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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899809/does-vaginal-delivery-mitigate-or-strengthen-the-intergenerational-association-of-overweight-and-obesity-findings-from-the-boston-birth-cohort
#1
N T Mueller, G Mao, W Bennet, S Hourigan, M G Dominguez-Bello, L J Appel, X Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet Cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m(2)) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother-child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5y (range 2...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898903/intestinal-lactose-and-mineral-concentration-affect-the-microbial-ecophysiology-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-formula-fed-neonatal-piglets
#2
R Pieper, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Hyperprolificacy in modern pig breeds has led to increased use of artificial rearing and formula feeding of neonatal piglets, which may change their intestinal bacterial ecophysiology. Here, newborn piglets ( = 8 per group) were fed a bovine milk-based formula (FO) or allowed to suckle their mothers (sow milk [SM]) for 2 wk, and digesta samples from the stomach, jejunum, and colon were subsequently analyzed for enzyme activities, bacterial metabolites, and 16S rRNA transcripts of bacterial groups by quantitative real-time PCR...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744547/a-mixture-of-milk-and-vegetable-lipids-in-infant-formula-changes-gut-digestion-mucosal-immunity-and-microbiota-composition-in-neonatal-piglets
#3
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725814/monitoring-perinatal-gut-microbiota-in-mouse-models-by-mass-spectrometry-approaches-parental-genetic-background-and-breastfeeding-effects
#4
Stefano Levi Mortera, Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Maria M Rosado, Agnese Cavola, Marco Chierici, Luisa Pieroni, Andrea Urbani, Rita Carsetti, Isabella Lante, Bruno Dallapiccola, Lorenza Putignani
At birth, contact with external stimuli, such as nutrients derived from food, is necessary to modulate the symbiotic balance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, protect against bacterial dysbiosis, and initiate the development of the mucosal immune response. Among a variety of different feeding patterns, breastfeeding represents the best modality. In fact, the capacity of breast milk to modulate the composition of infants' gut microbiota leads to beneficial effects on their health. In this study, we used newborn mice as a model to evaluate the effect of parental genetic background (i...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724923/effects-of-probiotics-vivomixx%C3%A2-in-obese-pregnant-women-and-their-newborn-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702710/fructans-in-the-first-1000-days-of-life-and-beyond-and-for-pregnancy
#6
Agus Firmansyah, Nalinee Chongviriyaphan, Drupadi Hs Dillon, Nguyen Cong Khan, Tatsuya Morita, Kraisid Tontisirin, Le Danh Tuyen, Weiping Wang, Jacques Bindels, Paul Deurenberg, Sherlin Ong, Jo Hautvast, Diederick Meyer, Elaine E Vaughan
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698614/gut-microbiome-and-infant-health-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-and-host-genetic-factors
#7
Xiaomei Cong, Wanli Xu, Rachael Romisher, Samantha Poveda, Shaina Forte, Angela Starkweather, Wendy A Henderson
The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646684/temporal-development-of-gut-microbiota-in-triclocarban-exposed-pregnant-and-neonatal-rats
#8
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Robert L Donnell, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Jiang Liu, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Alteration of gut microbial colonization process may influence susceptibility of the newborn/infant to infectious and chronic disease. Infectious disease risk leads to widespread use of non-prescription antimicrobials in household products such as Triclocarban (TCC), an antimicrobial compound in personal care products. TCC concentrates in and is transferred through the milk to suckling offspring. TCC exposure during gestation and lactation significantly reduced phylogenetic diversity (PD) among exposed dams and neonates...
September 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611998/effects-of-early-intervention-with-sodium-butyrate-on-gut-microbiota-and-the-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-neonatal-piglets
#9
Jumei Xu, Xue Chen, Shuiqing Yu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594291/microbiota-in-health-and-in-sickness-from-birth-to-death
#10
Salih Kuk, Yunus Uyar, Serkan Karaca, Süleyman Yazar
Microorganisms colonize tissues and organs such as the skin and gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems. These microorganisms are generally called as "human microbiota". Human microbiota mostly consists of commensal microorganisms. The commensal microorganisms located on and in the human body are bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and parasites. The microbiota genome is 100 times bigger in size than the human genome. Although the human genome is stationary, microbial genome has a compatible flexible variability during human life...
December 0: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484959/modulation-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-by-the-intestinal-microbiome
#11
Alexandra Paun, Jayne S Danska
The prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes have both risen dramatically over the last 50 years. Recent findings point towards the gut microbiota as a potential contributor to these trends. The hundred trillion bacteria residing in the mammalian gut have established a symbiotic relation with their host and influence many aspects of host metabolism, physiology, and immunity. In this review, we examine recent data linking gut microbiome composition and function to anti-pancreatic immunity, insulin-resistance, and obesity...
