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Drugs in emergency

Evelyn Carla Borsari Mauricio, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira Lopes, Ruth Ester Assayag Batista, Meiry Fernanda Pinto Okuno, Cássia Regina Vancini Campanharo
OBJECTIVES: to identify the care measures performed after cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) and to relate them to the neurological status and survival at four moments: within the first 24 hours, at the discharge, six months after discharge, and one year after discharge. METHOD: retrospective, analytical and quantitative study performed at the Emergency Department of a university hospital in São Paulo. Eighty-eight medical records of CRA patients who had a return of spontaneous circulation sustained for more than 20 minutes were included and the post-CRA care measures performed in the first 24 hours were identified, as well as its relationship with survival and neurological status...
July 16, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Steven C Marcus, Richard C Hermann, Sara Wiesel Cullen
OBJECTIVES: The past 20 years have seen the emergence of a national movement to improve hospital-based healthcare safety in the United States. However, much of the foundational work and subsequent research have neglected inpatient psychiatry. The aim of this article was to advance a comprehensive approach for conceptualizing patient safety in inpatient psychiatry as framed by an application of the Institute of Medicine patient safety framework. METHODS: This article develops a framework for characterizing patient safety in hospital-based mental health care...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Javiera Cornejo, Camila Cabezón, Betty San Martín, Lisette Lapierre
Successful treatment of diseases that sicken food-producing animals requires the use of antimicrobials. However, these drugs could result in serious consequences for human, animal, and environmental health. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance requires better communication with consumers to inform them about the risks associated with the use of these drugs, as well as the benefits gained from their rational use. This work studied consumer perceptions about the use of antimicrobials in the production of animal origin foods by questioning 72 consumers in nine focus groups...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex psychiatric condition characterised by craving, compulsive seeking, loss of control of alcohol consumption, as well as the emergence of negative emotional states during withdrawal. Despite the large socioeconomic burden of AUD, therapeutic treatment options lag behind. Areas covered: This review covers pharmacotherapies currently in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of alcohol use disorders listed on We discuss drug therapies that modulate monoamine, GABA/Glutamate, neuropeptide and neuroimmune systems...
July 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Ainhoa Nieto, Virneliz Fernández-Vega, Timothy P Spicer, Emmanuel Sturchler, Pramisha Adhikari, Nicole Kennedy, Sean Mandat, Peter Chase, Louis Scampavia, Thomas Bannister, Peter Hodder, Patricia H McDonald
GPR119 drug discovery efforts in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, were initiated based on its restricted distribution in pancreas and GI tract, and its possible role in glucose homeostasis. While a number of lead series have emerged, the pharmacological endpoints they provide have not been clear. In particular, many lead series have demonstrated loss of efficacy and significant toxic side effects. Thus, we sought to identify novel, potent, positive modulators of GPR119...
July 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Michael P Veve, Jamie L Wagner
The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance has led to a global public health emergency requiring development of new antimicrobial classes. Lefamulin (formally BC-3781) is a novel pleuromutilin antibiotic currently undergoing Food and Drug Administration review for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) as intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) formulations. While pleuromutilin antibiotics were first developed in the 1950s, lefamulin is the first to be used for systemic treatment of bacterial infections in humans...
July 18, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Ching-Te Kuo, Siang-Rong Lu, Wei-Min Chen, Jong-Yueh Wang, Si-Chen Lee, Hsiu-Hao Chang, Andrew M Wo, Benjamin P C Chen, Hsinyu Lee
Non-planar microstructure-based tissue culture devices have emerged as powerful tools to mimic in vivo physiological microenvironments in a wide range of medical applications. Here we report a spontaneous aqueous molding approach - inspired by Stenocara gracilipes beetles - to rapidly fabricate non-planar microstructure devices for facilitating tissue-based bioassays. The device fabrication is determined from the self-assembled liquid morphology, which is induced by condensation or guided by surface tension...
