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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010734/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-reduces-susceptibility-to-epithelial-injury-and-modulates-tryptophan-metabolism-of-microbial-community-in-a-piglet-model
#1
Shijie Geng, Saisai Cheng, Yuan Li, Zhengshun Wen, Xin Ma, Xuemei Jiang, Yizhen Wang, Xinyan Han
Background and Aims: Fecal microbiota transplantation [FMT] has shown promise as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using a piglet model, our previous study indicated that exogenous fecal microbiota can enhance gastrointestinal health through enhancing intestinal barrier. However, specific connections between FMT-induced microbial changes and modulation of intestinal barrier still remain to be fully illustrated. Here, we aimed to determine the potential role of metabolic function of gut microbiota in the beneficial effects of FMT...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006229/real-time-monitoring-of-ht29-epithelial-cells-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-assessing-functional-differences-among-intestinal-microbiotas-from-different-human-population-groups
#2
A M Nogacka, P Ruas-Madiedo, E Gómez, G Solís, N Fernández, M Suárez, A Suárez, N Salazar, C G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, M Gueimonde
Several in vitro screening tests have been used for selecting probiotic strains; however they often show low predictive value and only a limited number of strains have demonstrated functionality in vivo. The most used in vitro tests represent a very simplified version of the gut environment, especially since they do not consider the accompanying microbiota. Therefore, there is a need to develop sensitive and discriminating in vitro models including the microbiota. Here we developed an in vitro model to discriminate among microbiotas/fecal waters from different population groups...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993024/the-composition-of-the-perinatal-intestinal-microbiota-in-cattle
#3
Mohammad Jaber Alipour, Jonna Jalanka, Tiina Pessa-Morikawa, Tuomo Kokkonen, Reetta Satokari, Ulla Hynönen, Antti Iivanainen, Mikael Niku
Recent research suggests that the microbial colonization of the mammalian intestine may begin before birth, but the observations are controversial due to challenges in the reliable sampling and analysis of low-abundance microbiota. We studied the perinatal microbiota of calves by sampling them immediately at birth and during the first postnatal week. The large size of the bovine newborns allows sampling directly from rectum using contamination-shielded swabs. Our 16S rDNA data, purged of potential contaminant sequences shared with negative controls, indicates the existence of a diverse low-abundance microbiota in the newborn rectal meconium and mucosa...
July 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983136/early-intervention-with-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-an-effective-means-to-improve-growth-performance-and-the-intestinal-development-of-suckling-piglets
#4
C S Cheng, H K Wei, P Wang, H C Yu, X M Zhang, S W Jiang, J Peng
Recent studies indicate that early postnatal period is a critical window for gut microbiota manipulation to optimise the immunity and body growth. This study investigated the effects of maternal faecal microbiota orally administered to neonatal piglets after birth on growth performance, selected microbial populations, intestinal permeability and the development of intestinal mucosal immune system. In total, 12 litters of crossbred newborn piglets were selected in this study. Litter size was standardised to 10 piglets...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977866/intestinal-inflammation-in-chilean-infants-fed-with-bovine-formula-vs-breast-milk-and-its-association-with-their-gut-microbiota
#5
Juan C Ossa, Dominique Yáñez, Romina Valenzuela, Pablo Gallardo, Yalda Lucero, Mauricio J Farfán
Introduction: Compared to bovine formula (BF), breast milk (BM) has unique properties. In the newborn intestine, there is a homeostatic balance between the counterparts of the immune system, which allows a physiological inflammation, modulated by the gut microbiota. Many studies have attempted to understand the effect of BF vs. BM, and the changes in the gut microbiota, but few also focus on intestinal inflammation. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of newborn infants during their first 3 months. In stool samples taken at 1 and 3 months (timepoints T1 and T3), we quantified calprotectin, IL-8 and α1-antitrypsin by ELISA and we evaluated the expression of IL8 and IL1 β genes by RT-qPCR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970468/type-2-nadh-dehydrogenase-is-the-only-point-of-entry-for-electrons-into-the-streptococcus-agalactiae-respiratory-chain-and-is-a-potential-drug-target
#6
Andrea M Lencina, Thierry Franza, Matthew J Sullivan, Glen C Ulett, Deepak S Ipe, Philippe Gaudu, Robert B Gennis, Lici A Schurig-Briccio
The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae is the major cause of meningitis and sepsis in a newborn's first week, as well as a considerable cause of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis in immunocompromised adults. This pathogen respires aerobically if heme and quinone are available in the environment, and a functional respiratory chain is required for full virulence. Remarkably, it is shown here that the entire respiratory chain of S. agalactiae consists of only two enzymes, a type 2 NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) and a cytochrome bd oxygen reductase...
