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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416607/human-milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-growth-of-group-b-streptococcus
#1
Ann E Lin, Chloe A Autran, Alexandra Szyszka, Tamara Escajadillo, Mia Huang, Kamil Godula, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Amanda L Lewis, Kelly S Doran, Victor Nizet, Lars Bode
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide development of the infant's immune system and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce risk of infection. In the course of our studies of HMO-microbial interactions, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel HMO property to directly inhibit the growth of GBS, independent of host immunity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363939/nasopharyngeal-microbiome-in-premature-infants-and-stability-during-rhinovirus-infection
#2
Geovanny F Perez, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Natalia Isaza, Mary C Rose, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley, Gustavo Nino
RATIONALE: The nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of newborns and infants plays a key role in modulating airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms during viral infections. Premature (PM) birth modifies the early NP environment and is a major risk factor for severe viral respiratory infections. However, it is currently unknown if the NP microbiota of PM infants is altered relative to full-term (FT) individuals. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the NP microbiota differences in preterm and FT infants during rhinovirus (RV) infection...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361981/patterns-in-the-skin-microbiota-differ-in-children-and-teenagers-between-rural-and-urban-environments
#3
Jenni Lehtimäki, Antti Karkman, Tiina Laatikainen, Laura Paalanen, Leena von Hertzen, Tari Haahtela, Ilkka Hanski, Lasse Ruokolainen
The composition of human microbiota is affected by a multitude of factors. Understanding the dynamics of our microbial communities is important for promoting human health because microbiota has a crucial role in the development of inflammatory diseases, such as allergies. We have studied the skin microbiota of both arms in 275 Finnish children of few months old to teenagers living in contrasting environments. We show that while age is a major factor affecting skin microbial composition, the living environment also discriminates the skin microbiota of rural and urban children...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#4
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296565/maternal-microbiota-and-antibodies-as-advocates-of-neonatal-health
#5
Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Tobias Fuhrer, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero
Mammalian body surfaces are inhabited by vast numbers of microbes, the commensal microbiota, which help the host to digest food, provide nutrients, and mature its immune system. For a long time, postnatal colonization was believed to be the main stimulus for microbial-induced immune development. Using a model of reversible colonization of germ-free mice during gestation, we recently showed that the microbial shaping of the neonatal immune system begins even before birth through molecular signals derived from the microbiota of the mother...
March 1, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292979/the-food-contaminant-deoxynivalenol-exacerbates-the-genotoxicity-of-gut-microbiota
#6
Delphine Payros, Ulrich Dobrindt, Patricia Martin, Thomas Secher, Ana Paula F L Bracarense, Michèle Boury, Joelle Laffitte, Philippe Pinton, Eric Oswald, Isabelle P Oswald
An increasing number of human beings from developed countries are colonized by Escherichia coli strains producing colibactin, a genotoxin suspected to be associated with the development of colorectal cancers. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent mycotoxin that contaminates staple food-especially cereal products-in Europe and North America. This study investigates the effect of the food contaminant DON on the genotoxicity of the E. coli strains producing colibactin. In vitro, intestinal epithelial cells were coexposed to DON and E...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288222/-the-benefits-of-breastfeeding-and-associated-risks-of-replacement-with-baby-formulas
#7
Paulina Brahm, Verónica Valdés
Breastfeeding is the nourishment designed by nature for the newborn and the infant; however its prevalence is nowadays not optimal. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding for children and society, and to elaborate the risks associated with the replacement of lactation with baby formulas. Breastfeeding is a protective factor for several infectious, atopic, and cardiovascular diseases as well as for leukaemia, necrotising enterocolitis, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228752/intestinal-microbiota-and-weight-gain-in-preterm-neonates
#8
Silvia Arboleya, Pablo Martinez-Camblor, Gonzalo Solís, Marta Suárez, Nuria Fernández, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Miguel Gueimonde
The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207425/evidence-based-interventions-for-improvement-of-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-low-income-settings-what-s-new
#9
Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal and child malnutrition continues to disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries, contributing to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suboptimal development. This article reviews evidence from recent systematic reviews and studies on the effectiveness of interventions to improve nutritional status in these especially vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Macronutrients provided to expectant mothers in the form of balanced protein energy supplements can improve fetal growth and birth outcomes, and new research suggests that lipid nutrient supplements can reduce both stunting and wasting in newborns...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199379/the-effects-of-amoxicillin-treatment-of-newborn-piglets-on-the-prevalence-of-hernias-and-abscesses-growth-and-ampicillin-resistance-of-intestinal-coliform-bacteria-in-weaned-pigs
#10
Jinhyeon Yun, Satu Olkkola, Marja-Liisa Hänninen, Claudio Oliviero, Mari Heinonen