July 18, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Burkhard Hinz, Robert Ramer
The endocannabinoid system has emerged as a considerable target for the treatment of diverse diseases. In addition to the well-established palliative effects of cannabinoids in cancer therapy, phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoid compounds as well as inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation have attracted attention as possible systemic anticancer drugs. As a matter of fact, accumulating data from preclinical studies suggest cannabinoids elicit effects on different levels of cancer progression, comprising inhibition of proliferation, neovascularisation, invasion and chemoresistance, induction of apoptosis and autophagy as well as enhancement of tumour immune surveillance...
July 17, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jeannette Kadel, Sebastian Bauer, Anke M Hermsen, Ilka Immisch, Lara Kay, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Katja Menzler, Philipp S Reif, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk
BACKGROUND: Emergency treatment with benzodiazepines is indicated in prolonged seizures, seizure clusters and status epilepticus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of emergency medication in adult patients with epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adult epilepsy patients attending the epilepsy outpatient clinics of the university hospitals in Frankfurt and Marburg in 2015 were asked to participate in this questionnaire-based, retrospective survey...
July 17, 2018: CNS Drugs
Thein Swe, Kevin B Kim
Malignant melanoma is generally chemo- and radio-resistant, and patients with advanced melanoma have a poor prognosis. However, with our increased understanding of the checkpoint immune molecules and genetic alterations of melanoma cells, more effective immunotherapy, such as anti CTLA4 antibody and anti PD-1 antibodies, and targeted drug therapy, such as BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors, have been developed, resulting in improved overall survival and quality of life of patients with advanced melanoma. In addition, emerging technologies to develop prognostic and predictive biomarkers for response to systemic therapy could help clinicians make more accurate assessments of the disease and formulate more effective treatment plans...
July 17, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Alison B Rapoport, Leah S Fischer, Scott Santibanez, Susan E Beekmann, Philip M Polgreen, Christopher F Rowley
Background: In the context of the opioid epidemic, injection drug use (IDU)-related infections are an escalating health issue for infectious diseases (ID) physicians in the United States. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods survey of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network between February and April 2017 to evaluate perspectives relating to care of persons who inject drugs (PWID). Topics included the frequency of and management strategies for IDU-related infection, the availability of addiction services, and the evolving role of ID physicians in substance use disorder (SUD) management...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Diana Machado, Miriam Girardini, Miguel Viveiros, Marco Pieroni
The emergence of multi- and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis worldwide poses a great threat to human health and highlight the need to discover and develop new, effective and inexpensive antituberculosis agents. High-throughput screening assays against well-validated drug targets and structure based drug design have been employed to discover new lead compounds. However, the great majority fail to demonstrate any antimycobacterial activity when tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in whole-cell screening assays...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giselle C de Oliveira Santos, Cleydlenne C Vasconcelos, Alberto J O Lopes, Maria do S de Sousa Cartágenes, Allan K D B Filho, Flávia R F do Nascimento, Ricardo M Ramos, Emygdia R R B Pires, Marcelo S de Andrade, Flaviane M G Rocha, Cristina de Andrade Monteiro
The Candida genus comprises opportunistic fungi that can become pathogenic when the immune system of the host fails. Candida albicans is the most important and prevalent species. Polyenes, fluoropyrimidines, echinocandins, and azoles are used as commercial antifungal agents to treat candidiasis. However, the presence of intrinsic and developed resistance against azole antifungals has been extensively documented among several Candida species. The advent of original and re-emergence of classical fungal diseases have occurred as a consequence of the development of the antifungal resistance phenomenon...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amrita Saha, Badri Narayan Acharya, Raj Priya, Nagesh K Tripathi, Ambuj Shrivastava, M Kameswara Rao, Pooja Kesari, Manju Narwal, Shailly Tomar, Sameer S Bhagyawant, Manmohan Parida, Paban Kumar Dash
