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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163938/understanding-biological-mechanisms-underlying-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-developing-countries-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-amanhi-bio-banking-study
#1
Abdullah H Baqui, Rasheda Khanam, Mohammad Sayedur Rahman, Aziz Ahmed, Hasna Hena Rahman, Mamun Ibne Moin, Salahuddin Ahmed, Fyezah Jehan, Imran Nisar, Atiya Hussain, Muhammad Ilyas, Aneeta Hotwani, Muhammad Sajid, Shahida Qureshi, Anita Zaidi, Sunil Sazawal, Said M Ali, Saikat Deb, Mohammed Hamad Juma, Usha Dhingra, Arup Dutta, Shaali Makame Ame, Caroline Hayward, Igor Rudan, Mike Zangenberg, Donna Russell, Sachiyo Yoshida, Ozren Polašek, Alexander Manu, Rajiv Bahl
Objectives: The AMANHI study aims to seek for biomarkers as predictors of important pregnancy-related outcomes, and establish a biobank in developing countries for future research as new methods and technologies become available. Methods: AMANHI is using harmonised protocols to enrol 3000 women in early pregnancies (8-19 weeks of gestation) for population-based follow-up in pregnancy up to 42 days postpartum in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania, with collection taking place between August 2014 and June 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137266/correlation-of-placental-microbiota-with-fetal-macrosomia-and-clinical-characteristics-in-mothers-and-newborns
#2
Jia Zheng, Xin-Hua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Li-Li Mao, Miao Yu, Jian-Ping Xu, Tong Wang
Substantial studies indicated that fetal macrosomia was associated with detrimental pregnancy outcomes, and increased susceptibility to metabolic diseases in later life. However, investigations into the association between placental microbiota and fetal macrosomia are limited. We aimed to profile the placental microbiota of fetal macrosomia and study whether they relate to clinical characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from fetal macrosomias and newborns with normal birth weight. The clinical characteristics, umbilical cord blood parameters were measured, and placental microbiota were sequenced and further analysed...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#3
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118752/role-of-the-human-breast-milk-associated-microbiota-on-the-newborns-immune-system-a-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Enzo Grossi, Lorenzo Drago
The human milk is fundamental for a correct development of newborns, as it is a source not only of vitamins and nutrients, but also of commensal bacteria. The microbiota associated to the human breast milk contributes to create the "initial" intestinal microbiota of infants, having also a pivotal role in modulating and influencing the newborns' immune system. Indeed, the transient gut microbiota is responsible for the initial change from an intrauterine Th2 prevailing response to a Th1/Th2 balanced one. Bacteria located in both colostrum and mature milk can stimulate the anti-inflammatory response, by stimulating the production of specific cytokines, reducing the risk of developing a broad range of inflammatory diseases and preventing the expression of immune-mediated pathologies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029763/serotype-virulence-profile-antimicrobial-resistance-and-macrolide-resistance-determinants-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolates-in-pregnant-women-and-neonates-in-catalonia-spain
#5
Yuly López, Elena Parra, Virginio Cepas, Isabel Sanfeliú, Teresa Juncosa, Antonia Andreu, Mariona Xercavins, Josefa Pérez, Sergi Sanz, Andrea Vergara, Jordi Bosch, Sara Maria Soto
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococci (GBS), is the main aetiological agent of early neonatal sepsis in developed countries. This microorganism belongs to the gastrointestinal tract microbiota wherefrom it can colonize the vagina and be vertically transmitted to the child either before or at birth, and subsequently cause infection in the newborn. Approximately, 50% of newborns born to women with GBS become colonized, with 1-2% developing early neonatal infection if no preventive intervention is performed...