November 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468806/genomic-analysis-of-three-bifidobacterium-species-isolated-from-the-calf-gastrointestinal-tract
#12
William J Kelly, Adrian L Cookson, Eric Altermann, Suzanne C Lambie, Rechelle Perry, Koon Hoong Teh, Don E Otter, Nicole Shapiro, Tanja Woyke, Sinead C Leahy
Ruminant animals contribute significantly to the global value of agriculture and rely on a complex microbial community for efficient digestion. However, little is known of how this microbial-host relationship develops and is maintained. To begin to address this, we have determined the ability of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the faeces of newborn calves to grow on carbohydrates typical of a newborn ruminant diet. Genome sequences have been determined for these bacteria with analysis of the genomes providing insights into the host association and identification of several genes that may mediate interactions with the ruminant gastrointestinal tract...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363739/the-upper-respiratory-tract-microbiome-and-its-potential-role-in-bovine-respiratory-disease-and-otitis-media
#13
Svetlana F Lima, Andre Gustavo V Teixeira, Catherine H Higgins, Fabio S Lima, Rodrigo C Bicalho
The upper respiratory tract (URT) hosts a complex microbial community of commensal microorganisms and potential pathogens. Analyzing the composition and nature of the healthy URT microbiota and how it changes over time will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pneumonia and otitis. A longitudinal study was conducted including 174 Holstein calves that were divided in four groups: healthy calves, calves diagnosed with pneumonia, otitis or both diseases. Deep pharyngeal swabs were collected on days 3, 14, 28, and 35 of life, and next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene as well as quantitative PCR was performed...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347013/importance-of-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-diseases-of-new-born-infants
#14
Jisheng Gao, Hongwei Wu, Jinfeng Liu
The multifarious assortment of microorganisms present in gut of humans is termed as gut microbiota. These include 1,000 species accompanied by approximately 2 million genes in an individual adult. The gut microbiota has multifactorial protective roles against allergic reactions, inflammation, cardiac pathological states and even in the state of malignant carcinogenesis existing in humans. By contrast, adverse alterations in the microbiota result in chronic pathological states, including autoimmune diseases, cancer and circulatory system obstructions...
July 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27332552/early-gut-microbiota-perturbations-following-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#15
Giuseppe Mazzola, Kiera Murphy, R Paul Ross, Diana Di Gioia, Bruno Biavati, Luigi T Corvaglia, Giacomo Faldella, Catherine Stanton
The faecal microbiota composition of infants born to mothers receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with ampicillin against group B Streptococcus was compared with that of control infants, at day 7 and 30 of life. Recruited newborns were both exclusive breastfed and mixed fed, in order to also study the effect of dietary factors on the microbiota composition. Massive parallel sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR analysis were performed. Antibiotic prophylaxis caused the most marked changes on the microbiota in breastfed infants, mainly resulting in a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, compared with control infants (52% vs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220822/age-related-changes-in-gut-microbiota-composition-from-newborn-to-centenarian-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Toshitaka Odamaki, Kumiko Kato, Hirosuke Sugahara, Nanami Hashikura, Sachiko Takahashi, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Fumiaki Abe, Ro Osawa
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the composition of human gut microbiota changes with age; however, few studies have used molecular techniques to investigate the long-term, sequential changes in gut microbiota composition. In this study, we investigated the sequential changes in gut microbiota composition in newborn to centenarian Japanese subjects. RESULTS: Fecal samples from 367 healthy Japanese subjects between the ages of 0 and 104 years were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of amplicons derived from the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159323/age-dependent-susceptibility-to-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-epec-infection-in-mice
#17
Aline Dupont, Felix Sommer, Kaiyi Zhang, Urska Repnik, Marijana Basic, André Bleich, Mark Kühnel, Fredrik Bäckhed, Yael Litvak, Marcus Fulde, Ilan Rosenshine, Mathias W Hornef
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) represents a major causative agent of infant diarrhea associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although studied extensively in vitro, the investigation of the host-pathogen interaction in vivo has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Using RT-PCR and global transcriptome analysis, high throughput 16S rDNA sequencing as well as immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we characterize the EPEC-host interaction following oral challenge of newborn mice...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136545/impact-of-prematurity-and-perinatal-antibiotics-on-the-developing-intestinal-microbiota-a-functional-inference-study
#18
Silvia Arboleya, Borja Sánchez, Gonzalo Solís, Nuria Fernández, Marta Suárez, Ana M Hernández-Barranco, Christian Milani, Abelardo Margolles, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Marco Ventura, Miguel Gueimonde
BACKGROUND: The microbial colonization of the neonatal gut provides a critical stimulus for normal maturation and development. This process of early microbiota establishment, known to be affected by several factors, constitutes an important determinant for later health. METHODS: We studied the establishment of the microbiota in preterm and full-term infants and the impact of perinatal antibiotics upon this process in premature babies. To this end, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based microbiota assessment was performed at phylum level and functional inference analyses were conducted...
April 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126036/how-colonization-by-microbiota-in-early-life-shapes-the-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Gensollen, Shankar S Iyer, Dennis L Kasper, Richard S Blumberg
Microbial colonization of mucosal tissues during infancy plays an instrumental role in the development and education of the host mammalian immune system. These early-life events can have long-standing consequences: facilitating tolerance to environmental exposures or contributing to the development of disease in later life, including inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, and asthma. Recent studies have begun to define a critical period during early development in which disruption of optimal host-commensal interactions can lead to persistent and in some cases irreversible defects in the development and training of specific immune subsets...
April 29, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27093791/-bacterial-translocation-from-intestine-microbiological-immunological-and-pathophysiological-aspects
#20
REVIEW
G I Podoprigora, L I Kafarskaya, N A Bainov, A N Shkoporov
Bacterial translocation (BT) is both pathology and physiology phenomenon. In healthy newborns it accompanies the process of establishing the autochthonous intestinal microbiota and the host microbiome. In immunodeficiency it can be an aethio-pathogenetic link and a manifestation of infection or septic complications. The host colonization resistance to exogenous microbic colonizers is provided by gastrointestinal microbiota in concert with complex constitutional and adaptive defense mechanisms. BT may be result of barrier dysfunction and self-purification mechanisms involving the host myeloid cell phagocytic system and opsonins...
2015: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
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