Chikungunya virus has emerged as one of the most important global arboviral threats over the last decade. Inspite of large scale morbidity, with long lasting polyarthralgia, so far no licensed vaccine or antiviral is available. CHIKV nsP2 protease is crucial for processing of viral nonstructural polypeptide precursor to release enzymes required for viral replication, thus making it a promising drug target. In this study, high cell density cultivation (HCDC) of Escherichia coli in batch process was carried out to produce rCHIKV nsP2pro in a cost-effective manner...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chan Yeong Kim, Muyoung Lee, Keehoon Lee, Sang Sun Yoon, Insuk Lee
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that causes a wide range of infections. Recently, the spread of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has seriously reduced antibiotic treatment options. Anti-virulence strategies, the objective of which is to target the virulence instead of the viability of the pathogen, have become widely accepted as a means of avoiding the emergence of new antibiotic-resistant strains. To increase the number of anti-virulence therapeutic options, it is necessary to identify as many novel virulence-associated genes as possible in MRSA...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pablo Ivan Pereira Ramos, Darío Fernández Do Porto, Esteban Lanzarotti, Ezequiel J Sosa, Germán Burguener, Agustín M Pardo, Cecilia C Klein, Marie-France Sagot, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Ana Cristina Gales, Marcelo Marti, Adrián G Turjanski, Marisa F Nicolás
Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is a globally disseminated opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections. It has been found as the culprit of many infection outbreaks in hospital environments, being particularly aggressive towards newborns and adults under intensive care. Many Kp strains produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, enzymes that promote resistance against antibiotics used to fight these infections. The presence of other resistance determinants leading to multidrug-resistance also limit therapeutic options, and the use of 'last-resort' drugs, such as polymyxins, is not uncommon...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
E Dianne Pulte, Jonathon Vallejo, Donna Przepiorka, Lei Nie, Ann T Farrell, Kirsten B Goldberg, Amy E McKee, Richard Pazdur
On July 11, 2017, the Food and Drug Administration granted approval for blinatumomab for the treatment of relapsed or refractory (R/R) precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Blinatumomab is a bispecific CD19-directed CD3 T-cell engager. The basis for the approval included results from two clinical trials, TOWER and ALCANTARA. TOWER, a randomized trial comparing overall survival in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative R/R ALL receiving blinatumomab versus standard-of-care (SOC) chemotherapy, demonstrated a hazard ratio of 0...
July 17, 2018: Oncologist
Hyunkyu Sang, Jonathan P Hulvey, Robert Green, Hao Xu, Jeongdae Im, Taehyun Chang, Geunhwa Jung
Fungi are known to utilize transcriptional regulation of genes that encode efflux transporters to detoxify xenobiotics; however, to date it is unknown how fungi transcriptionally regulate and coordinate different phases of detoxification system (phase I, modification; phase II, conjugation; and phase III, secretion). Here we present evidence of an evolutionary convergence between the fungal and mammalian lineages, whereby xenobiotic detoxification genes (phase I coding for cytochrome P450 monooxygenases [CYP450s] and phase III coding for ATP-binding cassette [ABC] efflux transporters) are transcriptionally regulated by structurally unrelated proteins...
July 17, 2018: MBio
Yusuke Ito, Alexandra Tauzin, Azaria Remion, Keisuke Ejima, Fabrizio Mammano, Shingo Iwami
HIV-1 mutations rapidly accumulate through genetic recombination events, which require the infection of a single cell by two virions (coinfection). Accumulation of mutations in the viral population may lead to immune escape and high-level drug resistance. The existence of cell subpopulations characterized by different susceptibility to HIV-1 infection has been proposed as an important parameter driving coinfection (Dang et al., 2004). While the mechanism and the quantification of HIV-1 coinfection have been recently investigated by mathematical models, the detailed dynamics of this process during cell-free infection remains elusive...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Gerard Drewes, Stefan Knapp
Chemical probes represent versatile tools to validate disease-modifying targets. However, evaluating the selectivity of chemical probes in complex cellular systems is a major challenge that needs to be addressed to better understand the mode of action of small molecules and the interpretation of their pharmacological effects. Chemoproteomics has emerged as a key technology to characterize the mode of action of pharmacological modulators such as chemical probes and drugs, and these studies have unraveled the cellular targets of many bioactive compounds...
July 12, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
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