiota may additionally emigrate out of the intestines to influence immune responses at extra-intestinal sites...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kymberleigh A Romano, Federico E Rey
Mounting evidence suggests that environmental stress experienced in utero (for example, maternal nutritional deficits) establishes a predisposition in the newborn to the development of chronic diseases later in life. This concept is often referred to as the "fetal origins hypothesis" or "developmental origins of health and disease". Since its first proposal, epigenetics has emerged as an underlying mechanism explaining how environmental cues become gestationally "encoded". Many of the enzymes that impart and maintain epigenetic modifications are highly sensitive to nutrient availability, which can be influenced by the metabolic activities of the intestinal microbiota...
September 2018: Lab Animal
Christian Milani, Eoghan Casey, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Rebecca Moore, Joanna Kaczorowska, Conor Feehily, Marta Mangifesta, Leonardo Mancabelli, Sabrina Duranti, Francesca Turroni, Francesca Bottacini, Jennifer Mahony, Paul D Cotter, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
BACKGROUND: Despite the relevance of viral populations, our knowledge of (bacterio) phage populations, i.e., the phageome, suffers from the absence of a "gold standard" protocol for viral DNA extraction with associated in silico sequence processing analyses. To overcome this apparent hiatus, we present here a comprehensive performance evaluation of various protocols and propose an optimized pipeline that covers DNA extraction, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis of phageome data...
August 20, 2018: Microbiome
Shuqiang Ren, Yan Hui, Karina Obelitz-Ryom, Anne B Brandt, Witold Kot, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild, Duc Ninh Nguyen
Preterm infants have immature organ functions that predispose them to gut and immune disorders. Developmental delays at preterm birth may affect various organs differently at term-corrected age. We hypothesized that gut and immune maturation in moderately preterm neonates depends more on birth and postnatal factors than on advancing post-conceptional age (PCA). Using preterm pigs as models, we investigated how gut and immune parameters develop until term-corrected age, and how these differ from those in term counterparts...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Julio Plaza-Díaz, Luis Fontana, Angel Gil
Maternal milk contains compounds that may affect newborn immunity. Among these are a group of oligosaccharides that are synthesized in the mammary gland from lactose; these oligosaccharides have been termed human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The amount of HMOs present in human milk is greater than the amount of protein. In fact, HMOs are the third-most abundant solid component in maternal milk after lactose and lipids, and are thus considered to be key components. The importance of HMOs may be explained by their inhibitory effects on the adhesion of microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa, the growth of pathogens through the production of bacteriocins and organic acids, and the expression of genes that are involved in inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
Martin G Codagnone, Simon Spichak, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Olivia F O'Leary, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
It has been nearly 30 years since Dr. David Barker first highlighted the importance of prenatal factors in contributing to the developmental origins of adult disease. This concept was later broadened to include postnatal events. It is clear that the interaction between genetic predisposition and early life environmental exposures is key in this regard. However, recent research has also identified another important factor in the microbiota-the trillions of microorganisms that inhabit key body niches, including the vagina and gastrointestinal tract...
June 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Ravinder Nagpal, Yuichiro Yamashiro
Our gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in our health and disease. The microbial colonization of human gut begins immediately at birth and is an indispensable natural process that modulates our physiology and immunity. Recent studies are elegantly revealing how and when these microbes colonize the gut and what elements could potentially influence this natural phenomenon. The vertical mother-to-baby transmission of microbes is a crucial factor for normal development and maturation of newborn's immune, metabolic as well as neurological health...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Shijie Geng, Saisai Cheng, Yuan Li, Zhengshun Wen, Xin Ma, Xuemei Jiang, Yizhen Wang, Xinyan Han
Background and Aims: Fecal microbiota transplantation [FMT] has shown promise as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using a piglet model, our previous study indicated that exogenous fecal microbiota can enhance gastrointestinal health through enhancing intestinal barrier. However, specific connections between FMT-induced microbial changes and modulation of intestinal barrier still remain to be fully illustrated. Here, we aimed to determine the potential role of metabolic function of gut microbiota in the beneficial effects of FMT...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
A M Nogacka, P Ruas-Madiedo, E Gómez, G Solís, N Fernández, M Suárez, A Suárez, N Salazar, C G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, M Gueimonde
Several in vitro screening tests have been used for selecting probiotic strains; however they often show low predictive value and only a limited number of strains have demonstrated functionality in vivo. The most used in vitro tests represent a very simplified version of the gut environment, especially since they do not consider the accompanying microbiota. Therefore, there is a need to develop sensitive and discriminating in vitro models including the microbiota. Here we developed an in vitro model to discriminate among microbiotas/fecal waters from different population groups...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Mohammad Jaber Alipour, Jonna Jalanka, Tiina Pessa-Morikawa, Tuomo Kokkonen, Reetta Satokari, Ulla Hynönen, Antti Iivanainen, Mikael Niku
Recent research suggests that the microbial colonization of the mammalian intestine may begin before birth, but the observations are controversial due to challenges in the reliable sampling and analysis of low-abundance microbiota. We studied the perinatal microbiota of calves by sampling them immediately at birth and during the first postnatal week. The large size of the bovine newborns allows sampling directly from rectum using contamination-shielded swabs. Our 16S rDNA data, purged of potential contaminant sequences shared with negative controls, indicates the existence of a diverse low-abundance microbiota in the newborn rectal meconium and mucosa...
