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Learning skills

Philip R A Baker, Kaeleen Dingle, Michael P Dunne
The Asia-Pacific region has rapidly changing health needs. This reshaping of health priorities is directly affecting current and future public health education. This brief review focuses on foundational public health skills including epidemiology, biostatistics, and health informatics. Epidemiological skills, in particular, are essential for policymakers and practitioners to identify the emergence of problems and to inform priority setting of public health efforts. Training needs to move beyond didactic, passive learning methods in class settings to approaches that engage and challenge students and academics in active, flexible learning and realistic problem-solving...
November 16, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Gwendolyn M Lawson, Meghan E McKenzie, Kimberly D Becker, Lisa Selby, Sharon A Hoover
Implementing social emotional learning (SEL) programs in school settings is a promising approach to promote critical social and emotional competencies for all students. However, there are several challenges to implementing manualized SEL programs in schools, including program cost, competing demands, and content that is predetermined and cannot be tailored to individual classroom needs. Identifying core components of evidence-based SEL programs may make it possible to develop more feasible approaches to implementing SEL in schools...
November 16, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
James Negen, Lisa Wen, Lore Thaler, Marko Nardini
Humans are effective at dealing with noisy, probabilistic information in familiar settings. One hallmark of this is Bayesian Cue Combination: combining multiple noisy estimates to increase precision beyond the best single estimate, taking into account their reliabilities. Here we show that adults also combine a novel audio cue to distance, akin to human echolocation, with a visual cue. Following two hours of training, subjects were more precise given both cues together versus the best single cue. This persisted when we changed the novel cue's auditory frequency...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Annette Burgess, Deborah McGregor
BACKGROUND: Skills in peer teaching, assessment and feedback are documented internationally as required graduate attributes for health professional students, placing emphasis on universities to prepare health professional graduates with teaching skills. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the rational, design, content and evaluation of student peer teacher training skills programs across the health professions. METHODS: In October 2017, a search was conducted of five databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC and Cochrane Collection) using combinations of key search terms: 'Student as teacher', 'near-peer teaching', 'student teacher', 'peer teacher', 'peer-to-peer', 'undergraduate', 'medical education', 'curriculum', 'program', 'training', 'allied health', 'health science', 'pharmacy', 'nurse', and 'medicine', with results restricted to articles published in English within the decade...
November 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Evelyn Thomas
In this Career Development commentary, the author highlights the benefits of attending the Society for Public Health Education Advocacy Summit in Washington, D.C. Advocacy is an increasingly necessary skill that allows health educators to advance both the field of public health and their own career development as professionals. Students and practitioners from diverse health education settings get to connect with other professionals, attend skill-building workshops, and increase their ability to influence health policy...
November 15, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Y Mednikov, S Nehemia, B Zheng, O Benzaquen, D Lederman
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women. The most common method to detect breast cancer is mammography. However, interpreting mammography is a challenging task that requires high skills and is timeconsuming. In this work, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for mammography based on transfer representation learning using the Inception-V3 architecture. We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme using the INBreast database, where the features are extracted from different layers of the architecture...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Andrea Mariani, Edoardo Pellegrini, Nima Enayati, Peter Kazanzides, Marco Vidotto, Elena De Momi
Training with simulation systems has become a primary alternative for learning the fundamental skills of robotic surgery. However, there exists no consensus regarding a standard training curriculum: sessions defined a priori by expert trainers or self-directed by the trainees feature lack of consistency. This study proposes an adaptive approach that structures the curriculum on the basis of an objective assessment of the trainee's performance. The work comprised an experimental session with 12 participants performing training on virtual reality tasks with the da Vinci Research Kit surgical console...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ziheng Wang, Ann Majewicz Fey
PURPOSE: This paper focuses on an automated analysis of surgical motion profiles for objective skill assessment and task recognition in robot-assisted surgery. Existing techniques heavily rely on conventional statistic measures or shallow modelings based on hand-engineered features and gesture segmentation. Such developments require significant expert knowledge, are prone to errors, and are less efficient in online adaptive training systems. METHODS: In this work, we present an efficient analytic framework with a parallel deep learning architecture, SATR-DL, to assess trainee expertise and recognize surgical training activity...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
S Nizami, F Renon
This study applies several high impact practices in an integrated fourth-year biomedical engineering course. The engineering design project is mapped to six deliverables using an adaptation of the Information Rich Engineering Design (IRED) model. This pedagogy facilitates regular student interactions with the instructor, the teaching assistant, the librarian and peers. Periodic information audits provide students with opportunities to reflect, integrate their learning, and share diverse experiences with the instructor...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Neda M Bassir Kazeruni, Andre Laboy, Henry Hess
Traditional engineering and business school courses have different pedagogical emphases. Engineering courses are perceived as technical, dense and require students to provide definitive answers to problems. On the other hand, business school courses aim to increase students' knowledge by confronting them with real-world cases and by encouraging both in- and out-of-the-classroom teamwork, thinking in groups and problem solving. In business school courses, the teaching is directed towards the thought process rather than the final answer itself...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Nawal Ulhaq, Husam Wadi, Thomas Amlee, Diana Diesen, Ann Majewicz Fey
