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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156410/how-do-we-learn-to-kill-in-volleyball-the-role-of-working-memory-capacity-and-expertise-in-volleyball-motor-learning
#1
Elisa Bisagno, Sergio Morra
This study examines young volleyball players' learning of increasingly complex attack gestures. The main purpose of the study was to examine the predictive role of a cognitive variable, working memory capacity (or "M capacity"), in the acquisition and development of motor skills in a structured sport. Pascual-Leone's theory of constructive operators (TCO) was used as a framework; it defines working memory capacity as the maximum number of schemes that can be simultaneously activated by attentional resources...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154858/visuospatial-function-predicts-one-week-motor-skill-retention-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#2
Jennapher Lingo VanGilder, Caitlin Rose Hengge, Kevin Duff, Sydney Yoshie Schaefer
Motor learning declines with aging, such that older adults retain less motor skill after practice compared to younger adults. However, it remains unclear if these motor learning declines are related to normal cognitive changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine which cognitive domains would best predict the amount of retention on a motor task one week after training in cognitively intact older adults. Twenty-one adults ages 65 to 84 years old were assessed with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, which assesses five cognitive domains (immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention)...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154379/proposed-in-training-electrocardiogram-interpretation-competencies-for-undergraduate-and-postgraduate-trainees
#3
Pavel Antiperovitch, Wojciech Zareba, Jonathan S Steinberg, Ljuba Bacharova, Larisa G Tereshchenko, Jeronimo Farre, Kjell Nikus, Takanori Ikeda, Adrian Baranchuk
Despite its importance in everyday clinical practice, the ability of physicians to interpret electrocardiograms (ECGs) is highly variable. ECG patterns are often misdiagnosed, and electrocardiographic emergencies are frequently missed, leading to adverse patient outcomes. Currently, many medical education programs lack an organized curriculum and competency assessment to ensure trainees master this essential skill. ECG patterns that were previously mentioned in literature were organized into groups from A to D based on their clinical importance and distributed among levels of training...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154128/discrete-circuits-support-generalized-versus-context-specific-vocal-learning-in-the-songbird
#4
Lucas Y Tian, Michael S Brainard
Motor skills depend on the reuse of individual gestures in multiple sequential contexts (e.g., a single phoneme in different words). Yet optimal performance requires that a given gesture be modified appropriately depending on the sequence in which it occurs. To investigate the neural architecture underlying such context-dependent modifications, we studied Bengalese finch song, which, like speech, consists of variable sequences of "syllables." We found that when birds are instructed to modify a syllable in one sequential context, learning generalizes across contexts; however, if unique instruction is provided in different contexts, learning is specific for each context...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154033/measuring-preschool-learning-engagement-in-the-laboratory
#5
Simone E Halliday, Susan D Calkins, Esther M Leerkes
Learning engagement is a critical factor for academic achievement and successful school transitioning. However, current methods of assessing learning engagement in young children are limited to teacher report or classroom observation, which may limit the types of research questions one could assess about this construct. The current study investigated the validity of a novel assessment designed to measure behavioral learning engagement among young children in a standardized laboratory setting and examined how learning engagement in the laboratory relates to future classroom adjustment...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153453/face-to-face-instruction-combined-with-online-resources-improves-retention-of-clinical-skills-among-undergraduate-nursing-students
#6
Victoria R Terry, Peter C Terry, Clint Moloney, Les Bowtell
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that online resources used to develop clinical skills among students in the healthcare professions can produce equivalent learning outcomes to traditional face-to-face training methods. Whether clinical competence is retained equally well for online and face-to-face training methods is not yet established. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to compare retention of competence in using an IV infusion pump among nursing students trained in its use using three different protocols...
November 9, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153352/-choosing-wisely-in-medical-education
#7
Milena Goldmann, Angelina-Charline Middeke, Nikolai Schuelper, Terese Dehl, Tobias Raupach
Choosing Wisely recommendations address situations where physicians will have to make decisions about further diagnostic and therapeutic steps. Undergraduate medical education needs to equip students with the foundations on which clinical reasoning skills can be acquired and fostered throughout their clinical career. Teaching these skills usually involves patients (e.g., bedside teaching, electives, clinical attachments) but it can also be delivered in the format of formalised small-group, case-based learning...