July 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888226/three-month-feeding-integration-with-bifidobacterium-strains-prevents-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-healthy-newborns
#7
Irene Aloisio, Flavia Prodam, Enza Giglione, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Arianna Solito, Simonetta Bellone, Loredana Baffoni, Luca Mogna, Marco Pane, Gianni Bona, Diana Di Gioia
Infantile functional gastrointestinal disorders are common in the first months of life. Their pathogenesis remains unknown although evidences suggest multiple independent causes, including gut microbiota modifications. Feeding type, influencing the composition of intestinal microbiota, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Previous studies supported probiotic supplementation success against colics, however mainly Lactobacillus spp. were tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness against functional gastrointestinal disorders of a Bifidobacterium breve based probiotic formulation including in the study both breast-fed and bottle-fed subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795209/the-premature-infant-gut-microbiome-during-the-first-6-weeks-of-life-differs-based-on-gestational-maturity-at-birth
#8
Diana A Chernikova, Juliette C Madan, Molly L Housman, Muhammad Zain-Ul-Abideen, Sara N Lundgren, Hilary G Morrison, Mitchell L Sogin, Scott M Williams, Jason H Moore, Margaret R Karagas, Anne G Hoen
BACKGROUND: The impact of degree of prematurity at birth on premature infant gut microbiota has not been extensively studied in comparison to term infants in large cohorts. METHODS: To determine the effect of gestational age at birth and postnatal exposures on gut bacterial colonization in infants, we analyzed 65 stool samples from 17 premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, as well as 13 samples from 13 mostly moderate-to-late premature infants and 189 samples from 176 term infants in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772287/probiotics-and-nutraceuticals-as-a-new-frontier-in-obesity-prevention-and-management
#9
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n = 15, in each)...
July 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748625/sea-lions-develop-human-like-vernix-caseosa-delivering-branched-fats-and-squalene-to-the-gi-tract
#10
Dong Hao Wang, Rinat Ran-Ressler, Judy St Leger, Erika Nilson, Lauren Palmer, Richard Collins, J Thomas Brenna
Vernix caseosa, the white waxy coating found on newborn human skin, is thought to be a uniquely human substance. Its signature characteristic is exceptional richness in saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and squalene. Vernix particles sloughed from the skin suspended in amniotic fluid are swallowed by the human fetus, depositing BCFA/squalene throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby establishing a unique microbial niche that influences development of nascent microbiota. Here we show that late-term California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) fetuses have true vernix caseosa, delivering BCFA and squalene to the fetal GI tract thereby recapitulating the human fetal gut microbial niche...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715493/spleen-development-is-modulated-by-neonatal-gut-microbiota
#11
M Manuela Rosado, Alaitz Aranburu, Marco Scarsella, Simona Cascioli, Ezio Giorda, Federica Del Chierico, Stefano Levi Mortera, Eva Piano Mortari, Stefania Petrini, Lorenza Putignani, Rita Carsetti
The full development of the mammalian immune system occurs after birth upon exposure to non self-antigens. The gut is the first site of bacterial colonization where it is crucial to create the appropriate microenvironment able to balance effector or tolerogenic responses to external stimuli. It is a well-established fact that at mucosal sites bacteria play a key role in developing the immune system but we ignore how colonising bacteria impact the maturation of the spleen. Here we addressed this issue. Taking advantage of the fact that milk SIgA regulates bacterial colonization of the newborn intestine, we generated immunocompetent mice born either from IgA pro-efficient or IgA deficient females...
July 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695286/a-microorganisms-journey-between-plant-generations
#12
Nathan Vannier, Cendrine Mony, Anne-Kristel Bittebiere, Sophie Michon-Coudouel, Marine Biget, Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse
BACKGROUND: Plants are colonized by a great diversity of microorganisms which form a microbiota and perform additional functions for their host. This microbiota can thus be considered a toolbox enabling plants to buffer local environmental changes, with a positive influence on plant fitness. In this context, the transmission of the microbiota to the progeny represent a way to ensure the presence of beneficial symbionts within the habitat. Examples of such transmission have been mainly described for seed transmission and concern a few pathogenic microorganisms...
April 26, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684056/bifidobacteria-isolated-from-vaginal-and-gut-microbiomes-are-indistinguishable-by-comparative-genomics
#13
Aline C Freitas, Janet E Hill
Bifidobacteria colonize the human gastrointestinal tract, vagina, oral cavity and breast milk. They influence human physiology and nutrition through health-promoting effects, play an important role as primary colonizers of the newborn gut, and contribute to vaginal microbiome homeostasis by producing lactic acid. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bifidobacteria are transmitted from mother to infant remains in discussion. Moreover, studies have suggested that Bifidobacterium spp. have specializations for gut colonization, but comparisons of strains of the same bifidobacteria species from different body sites are lacking...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672211/increased-prevalence-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-infants-at-risk-of-developing-celiac-disease-the-proficel-study
#14
Marta Olivares, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Giada de Palma, Amalia Capilla, Esther Nova, Gemma Castillejo, Vicente Varea, Ascensión Marcos, José Antonio Garrote, Isabel Polanco, Ester Donat, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen Calvo, Luis Ortigosa, Francesc Palau, Yolanda Sanz
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors, whose interaction influences disease risk. The intestinal microbiota, including viruses and bacteria, could play a role in the pathological process leading to gluten intolerance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of pathogens in the intestinal microbiota of infants at familial risk of developing CD. We included 127 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative with CD. Infants were classified according to milk-feeding practice (breastfeeding or formula feeding) and HLA-DQ genotype (low, intermediate or high genetic risk)...
