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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772287/probiotics-and-nutraceuticals-as-a-new-frontier-in-obesity-prevention-and-management
#1
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n=15, in each)...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748625/sea-lions-develop-human-like-vernix-caseosa-delivering-branched-fats-and-squalene-to-the-gi-tract
#2
Dong Hao Wang, Rinat Ran-Ressler, Judy St Leger, Erika Nilson, Lauren Palmer, Richard Collins, J Thomas Brenna
Vernix caseosa, the white waxy coating found on newborn human skin, is thought to be a uniquely human substance. Its signature characteristic is exceptional richness in saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and squalene. Vernix particles sloughed from the skin suspended in amniotic fluid are swallowed by the human fetus, depositing BCFA/squalene throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby establishing a unique microbial niche that influences development of nascent microbiota. Here we show that late-term California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) fetuses have true vernix caseosa, delivering BCFA and squalene to the fetal GI tract thereby recapitulating the human fetal gut microbial niche...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715493/spleen-development-is-modulated-by-neonatal-gut-microbiota
#3
M Manuela Rosado, Alaitz Aranburu, Marco Scarsella, Simona Cascioli, Ezio Giorda, Federica Del Chierico, Stefano Levi Mortera, Eva Piano Mortari, Stefania Petrini, Lorenza Putignani, Rita Carsetti
The full development of the mammalian immune system occurs after birth upon exposure to non self-antigens. The gut is the first site of bacterial colonization where it is crucial to create the appropriate microenvironment able to balance effector or tolerogenic responses to external stimuli. It is a well-established fact that at mucosal sites bacteria play a key role in developing the immune system but we ignore how colonising bacteria impact the maturation of the spleen. Here we addressed this issue. Taking advantage of the fact that milk SIgA regulates bacterial colonization of the newborn intestine, we generated immunocompetent mice born either from IgA pro-efficient or IgA deficient females...
April 28, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695286/a-microorganisms-journey-between-plant-generations
#4
Nathan Vannier, Cendrine Mony, Anne-Kristel Bittebiere, Sophie Michon-Coudouel, Marine Biget, Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse
BACKGROUND: Plants are colonized by a great diversity of microorganisms which form a microbiota and perform additional functions for their host. This microbiota can thus be considered a toolbox enabling plants to buffer local environmental changes, with a positive influence on plant fitness. In this context, the transmission of the microbiota to the progeny represent a way to ensure the presence of beneficial symbionts within the habitat. Examples of such transmission have been mainly described for seed transmission and concern a few pathogenic microorganisms...
April 26, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684056/bifidobacteria-isolated-from-vaginal-and-gut-microbiomes-are-indistinguishable-by-comparative-genomics
#5
Aline C Freitas, Janet E Hill
Bifidobacteria colonize the human gastrointestinal tract, vagina, oral cavity and breast milk. They influence human physiology and nutrition through health-promoting effects, play an important role as primary colonizers of the newborn gut, and contribute to vaginal microbiome homeostasis by producing lactic acid. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bifidobacteria are transmitted from mother to infant remains in discussion. Moreover, studies have suggested that Bifidobacterium spp. have specializations for gut colonization, but comparisons of strains of the same bifidobacteria species from different body sites are lacking...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672211/increased-prevalence-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-infants-at-risk-of-developing-celiac-disease-the-proficel-study
#6
Marta Olivares, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Giada de Palma, Amalia Capilla, Esther Nova, Gemma Castillejo, Vicente Varea, Ascensión Marcos, José Antonio Garrote, Isabel Polanco, Ester Donat, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen Calvo, Luis Ortigosa, Francesc Palau, Yolanda Sanz
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors, whose interaction influences disease risk. The intestinal microbiota, including viruses and bacteria, could play a role in the pathological process leading to gluten intolerance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of pathogens in the intestinal microbiota of infants at familial risk of developing CD. We included 127 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative with CD. Infants were classified according to milk-feeding practice (breastfeeding or formula feeding) and HLA-DQ genotype (low, intermediate or high genetic risk)...
