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microbiota newborn

Terhi Tapiainen, Niko Paalanne, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Riikola M, Katja Korpela, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Tuula Kaukola, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko
BACKGROUND: Meconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors. METHODS: We recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to characterize the microbiomes of the first-pass meconium samples (N=212)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Gianluca Lista, Fabio Meneghin, Ilia Bresesti, Francesca Castoldi
The development of a proper neonatal microbiota is of great importance, especially for the effects that dysbiosis has in acute and chronic diseases' onset. The microbiota, particularly the intestinal one, plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the host, preventing colonization by pathogenic bacteria and significantly influencing the development and maturation of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal immunity. Several factors may interfere with the physiological development of microbiota, such as diseases during pregnancy, type of delivery, maternal nutrition, type of neonatal feeding, use of antibiotics, exposition to hospital environment (e...
December 22, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Yi-Chao Shi, He Guo, Jing Chen, Gang Sun, Rong-Rong Ren, Ming-Zhou Guo, Li-Hua Peng, Yun-Sheng Yang
Previous studies have revealed significant differences in microbiome compositions between infants delivered via cesarean section (C-section) and natural vaginal birth. However, the importance of the delivery mode in the first days of life remains unclear. Importantly, this stage is minimally affected by infant feeding. Here, we used a metagenomic sequencing technique to characterize the meconium microbiome from the feces of a Chinese cohort of vaginally and C-section-delivered infants, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) newborns, during the first 24 h after birth...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marta Olivares, Alan W Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, Yolanda Sanz
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease (CD) onset in infants at familial risk of developing the disease. METHODS: A nested case-control study was carried out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified CD. The present study includes cases of CD (n = 10) and the best-matched controls (n = 10) who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up...
February 20, 2018: Microbiome
Victoria Bîrluţiu, Codruța Mihaela Luca, Rareș-Mircea Bîrluțiu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) is recognized as the etiologic agent of newborn and infant meningitis, aged up to 90 days, starting from the colonization of the maternal genital or gastrointestinal tract, but it is rarely responsible for meningitis in old infants. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 9 month-old infant diagnosed with S. agalactiae meningoencephalitis associated with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)...
February 1, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Xiaoyu Pan, Desheng Gong, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Xinxin Zhang, Qi Hu, Hanlin Lu, Merete Fredholm, Per T Sangild, Fei Gao
Epigenetic regulation may play an important role in mediating microbe-host interactions and adaptation of intestinal gene expression to bacterial colonization just after birth. This is particularly important after preterm birth because the immature intestine is hypersensitive to invading bacteria. We compared the intestinal DNA methylome and microbiome between conventional (CON) and antibiotics-treated (AB) preterm pigs, used as a model for preterm infants. Oral AB treatment reduced bacterial density (∼100-fold), diversity and fermentation, improved the resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and changed the genome-wide DNA methylation in the distal small intestine...
January 19, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Tania Rosas, Carlos García-Ferris, Rebeca Domínguez-Santos, Pablo Llop, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya
Eukaryotes have established symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, which enables them to accomplish functions that they cannot perform alone. In the German cockroach Blattella germanica, the obligate endosymbiont Blattabacterium coexists with a rich gut microbiota. The transmission of Blattabacterium is vertical but little is known about how the gut microbiota colonizes newborn individuals. In this study, we treated B. germanica populations with rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, during two generations and analyzed gut bacterial composition and the Blattabacterium load in control and rifampicin-treated populations...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Ekaterina Avershina, Silje Slangsvold, Melanie Rae Simpson, Ola Storrø, Roar Johnsen, Torbjørn Øien, Knut Rudi
Vaginal microbiota is an important early source of bacterial colonization for newborns. However, only a few small studies have investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota during labor. In this work, we analyzed vaginal swabs collected at 36 weeks gestation and at the onset of labor from 256 women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled study of probiotic supplementation for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in offspring. Although individuals' vaginal microbiota was stable over time, several bacterial families, which are characteristic of mixed community state type (CST) IV, were overrepresented in vaginal swabs sampled at labor...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xue Chen, Jumei Xu, Erdou Ren, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The early development of gut microbiota plays a fundamental role in host health; so far, the main origins of the first colonization in newborn piglets are largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the early development of gut microbiota in newborn piglets during lactation and their co-occurrence with microbes in the maternal and surrounding environments by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the microbial richness and diversity in piglets' feces (PF) significantly increased from birth to weaning (21 d)...
February 2018: Anaerobe
Noel T Mueller, Hakdong Shin, Aline Pizoni, Isabel C Werlang, Ursula Matte, Marcelo Z Goldani, Helena A S Goldani, Maria G Dominguez-Bello
Cesarean (C-section) delivery, recently shown to cause excess weight gain in mice, perturbs human neonatal gut microbiota development due to the lack of natural mother-to-newborn transfer of microbes. Neonates excrete first the in-utero intestinal content (referred to as meconium) hours after birth, followed by intestinal contents reflective of extra-uterine exposure (referred to as transition stool) 2 to 3 days after birth. It is not clear when the effect of C-section on the neonatal gut microbiota emerges...