November 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152853/development-of-the-self-regulated-learning-scale-in-clinical-nursing-practice-for-nursing-students-consideration-of-its-reliability-and-validity
#8
Satoko Iyama, Hitomi Maeda
AIM: This study aimed to develop the Self-Regulated Learning Scale in Clinical Nursing Practice (SRLS-CNP) for the assessment of nursing students and to validate it. METHODS: Questionnaires, including the SRLS-CNP item pool, were sent to 766 students in the second-to-fourth grades of nursing universities in Japan. The analysis involved an exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's α, confirmatory factor analysis, and calculation of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient...
November 20, 2017: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152687/utility-of-low-fidelity-manikins-for-learning-high-quality-chest-compressions
#9
Meenakshi Girish, Alka Rawekar, Sujo Jose, Umesh Chaudhari, Girish Nanoti
OBJECTIVES: Primarily, to measure the adequacy of chest compression depth after training on low fidelity manikins and secondarily to assess the comparative experience of the learners on high fidelity and low fidelity simulators. METHODS: An observational cohort study in which seventy-two first year postgraduate students underwent a Basic Life Support (BLS) workshop conducted by AHA accredited BLS trainers and they were then required to perform on a high fidelity manikin to objectively record the quality of their performance...
November 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151360/balancing-the-playing-field-collaborative-gaming-for-physical-training
#10
Michael Mace, Nawal Kinany, Paul Rinne, Anthony Rayner, Paul Bentley, Etienne Burdet
BACKGROUND: Multiplayer video games promoting exercise-based rehabilitation may facilitate motor learning, by increasing motivation through social interaction. However, a major design challenge is to enable meaningful inter-subject interaction, whilst allowing for significant skill differences between players. We present a novel motor-training paradigm that allows real-time collaboration and performance enhancement, across a wide range of inter-subject skill mismatches, including disabled vs...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150816/cognitive-diagnosis-for-small-educational-programs-the-general-nonparametric-classification-method
#11
Chia-Yi Chiu, Yan Sun, Yanhong Bian
The focus of cognitive diagnosis (CD) is on evaluating an examinee's strengths and weaknesses in terms of cognitive skills learned and skills that need study. Current methods for fitting CD models (CDMs) work well for large-scale assessments, where the data of hundreds or thousands of examinees are available. However, the development of CD-based assessment tools that can be used in small-scale test settings, say, for monitoring the instruction and learning process at the classroom level has not kept up with the rapid pace at which research and development proceeded for large-scale assessments...
November 17, 2017: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147563/a-novel-microaneurysms-detection-approach-based-on-convolutional-neural-networks-with-reinforcement-sample-learning-algorithm
#12
Umit Budak, Abdulkadir Şengür, Yanhui Guo, Yaman Akbulut
Microaneurysms (MAs) are known as early signs of diabetic-retinopathy which are called red lesions in color fundus images. Detection of MAs in fundus images needs highly skilled physicians or eye angiography. Eye angiography is an invasive and expensive procedure. Therefore, an automatic detection system to identify the MAs locations in fundus images is in demand. In this paper, we proposed a system to detect the MAs in colored fundus images. The proposed method composed of three stages. In the first stage, a series of pre-processing steps are used to make the input images more convenient for MAs detection...