April 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660072/bacterial-communication-between-lactobacillus-spp-isolated-from-poultry-in-the-inhibition-of-salmonella-heidelberg-proof-of-concept
#7
Adriano Sakai Okamoto, Raphael Lucio Andreatti Filho, Elisane Lenita Milbradt, Ana Carolina Izidoro Moraes, Igor Henrique Bastos Vellano, Priscylla Tatiana Chalfun Guimarães-Okamoto
Bacterial communication has become an increasingly studied topic aiming at the discovery of new products to aid the treatment of diseases for which conventional options do not work. The production of safe foods, free of pathogens, has been receiving increasing attention due to market demands for food products of high quality and free of residues. This study assessed the communication between Lactobacillus spp. during the in vitro inhibition of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) and the impact an autoinducer produced by a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum has on communication in the normal microbiota and inhibiting SH in newborn chicks...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642622/colibactin-more-than-a-new-bacterial-toxin
#8
REVIEW
Tiphanie Faïs, Julien Delmas, Nicolas Barnich, Richard Bonnet, Guillaume Dalmasso
Cyclomodulins are bacterial toxins that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. A new cyclomodulin called colibactin, which is synthetized by the pks genomic island, was discovered in 2006. Despite many efforts, colibactin has not yet been purified, and its structure remains elusive. Interestingly, the pks island is found in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ) isolated from different origins, including from intestinal microbiota, septicaemia, newborn meningitis, and urinary tract infections...
April 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610555/effect-of-prenatal-administration-of-low-dose-antibiotics-on-gut-microbiota-and-body-fat-composition-of-newborn-mice
#9
Ayumi Yoshimoto, Takashi Uebanso, Mutsumi Nakahashi, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
Several environmental factors during the prenatal period transgenerationally affect the health of newborns in later life. Because low-dose antibiotics have been used for promoting the growth of crops and livestock in agriculture, humans may have ingested residual antibiotics for several decades. However, the effect of prenatal administration of low-dose antibiotics on newborns' health in later life is unclear. In the present study, we found that prenatal treatment of murine mothers with low-dose antibiotics increased the abundance of bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes and the genera Clostridium IV and XIVa in feces from pups...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564121/effects-of-dietary-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-supplementation-on-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-inflammatory-response-and-microbiota-of-intra-uterine-growth-retarded-weanling-piglets
#10
Yue Li, Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Zhixiong Ying, Yueping Chen, Lili Zhang, Zhaoxin Lu, Tian Wang
Background: The focus of recent research has been directed toward the probiotic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) on the gut health of animals. However, little is known about BA's effects on piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of BA supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, inflammatory response, and microbiota of IUGR piglets. Methods: Eighteen litters of newborn piglets were selected at birth, with one normal birth weight (NBW) and two IUGR piglets in each litter (i...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550235/the-effect-of-early-limited-formula-on-breastfeeding-readmission-and-intestinal-microbiota-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Valerie J Flaherman, Nicole R Narayan, Dennis Hartigan-O'Connor, Michael D Cabana, Charles E McCulloch, Ian M Paul
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether using 10 mL formula after each breastfeeding before copious maternal milk production affects breastfeeding duration, readmission, and intestinal microbiota through 1 month of age. STUDY DESIGN: In this randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 164 exclusively breastfeeding newborns, 24-72 hours old, whose weight loss was ≥75th percentile for age, and whose mothers had not yet begun mature milk production. Enrolled newborns were assigned randomly to either supplement breastfeeding with early limited formula (ELF), 10 mL of formula after each breastfeeding stopped at the onset of copious maternal milk production (intervention), or to continue exclusive breastfeeding (control)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538354/maternal-influence-on-the-fetal-microbiome-in-a-population-based-study-of-the-first-pass-meconium
#12
Terhi Tapiainen, Niko Paalanne, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Riikola M, Katja Korpela, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Tuula Kaukola, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko
BACKGROUND: Meconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors. METHODS: We recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to characterize the microbiomes of the first-pass meconium samples (N=212)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502386/functional-nutrients-in-infants-born-by-vaginal-delivery-or-cesarean-section
#13
Gianluca Lista, Fabio Meneghin, Ilia Bresesti, Francesca Castoldi
The development of a proper neonatal microbiota is of great importance, especially for the effects that dysbiosis has in acute and chronic diseases' onset. The microbiota, particularly the intestinal one, plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the host, preventing colonization by pathogenic bacteria and significantly influencing the development and maturation of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal immunity. Several factors may interfere with the physiological development of microbiota, such as diseases during pregnancy, type of delivery, maternal nutrition, type of neonatal feeding, use of antibiotics, exposition to hospital environment (e...