December 4, 2017: Genes
Pan Zhou, Yang Zhao, Pan Zhang, Yan Li, Taotao Gui, Jun Wang, Chao Jin, Lianqiang Che, Jian Li, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
General consumption of "western diet" characterized by high refined carbohydrates, fat and energy intake has resulted in a global obesity epidemics and related metabolic disturbance even for pregnant women. Pregnancy process is accompanied by substantial hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes during which gut microbiota is also remarkably remodeled. Dietary fiber has been demonstrated to have a striking role in shifting the microbial composition so as to improve host metabolism and health in non-pregnant individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Debi M Thomas, Brandon Bell, Stephanie Papillon, Patrick Delaplain, Joanna Lim, Jamie Golden, Jordan Bowling, Jin Wang, Larry Wang, Anatoly V Grishin, Henri R Ford
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants; yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of intestinal bacteria in protection against NEC, we assessed the ability of naturally occurring intestinal colonizer E. coli EC25 to influence composition of intestinal microbiota and NEC pathology in the neonatal rat model. Experimental NEC was induced in neonatal rats by formula feeding/hypoxia, and graded histologically. Bacterial populations were characterized by plating on blood agar, scoring colony classes, and identifying each class by sequencing 16S rDNA...
2017: PloS One
Priscila T Dobbler, Renato S Procianoy, Volker Mai, Rita C Silveira, Andréa L Corso, Bruna S Rojas, Luiz F W Roesch
Despite increased efforts, the diverse etiologies of Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) have remained largely elusive. Clinical predictors of NEC remain ill-defined and currently lack sufficient specificity. The development of a thorough understanding of initial gut microbiota colonization pattern in preterm infants might help to improve early detection or prediction of NEC and its associated morbidities. Here we compared the fecal microbiota successions, microbial diversity, abundance and structure of newborns that developed NEC with preterm controls...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Abdullah H Baqui, Rasheda Khanam, Mohammad Sayedur Rahman, Aziz Ahmed, Hasna Hena Rahman, Mamun Ibne Moin, Salahuddin Ahmed, Fyezah Jehan, Imran Nisar, Atiya Hussain, Muhammad Ilyas, Aneeta Hotwani, Muhammad Sajid, Shahida Qureshi, Anita Zaidi, Sunil Sazawal, Said M Ali, Saikat Deb, Mohammed Hamad Juma, Usha Dhingra, Arup Dutta, Shaali Makame Ame, Caroline Hayward, Igor Rudan, Mike Zangenberg, Donna Russell, Sachiyo Yoshida, Ozren Polašek, Alexander Manu, Rajiv Bahl
Objectives: The AMANHI study aims to seek for biomarkers as predictors of important pregnancy-related outcomes, and establish a biobank in developing countries for future research as new methods and technologies become available. Methods: AMANHI is using harmonised protocols to enrol 3000 women in early pregnancies (8-19 weeks of gestation) for population-based follow-up in pregnancy up to 42 days postpartum in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania, with collection taking place between August 2014 and June 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
Jia Zheng, Xin-Hua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Li-Li Mao, Miao Yu, Jian-Ping Xu, Tong Wang
Substantial studies indicated that fetal macrosomia was associated with detrimental pregnancy outcomes, and increased susceptibility to metabolic diseases in later life. However, investigations into the association between placental microbiota and fetal macrosomia are limited. We aimed to profile the placental microbiota of fetal macrosomia and study whether they relate to clinical characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from fetal macrosomias and newborns with normal birth weight. The clinical characteristics, umbilical cord blood parameters were measured, and placental microbiota were sequenced and further analysed...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Enzo Grossi, Lorenzo Drago
The human milk is fundamental for a correct development of newborns, as it is a source not only of vitamins and nutrients, but also of commensal bacteria. The microbiota associated to the human breast milk contributes to create the "initial" intestinal microbiota of infants, having also a pivotal role in modulating and influencing the newborns' immune system. Indeed, the transient gut microbiota is responsible for the initial change from an intrauterine Th2 prevailing response to a Th1/Th2 balanced one. Bacteria located in both colostrum and mature milk can stimulate the anti-inflammatory response, by stimulating the production of specific cytokines, reducing the risk of developing a broad range of inflammatory diseases and preventing the expression of immune-mediated pathologies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuly López, Elena Parra, Virginio Cepas, Isabel Sanfeliú, Teresa Juncosa, Antonia Andreu, Mariona Xercavins, Josefa Pérez, Sergi Sanz, Andrea Vergara, Jordi Bosch, Sara Maria Soto
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococci (GBS), is the main aetiological agent of early neonatal sepsis in developed countries. This microorganism belongs to the gastrointestinal tract microbiota wherefrom it can colonize the vagina and be vertically transmitted to the child either before or at birth, and subsequently cause infection in the newborn. Approximately, 50% of newborns born to women with GBS become colonized, with 1-2% developing early neonatal infection if no preventive intervention is performed...
October 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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