April 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660072/bacterial-communication-between-lactobacillus-spp-isolated-from-poultry-in-the-inhibition-of-salmonella-heidelberg-proof-of-concept
#15
Adriano Sakai Okamoto, Raphael Lucio Andreatti Filho, Elisane Lenita Milbradt, Ana Carolina Izidoro Moraes, Igor Henrique Bastos Vellano, Priscylla Tatiana Chalfun Guimarães-Okamoto
Bacterial communication has become an increasingly studied topic aiming at the discovery of new products to aid the treatment of diseases for which conventional options do not work. The production of safe foods, free of pathogens, has been receiving increasing attention due to market demands for food products of high quality and free of residues. This study assessed the communication between Lactobacillus spp. during the in vitro inhibition of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) and the impact an autoinducer produced by a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum has on communication in the normal microbiota and inhibiting SH in newborn chicks...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642622/colibactin-more-than-a-new-bacterial-toxin
#16
REVIEW
Tiphanie Faïs, Julien Delmas, Nicolas Barnich, Richard Bonnet, Guillaume Dalmasso
Cyclomodulins are bacterial toxins that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. A new cyclomodulin called colibactin, which is synthetized by the pks genomic island, was discovered in 2006. Despite many efforts, colibactin has not yet been purified, and its structure remains elusive. Interestingly, the pks island is found in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ) isolated from different origins, including from intestinal microbiota, septicaemia, newborn meningitis, and urinary tract infections...
April 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610555/effect-of-prenatal-administration-of-low-dose-antibiotics-on-gut-microbiota-and-body-fat-composition-of-newborn-mice
#17
Ayumi Yoshimoto, Takashi Uebanso, Mutsumi Nakahashi, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
Several environmental factors during the prenatal period transgenerationally affect the health of newborns in later life. Because low-dose antibiotics have been used for promoting the growth of crops and livestock in agriculture, humans may have ingested residual antibiotics for several decades. However, the effect of prenatal administration of low-dose antibiotics on newborns' health in later life is unclear. In the present study, we found that prenatal treatment of murine mothers with low-dose antibiotics increased the abundance of bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes and the genera Clostridium IV and XIVa in feces from pups...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564121/effects-of-dietary-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-supplementation-on-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-inflammatory-response-and-microbiota-of-intra-uterine-growth-retarded-weanling-piglets
#18
Yue Li, Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Zhixiong Ying, Yueping Chen, Lili Zhang, Zhaoxin Lu, Tian Wang
Background: The focus of recent research has been directed toward the probiotic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) on the gut health of animals. However, little is known about BA's effects on piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of BA supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, inflammatory response, and microbiota of IUGR piglets. Methods: Eighteen litters of newborn piglets were selected at birth, with one normal birth weight (NBW) and two IUGR piglets in each litter (i...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550235/the-effect-of-early-limited-formula-on-breastfeeding-readmission-and-intestinal-microbiota-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Valerie J Flaherman, Nicole R Narayan, Dennis Hartigan-O'Connor, Michael D Cabana, Charles E McCulloch, Ian M Paul
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether using 10 mL formula after each breastfeeding before copious maternal milk production affects breastfeeding duration, readmission, and intestinal microbiota through 1 month of age. STUDY DESIGN: In this randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 164 exclusively breastfeeding newborns, 24-72 hours old, whose weight loss was ≥75th percentile for age, and whose mothers had not yet begun mature milk production. Enrolled newborns were assigned randomly to either supplement breastfeeding with early limited formula (ELF), 10 mL of formula after each breastfeeding stopped at the onset of copious maternal milk production (intervention), or to continue exclusive breastfeeding (control)...
May 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538354/maternal-influence-on-the-fetal-microbiome-in-a-population-based-study-of-the-first-pass-meconium
#20
Terhi Tapiainen, Niko Paalanne, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Koivusaari, Katja Korpela, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Tuula Kaukola, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko
BackgroundMeconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors.MethodsWe recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to characterize the microbiomes of the first-pass meconium samples (N=212). We used a multivariate model to determine both the prenatal and perinatal factors affecting the microbiome...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
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