This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182762/longitudinal-change-of-selected-human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-association-to-infants-growth-an-observatory-single-center-longitudinal-cohort-study
#11
Norbert Sprenger, Le Ye Lee, Carlos Antonio De Castro, Philippe Steenhout, Sagar K Thakkar
BACKGROUND: Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2'Fucosyllactose (2'FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2'FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178310/diversity-and-composition-of-vaginal-microbiota-of-pregnant-women-at-risk-for-transmitting-group-b-streptococcus-treated-with-intrapartum-penicillin
#12
Luiz Fernando Wurdig Roesch, Rita C Silveira, Andréa L Corso, Priscila Thiago Dobbler, Volker Mai, Bruna S Rojas, Álvaro M Laureano, Renato S Procianoy
BACKGROUND: Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. METHODS: Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098228/unique-bacteria-community-composition-and-co-occurrence-in-the-milk-of-different-ruminants
#13
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Yifeng Yang, Huazhe Si, Guangyu Li
Lactation provides the singular source of nourishment to the offspring of mammals. This nutrition source also contains a diverse microbiota affecting the development and health of the newborn. Here, we examined the milk microbiota in water deer (Hydropotes inermis, the most primitive member of the family Cervidae), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, the oldest semi-domesticated cervid), and the dairy goat (Capra aegagrus, member of the family Bovidae), to determine if common milk microbiota species were present across all three ruminant species...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079055/intestinal-microbiota-as-a-tetrahydrobiopterin-exogenous-source-in-hph-1-mice
#14
Jaques Belik, Yulia Shifrin, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Jingyi Pan, Michelle C Daigneault, Emma Allen-Vercoe
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of a number of regulatory enzymes. Although there are no known BH4 exogenous sources, the tissue content of this biopterin increases with age in GTP cyclohydrolase 1-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia-1 (hph-1) mice. Since certain bacteria are known to generate BH4, we hypothesize that generation of this biopterin by the intestinal microbiota contributes to its tissue increase in hph-1 adult mice. The goal of this study was to comparatively evaluate hph-1 mice and wild-type C57Bl/6 controls for the presence of intestinal BH4-producing bacteria...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070087/postnatal-changes-in-the-relative-abundance-of-intestinal-lactobacillus-spp-in-newborn-calves
#15
Tadashi Takino, Yuko Kato-Mori, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Tetsuya Iida, Katsuro Hagiwara
The intestinal microbiota of newborn calves changes during the early postnatal period and influences their health and immune function. We studied the compositional changes in the intestinal microbiome of newborn calves during the first week after birth by metagenomic analysis. In feces from newborn calves, we identified 4 bacterial phyla, namely, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae significantly increased from day 1 to day 7. We evaluated Lactobacillus spp...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983720/microbiota-network-and-mathematic-microbe-mutualism-in-colostrum-and-mature-milk-collected-in-two-different-geographic-areas-italy-versus-burundi
#16
Lorenzo Drago, Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Enzo Grossi, Ezio M Padovani, Diego G Peroni
Human milk is essential for the initial development of newborns, as it provides all nutrients and vitamins, such as vitamin D, and represents a great source of commensal bacteria. Here we explore the microbiota network of colostrum and mature milk of Italian and Burundian mothers using the auto contractive map (AutoCM), a new methodology based on artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. We were able to demonstrate the microbiota of human milk to be a dynamic, and complex, ecosystem with different bacterial networks among different populations containing diverse microbial hubs and central nodes, which change during the transition from colostrum to mature milk...
April 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930727/airway-microbiota-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-clinically-well-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Theresa A Laguna, Brandie D Wagner, Cynthia B Williams, Mark J Stevens, Charles E Robertson, Cole W Welchlin, Catherine E Moen, Edith T Zemanick, Jonathan K Harris
BACKGROUND: Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics. METHODS: BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP) culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899809/does-vaginal-delivery-mitigate-or-strengthen-the-intergenerational-association-of-overweight-and-obesity-findings-from-the-boston-birth-cohort
#18
N T Mueller, G Mao, W L Bennet, S K Hourigan, M G Dominguez-Bello, L J Appel, X Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother-child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5 years (range: 2...
April 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898903/intestinal-lactose-and-mineral-concentration-affect-the-microbial-ecophysiology-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-formula-fed-neonatal-piglets
#19
R Pieper, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Hyperprolificacy in modern pig breeds has led to increased use of artificial rearing and formula feeding of neonatal piglets, which may change their intestinal bacterial ecophysiology. Here, newborn piglets ( = 8 per group) were fed a bovine milk-based formula (FO) or allowed to suckle their mothers (sow milk [SM]) for 2 wk, and digesta samples from the stomach, jejunum, and colon were subsequently analyzed for enzyme activities, bacterial metabolites, and 16S rRNA transcripts of bacterial groups by quantitative real-time PCR...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744547/a-mixture-of-milk-and-vegetable-lipids-in-infant-formula-changes-gut-digestion-mucosal-immunity-and-microbiota-composition-in-neonatal-piglets
#20
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
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