December 22, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459704/initial-meconium-microbiome-in-chinese-neonates-delivered-naturally-or-by-cesarean-section
#14
Yi-Chao Shi, He Guo, Jing Chen, Gang Sun, Rong-Rong Ren, Ming-Zhou Guo, Li-Hua Peng, Yun-Sheng Yang
Previous studies have revealed significant differences in microbiome compositions between infants delivered via cesarean section (C-section) and natural vaginal birth. However, the importance of the delivery mode in the first days of life remains unclear. Importantly, this stage is minimally affected by infant feeding. Here, we used a metagenomic sequencing technique to characterize the meconium microbiome from the feces of a Chinese cohort of vaginally and C-section-delivered infants, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) newborns, during the first 24 h after birth...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458413/gut-microbiota-trajectory-in-early-life-may-predict-development-of-celiac-disease
#15
Marta Olivares, Alan W Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, Yolanda Sanz
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease (CD) onset in infants at familial risk of developing the disease. METHODS: A nested case-control study was carried out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified CD. The present study includes cases of CD (n = 10) and the best-matched controls (n = 10) who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up...
February 20, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390957/streptococcus-agalactiae-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitors-use-in-a-9-month-old-infant-a-case-report
#16
Victoria Bîrluţiu, Codruța Mihaela Luca, Rareș-Mircea Bîrluțiu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) is recognized as the etiologic agent of newborn and infant meningitis, aged up to 90 days, starting from the colonization of the maternal genital or gastrointestinal tract, but it is rarely responsible for meningitis in old infants. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 9 month-old infant diagnosed with S. agalactiae meningoencephalitis associated with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)...
February 1, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365082/early-microbial-colonization-affects-dna-methylation-of-genes-related-to-intestinal-immunity-and-metabolism-in-preterm-pigs
#17
Xiaoyu Pan, Desheng Gong, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Xinxin Zhang, Qi Hu, Hanlin Lu, Merete Fredholm, Per T Sangild, Fei Gao
Epigenetic regulation may play an important role in mediating microbe-host interactions and adaptation of intestinal gene expression to bacterial colonization just after birth. This is particularly important after preterm birth because the immature intestine is hypersensitive to invading bacteria. We compared the intestinal DNA methylome and microbiome between conventional (CON) and antibiotics-treated (AB) preterm pigs, used as a model for preterm infants. Oral AB treatment reduced bacterial density (∼100-fold), diversity and fermentation, improved the resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and changed the genome-wide DNA methylation in the distal small intestine...
January 19, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333864/non-digestible-carbohydrates-in-infant-formula-as-substitution-for-human-milk-oligosaccharide-functions-effects-on-microbiota-and-gut-maturation
#18
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#19
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325007/rifampicin-treatment-of-blattella-germanica-evidences-a-fecal-transmission-route-of-their-gut-microbiota
#20
Tania Rosas, Carlos García-Ferris, Rebeca Domínguez-Santos, Pablo Llop, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya
Eukaryotes have established symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, which enables them to accomplish functions that they cannot perform alone. In the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, the obligate endosymbiont Blattabacterium coexists with a rich gut microbiota. The transmission of Blattabacterium is vertical, but little is known about how the gut microbiota colonizes newborn individuals. In this study, we treated B. germanica populations with rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, during two generations and analyzed gut bacterial composition and the Blattabacterium load in control and rifampicin-treated populations...
February 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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