October 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990221/growth-performance-of-piglets-during-the-first-two-weeks-of-lactation-affects-the-development-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#6
B Morissette, G Talbot, C Beaulieu, M Lessard
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of newborn piglet weight gain during the first 2 weeks of lactation on the luminal and mucosal microbiota of the ileum and colon. The microbiota from high-weight-gain (HWG) and low-weight-gain (LWG) 2-week-old piglets was characterized by amplicon length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) and compared using diversity indices and multivariate statistical analyses. At birth, LWG piglets weighted in average 0.26 kg less than HWG piglets (p = .002). The weight difference between LWG and HWG piglets increased with time and reached 2...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988527/how-fucose-of-blood-group-glycotopes-programs-human-gut-microbiota
#7
REVIEW
S V Kononova
Formation of appropriate gut microbiota is essential for human health. The first two years of life is the critical period for this process. Selection of mutualistic microorganisms of the intestinal microbiota is controlled by the FUT2 and FUT3 genes that encode fucosyltransferases, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of fucosylated glycan structures of mucins and milk oligosaccharides. In this review, the mechanisms of the selection and maintenance of intestinal microorganisms that involve fucosylated oligosaccharides of breast milk and mucins of the newborn's intestine are described...
September 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985873/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-deficiency-leads-to-dysbiosis-and-bacterial-translocation-in-the-newborn-intestine
#8
Jason Fawley, Shannon Koehler, Susan Cabrera, Vy Lam, Katherine Fredrich, Martin Hessner, Nita Salzman, David Gourlay
BACKGROUND: Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has been shown to help maintain intestinal homeostasis. Decreased expression of IAP has been linked with pediatric intestinal diseases associated with bacterial overgrowth and subsequent inflammation. We hypothesize that the absence of IAP leads to dysbiosis, with increased inflammation and permeability of the newborn intestine. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley heterozygote IAP cross-matches were bred. Pups were dam fed ad lib and euthanized at weaning...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968427/evolution-in-fecal-bacterial-viral-composition-in-infants-of-two-central-african-countries-gabon-and-republic-of-the-congo-during-their-first-month-of-life
#9
Lionel Brazier, Eric Elguero, Claudine Kombila Koumavor, Nicolas Renaud, Franck Prugnolle, Frédéric Thomas, Simon Ategbo, Moyen Engoba, Obengui, Eric M Leroy, Patrick Durand, François Renaud, Pierre Becquart
Few studies have analyzed the gut microbiota of child in unindustrialized countries, but none during the first month of life. Stool samples were collected from healthy newborns in hospitals of Gabon (n = 6) and Republic of the Congo (n = 9) at different time points during the first month of life: meconium, day 2 (D02), day 7 (D07) and day 28 (D28). In addition, one fecal sample was collected from each mother after delivery. Metagenomic sequencing was performed to determine the bacterial communities, and multiplex real-time PCR was used to detect the presence of seven enteric viruses (rotavirus a, adenovirus, norovirus I and II, sapovirus, astrovirus, enterovirus) in these samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942491/modulation-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-by-the-intestinal-microbiome
#10
REVIEW
Mikael Knip, Jarno Honkanen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system...
September 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936424/acid-stress-response-mechanisms-of-group-b-streptococci
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929093/the-elevated-rate-of-cesarean-section-and-its-contribution-to-non-communicable-chronic-diseases-in-latin-america-the-growing-involvement-of-the-microbiota
#12
REVIEW
Fabien Magne, Alexa Puchi Silva, Bielka Carvajal, Martin Gotteland
The current recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding cesarean section (C-section) is that this clinical practice should be carried out only under specific conditions, when the health or life of the mother/newborn dyad is threatened, and that its use should not exceed 10-15% of the total deliveries. However, over the last few decades, the frequency of C-section delivery in medium- and high-income countries has rapidly increased worldwide. This review describes the evolution of this procedure in Latin American countries, showing that today more than half of newborns in the region are delivered by C-section...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912815/feasibility-of-metatranscriptome-analysis-from-infant-gut-microbiota-adaptation-to-solid-foods-results-in-increased-activity-of-firmicutes-at-six-months
#13
Floor Hugenholtz, Jarmo Ritari, Lotta Nylund, Mark Davids, Reetta Satokari, Willem M de Vos
Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911664/smog-induces-oxidative-stress-and-microbiota-disruption
#14
REVIEW
Tit-Yee Wong
Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous layers are covered by a complex network of human-associated microbes. The relation between these microbial communities and their human host are mostly mutualistic...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894126/microbes-in-infant-gut-development-placing-abundance-within-environmental-clinical-and-growth-parameters