Learning and mastering laparoscopic skills is an involved and complicated process, especially in the case of pediatric surgery due to extremely fragile tissues and small spaces. Given these constraints, precise, controlled, and gentle laparoscopic tool motions are essential. Proper handling and ergonomics of laparoscopic tool handling are often overlooked when training novice surgeons. Novice surgeons tend to overgrip the tool, which may lead to applying excessive amounts of force and potential surgical complications...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Matthew Sinclair, Christian F Baumgartner, Jacqueline Matthew, Wenjia Bai, Juan Cerrolaza Martinez, Yuanwei Li, Sandra Smith, Caroline L Knight, Bernhard Kainz, Jo Hajnal, Andrew P King, Daniel Rueckert
Measurement of head biometrics from fetal ultrasonography images is of key importance in monitoring the healthy development of fetuses. However, the accurate measurement of relevant anatomical structures is subject to large inter-observer variability in the clinic. To address this issue, an automated method utilizing Fully Convolutional Networks (FCN) is proposed to determine measurements of fetal head circumference (HC) and biparietal diameter (BPD). An FCN was trained on approximately 2000 2D ultrasound images of the head with annotations provided by 45 different sonographers during routine screening examinations to perform semantic segmentation of the head...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Soumya Ranjan Tripathy, Kingshuk Chakravarty, Aniruddha Sinha
Postural Instability (PI) is a major reason for fall in geriatric population as well as for people with diseases or disorders like Parkinson's, stroke etc. Conventional stability indicators like Berg Balance Scale (BBS) require clinical settings with skilled personnel's interventions to detect PI and finally classify the person into low, mid or high fall risk categories. Moreover these tests demand a number of functional tasks to be performed by the patient for proper assessment. In this paper a machine learning based approach is developed to determine fall risk with minimal human intervention using only Single Limb Stance exercise...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
K M M Berghuis, S Fagioli, N M Maurits, I Zijdewind, J B C Marsman, T Hortobágyi, G Koch, M Bozzali
It is poorly understood how healthy aging affects neural mechanisms underlying motor learning. We used blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrasts to examine age-related changes in brain activation after acquisition and consolidation (24 h) of a visuomotor tracking skill. Additionally, structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were used to examine age-related structural changes in the brain. Older adults had reduced gray matter volume (628 ± 57 ml) and mean white matter anisotropy (0...
November 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Mari K Hopper, Daniela A Brake
A large, multicampus, public medical school underwent curricular renewal, emphasizing a student-centered approach with 50% of all course contact time devoted to active learning. Determining the impact of active learning on student engagement and higher order skill (HOS) proficiency was the primary aim of this study. Following Institutional Review Board approval, two cohort groups of first-year medical students were enrolled. The first cohort ( n = 54) included students before curriculum reform in the legacy curriculum (LC)...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Feifei Shang, Chuan-Yong Liu
The rapid development of mobile phones and communication networks is profoundly changing the lives of people in China. With the gradual growth of Wi-Fi on college and university campuses, Chinese schools are setting off a wave of teaching reform combining online material with traditional classroom instruction. We adapted a Chinese University massive open online course physiology course into a private university online course, specifically designed for second-semester bachelor's level nursing students at Taishan Medical University...
December 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Filiz Aslan, Esra Yücel
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the auditory reasoning skills of school-going children with early and late cochlear implantation and assessed the relationship between auditory reasoning skills, language development, vocabulary knowledge, and communication skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this case series study, 90 pre-lingually deaf children aged 7-10 years were assessed. Children were divided into two groups: early-implanted group with children who received cochlear implants before 3 years of age (mean, 23...
November 15, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Kelsey Mandak, Janice Light, David McNaughton
Despite the importance of literacy in today's educational curriculum, learning to read is a challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One of the foundational skills of early literacy learning is the ability to recognize sight words. This study used a single-subject, multiple-probe, across-participants design, to investigate the effects of a new software feature, dynamic text and speech output, on the acquisition of sight words by three pre-literate preschoolers with ASD during shared digital book reading experiences...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Nada Ghoneim, Vedanta Dariya, Danielle Guffey, Charles G Minard, Ernest Frugé, Leslie L Harris, Karen E Johnson, Jennifer Arnold
PROBLEM: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) clinicians must frequently relay difficult news to patient families, and the need for formal training for NICU trainees to develop this skill has been established. Although previous studies have shown improved trainee self-efficacy and comfort in handling difficult conversations after formal communication training, it remains unclear whether these interventions lead to improved objectively assessed short-term and long-term performance. INTERVENTION: A simulation-based intervention emphasizing the SPIKES protocol for delivery of bad news was implemented for 15 fellows in the 3-year Baylor College of Medicine Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine fellowship program in the 2013-2014 academic year...
November 14, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Marc James Abrigo Uy, Mark A Pereira, Jerica M Berge, Katie A Loth
The primary objective of this study was to describe parents' preference for how physicians should approach diet and weight-related advice for their child. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents (n = 40) of preschoolers, transcribed verbatim, and double-coded using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Parents identified recommendations for how physicians should approach conversations about weight. Themes included (1) Tone and Approach are Important, (2) Avoid Judgment, (3) Have Regard for Parental Expertise, (4) Consider the Timing of the Discussion with Parents, and (5) Equip Parents with Concrete and Individualized Recommendations...
November 15, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
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