December 2017: Health Information Science and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146664/the-effects-of-practice-based-training-on-graduate-teaching-assistants-classroom-practices
#13
Erin A Becker, Erin J Easlon, Sarah C Potter, Alberto Guzman-Alvarez, Jensen M Spear, Marc T Facciotti, Michele M Igo, Mitchell Singer, Christopher Pagliarulo
Evidence-based teaching is a highly complex skill, requiring repeated cycles of deliberate practice and feedback to master. Despite existing well-characterized frameworks for practice-based training in K-12 teacher education, the major principles of these frameworks have not yet been transferred to instructor development in higher educational contexts, including training of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). We sought to determine whether a practice-based training program could help GTAs learn and use evidence-based teaching methods in their classrooms...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145413/diffusion-based-neuromodulation-can-eliminate-catastrophic-forgetting-in-simple-neural-networks
#14
Roby Velez, Jeff Clune
A long-term goal of AI is to produce agents that can learn a diversity of skills throughout their lifetimes and continuously improve those skills via experience. A longstanding obstacle towards that goal is catastrophic forgetting, which is when learning new information erases previously learned information. Catastrophic forgetting occurs in artificial neural networks (ANNs), which have fueled most recent advances in AI. A recent paper proposed that catastrophic forgetting in ANNs can be reduced by promoting modularity, which can limit forgetting by isolating task information to specific clusters of nodes and connections (functional modules)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142098/the-acquisition-of-skilled-finger-movements-is-accompanied-by-the-reorganization-of-the-corticospinal-system
#15
Masato Hirano, Shinji Kubota, Shinichi Furuya, Yoshiki Koizume, Shinya Tanaka, Kozo Funase
Dexterous finger movements are often characterized by highly coordinated movements. Such coordination might be derived from reorganization of the corticospinal system. In this study, we investigated 1) the manner in which finger movement covariation patterns are acquired by examining the effects of the implicit and explicit learning of a serial reaction time task (SRTT), and 2) how such changes in finger coordination are represented in the corticospinal system. The subjects learned a button press sequence in both implicit and explicit learning conditions...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141480/benchmarking-for-research-related-competencies-a-curricular-mapping-approach-at-medical-faculties-in-germany
#16
Maria Lammerding-Koeppel, Olaf Fritze, Marianne Giesler, Elisabeth Narciss, Sandra Steffens, Annette Wosnik, Jan Griewatz
OBJECTIVES: Internationally, scientific and research-related competencies need to be sufficiently targeted as core outcomes in many undergraduate medical curricula. Since 2015, standards have been recommended for Germany in the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue in Medicine (NKLM). The aim of this study is to develop a multi-center mapping approach for curricular benchmarking against national standards and against other medical faculties. METHOD: A total of 277 faculty members from four German medical faculties have mapped the local curriculum against the scientific and research-related NKLM objectives, using consented procedures, metrics, and tools...
November 16, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141073/forces-of-tool-tissue-interaction-to-assess-surgical-skill-level
#17
Taku Sugiyama, Sanju Lama, Liu Shi Gan, Yaser Maddahi, Kourosh Zareinia, Garnette R Sutherland
Importance: The application of optimal forces between surgical instruments and tissue is fundamental to surgical performance and learning. To date, this force has not been measured clinically during the performance of microsurgery. Objectives: To establish a normative catalog of force profiles during the performance of surgery, to compare force variables among surgeons with different skill levels, and to evaluate whether such a force-based metric determines or differentiates skill level...
November 15, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141046/the-effect-of-observing-novice-and-expert-performance-on-acquisition-of-surgical-skills-on-a-robotic-platform
#18
David J Harris, Samuel J Vine, Mark R Wilson, John S McGrath, Marie-Eve LeBel, Gavin Buckingham
BACKGROUND: Observational learning plays an important role in surgical skills training, following the traditional model of learning from expertise. Recent findings have, however, highlighted the benefit of observing not only expert performance but also error-strewn performance. The aim of this study was to determine which model (novice vs. expert) would lead to the greatest benefits when learning robotically assisted surgical skills. METHODS: 120 medical students with no prior experience of robotically-assisted surgery completed a ring-carrying training task on three occasions; baseline, post-intervention and at one-week follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140917/medical-trainees-experiences-of-treating-people-with-chronic-pain-a-lost-opportunity-for-medical-education
#19
Kathleen Rice, Jae Eun Ryu, Cynthia Whitehead, Joel Katz, Fiona Webster
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that physicians' opinions about chronic pain patients become progressively negative over the course of medical training, leading to a decline in empathy for these patients. Few qualitative studies have focused on this issue and thus the experiences shaping this process remain unexplored. This study addressed how medical trainees learn about chronic pain management through informal and formal curricula. METHOD: This study adopted a descriptive qualitative interview-based approach informed by the theoretical lens of the hidden curriculum...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139337/do-people-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-benefit-from-making-errors-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-error-based-and-errorless-learning
#20
Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, Robyn Tate, Elizabeth Beadle, Janelle Griffin, Melissa Kendall, Julia Schmidt, Amanda Lane-Brown, Mathilde Chevignard, David H K Shum
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (ELL) and error-based learning (EBL) are commonly used approaches to rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unknown whether making errors is beneficial in the learning process to promote skills generalization after severe TBI. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of ELL and EBL for improving skills generalization, self-awareness, behavioral competency, and psychosocial functioning after severe TBI...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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