#15
Tanja Obermajer, Iztok Grabnar, Evgen Benedik, Tina Tušar, Tatjana Robič Pikel, Nataša Fidler Mis, Bojana Bogovič Matijašić, Irena Rogelj
Sound and timely microbial gut colonization completes newborn's healthy metabolic programming and manifests in infant appropriate growth and weight development. Feces, collected at 3, 30, and 90 days after birth from 60 breastfed Slovenian newborns, was submitted to microbial DNA extraction and qPCR quantification of selected gut associated taxa. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to evaluate microbial dynamics with respect to infant demographic, environmental, clinical characteristics and first year growth data...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890156/the-microbiota-influences-cell-death-and-microglial-colonization-in-the-perinatal-mouse-brain
#16
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Morgan Mosley, Arlene J George, Lamiyah F Mussaji, Evan F Fullerton, Elara M Ruszkowski, Andrew J Jacobs, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing, Nancy G Forger
The mammalian fetus develops in a largely sterile environment, and direct exposure to a complex microbiota does not occur until birth. We took advantage of this to examine the effect of the microbiota on brain development during the first few days of life. The expression of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, developmental cell death, and microglial colonization in the brain were compared between newborn conventionally colonized mice and mice born in sterile, germ-free (GF) conditions. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α was markedly suppressed in GF newborns...
January 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877893/randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-impact-of-early-life-intervention-with-bifidobacteria-on-the-healthy-infant-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome
#17
Monika Bazanella, Tanja V Maier, Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Marianna Lucio, Maria X Maldonado-Gòmez, Chloe Autran, Jens Walter, Lars Bode, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Dirk Haller
Background: Early-life colonization of the intestinal tract is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors. The impact of probiotic-supplemented infant formula on the composition and function of the infant gut microbiota is not well defined.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life.Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of newborn infants assigned to a standard whey-based formula containing a total of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, B...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865734/paneth-cell-defects-induce-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-mice-and-promote-visceral-hypersensitivity
#18
Ambre Riba, Maïwenn Olier, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé, Corinne Lencina, Valérie Bacquié, Cherryl Harkat, Marion Gillet, Marine Baron, Caroline Sommer, Virginie Mallet, Christel Salvador-Cartier, Fabrice Laurent, Vassilia Théodorou, Sandrine Ménard
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Separation of newborn rats from their mothers induces visceral hypersensitivity and impaired epithelial secretory cell lineages when they are adults. Little is known about the mechanisms by which maternal separation causes visceral hypersensitivity or its relationship with defects in epithelial secretory cell lineages. METHODS: We performed studies with C3H/HeN mice separated from their mothers as newborns and mice genetically engineered (Sox9(flox/flox)-vil-cre on C57BL/6 background) to have deficiencies in Paneth cells...
August 30, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837128/unveiling-bifidobacterial-biogeography-across-the-mammalian-branch-of-the-tree-of-life
#19
Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele A Lugli, Kieran James, Sabrina Duranti, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Maria C Ossiprandi, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Internally transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA profiling is a novel tool for detailed analysis of microbial populations at low taxonomic ranks. Here we exploited this approach to explore species-level biogeography of the Bifidobacterium genus across 291 adult mammals. These include humans and 13 other primates, domesticated animals, such as dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, horses and pigs, and 46 additional species. The collected profiles revealed the presence of 89 putative novel bifidobacterial taxa in addition to 45 previously described species...
August 22, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823095/methanobrevibacter-smithii-a-methanogen-consistently-colonising-the-newborn-stomach
#20
G Grine, M A Boualam, M Drancourt
Methanobrevibacter smithii is the main human methanogen almost always found in the digestive tract of adults. Yet, the age at which M. smithii establishes itself as part of the developing intestinal microflora remains unknown. In order to gain insight into this, we developed a polyphasic approach, including microscopic observation by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing detection, identification and culture, to isolate and genotype M. smithii in one-day-old newborns' gastric juice specimens...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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