July 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
C S Cheng, H K Wei, P Wang, H C Yu, X M Zhang, S W Jiang, J Peng
Recent studies indicate that early postnatal period is a critical window for gut microbiota manipulation to optimise the immunity and body growth. This study investigated the effects of maternal faecal microbiota orally administered to neonatal piglets after birth on growth performance, selected microbial populations, intestinal permeability and the development of intestinal mucosal immune system. In total, 12 litters of crossbred newborn piglets were selected in this study. Litter size was standardised to 10 piglets...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Juan C Ossa, Dominique Yáñez, Romina Valenzuela, Pablo Gallardo, Yalda Lucero, Mauricio J Farfán
Introduction: Compared to bovine formula (BF), breast milk (BM) has unique properties. In the newborn intestine, there is a homeostatic balance between the counterparts of the immune system, which allows a physiological inflammation, modulated by the gut microbiota. Many studies have attempted to understand the effect of BF vs. BM, and the changes in the gut microbiota, but few also focus on intestinal inflammation. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of newborn infants during their first 3 months. In stool samples taken at 1 and 3 months (timepoints T1 and T3), we quantified calprotectin, IL-8 and α1-antitrypsin by ELISA and we evaluated the expression of IL8 and IL1 β genes by RT-qPCR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Andrea M Lencina, Thierry Franza, Matthew J Sullivan, Glen C Ulett, Deepak S Ipe, Philippe Gaudu, Robert B Gennis, Lici A Schurig-Briccio
The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae is the major cause of meningitis and sepsis in a newborn's first week, as well as a considerable cause of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis in immunocompromised adults. This pathogen respires aerobically if heme and quinone are available in the environment, and a functional respiratory chain is required for full virulence. Remarkably, it is shown here that the entire respiratory chain of S. agalactiae consists of only two enzymes, a type 2 NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) and a cytochrome bd oxygen reductase...
July 3, 2018: MBio
Irene Aloisio, Flavia Prodam, Enza Giglione, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Arianna Solito, Simonetta Bellone, Loredana Baffoni, Luca Mogna, Marco Pane, Gianni Bona, Diana Di Gioia
Infantile functional gastrointestinal disorders are common in the first months of life. Their pathogenesis remains unknown although evidences suggest multiple independent causes, including gut microbiota modifications. Feeding type, influencing the composition of intestinal microbiota, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Previous studies supported probiotic supplementation success against colics, however mainly Lactobacillus spp. were tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness against functional gastrointestinal disorders of a Bifidobacterium breve based probiotic formulation including in the study both breast-fed and bottle-fed subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Diana A Chernikova, Juliette C Madan, Molly L Housman, Muhammad Zain-Ul-Abideen, Sara N Lundgren, Hilary G Morrison, Mitchell L Sogin, Scott M Williams, Jason H Moore, Margaret R Karagas, Anne G Hoen
BACKGROUND: The impact of degree of prematurity at birth on premature infant gut microbiota has not been extensively studied in comparison to term infants in large cohorts. METHODS: To determine the effect of gestational age at birth and postnatal exposures on gut bacterial colonization in infants, we analyzed 65 stool samples from 17 premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, as well as 13 samples from 13 mostly moderate-to-late premature infants and 189 samples from 176 term infants in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study...
July 2018: Pediatric Research
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n = 15, in each)...
July 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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