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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547538/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-multilingualism-on-novel-language-learning-an-integrative-review
#1
Zoya Hirosh, Tamar Degani
Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning...
May 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546978/effectiveness-of-concept-mapping-and-traditional-linear-nursing-care-plans-on-critical-thinking-skills-in-clinical-pediatric-nursing-course
#2
Fereshteh Aein, Fatemeh Aliakbari
INTRODUCTION: Concept map is a useful cognitive tool for enhancing a student's critical thinking (CT) by encouraging students to process information deeply for understanding. However, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on nursing students' CT is contradictory. This paper compares the effectiveness of concept mapping and traditional linear nursing care planning on students' CT. METHODS: An experimental design was used to examine the CT of 60 baccalaureate students who participated in pediatric clinical nursing course in the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran in 2013...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545630/the-role-of-motor-imagery-in-learning-via-instructions
#3
Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
Learning via instructions and learning through physical practice are complementary pathways to obtain skilled performance. Whereas an initial task representation can be formed on the basis of instructions, physically practicing novel instructions leads to a shift in processing mode from controlled processing toward more automatic processing. This shift in processing mode is supposedly caused by the formation of a pragmatic task representation, which includes task parameters needed to attain skilled task execution...
May 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545500/strengthening-capacity-to-research-the-social-determinants-of-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lessons-from-the-intrec-programme
#4
Nicholas Henschke, Anna Mirny, Joke A Haafkens, Heribert Ramroth, Siwi Padmawati, Martin Bangha, Lisa Berkman, Laksono Trisnantoro, Yulia Blomstedt, Heiko Becher, Osman Sankoh, Peter Byass, John Kinsman
BACKGROUND: The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH) research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1) an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2) a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3) a 1-week data analysis workshop...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545498/feasibility-of-a-systematic-comprehensive-one-to-one-training-scoot-program-for-new-scooter-users-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-control-trial
#5
W Ben Mortenson, Sharon Jang, Charlie H Goldsmith, Laura Hurd Clarke, Sandra Hobson, Richelle Emery
BACKGROUND: Mobility scooters can facilitate community participation among individuals with mobility limitations. However, accidents are a serious concern with scooter use. Scooter training has been recommended to improve safety, but there are currently few validated programs available. Therefore, we developed a Systematic, Comprehensive, One-to-One Training (SCOOT) program for scooter users. We will conduct a study to evaluate the outcomes produced by the provision SCOOT. METHODS: This feasibility study will use a mixed-methods, rater-blinded, randomized control trial, with a two-step wedge design...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545016/statistical-learning-and-auditory-processing-in-children-with-music-training-an-erp-study
#6
Pragati Rao Mandikal Vasuki, Mridula Sharma, Ronny Ibrahim, Joanne Arciuli
OBJECTIVE: The question whether musical training is associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive abilities in children is of considerable interest. In the present study, we compared children with music training versus those without music training across a range of auditory and cognitive measures, including the ability to detect implicitly statistical regularities in input (statistical learning). METHODS: Statistical learning of regularities embedded in auditory and visual stimuli was measured in musically trained and age-matched untrained children between the ages of 9-11years...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544583/improving-the-occupational-skills-of-students-with-intellectual-disability-by-applying-video-prompting-combined-with-dance-pads
#7
Mei-Lan Lin, Ming-Shan Chiang, Ching-Hsiang Shih, Meng-Fang Li
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are prone to inattention, are slow in learning and reaction, and have deficits in memory skills. Providing proper vocational education and training for individuals with intellectual disability is able to enhance their occupational skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study applied video prompting to provide instructional prompts to help participants accurately perform an assigned occupational activity. A control system installed with developed software was used to turn a standard dance pad into a sensor to detect the participants' standing position and to automatically trigger video prompting...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542302/influence-of-catch-up-growth-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#8
Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo, Cristina Carrasco Carrasco, Núria Villalmazo Francisco, Judit Cebrià Romero, Jose Ramon Fernández Lorenzo, J C Jiménez-Chillaron, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG) increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541782/using-simulation-as-a-learning-experience-in-clinical-teams-to-learn-about-palliative-and-end-of-life-care-a-literature-review
#9
Duncan Randall, David Garbutt, Michaela Barnard
Simulation has been shown to improve the preparedness of practitioners in acute care. In this review we evaluate using simulation to prepare practitioners to deliver palliative care in multidisciplinary teams. The Joanna Briggs Institute approach was used and seventeen studies selected. The thematic analysis of the literature fitted well with Gabby et al pyramid approach to health improvement suggesting that simulation can be used in teams to learn technical, soft and learning skills of delivering palliative care...
May 25, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541513/improving-health-literacy-through-adult-basic-education-in-australia
#10
Suzanne Morony, Emma Lamph, Danielle Muscat, Don Nutbeam, Haryana M Dhillon, Heather Shepherd, Sian Smith, Aisha Khan, Julie Osborne, Wedyan Meshreky, Karen Luxford, Andrew Hayen, Kirsten J McCaffery
Adults with low literacy are less empowered to take care of their health, have poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare costs. We facilitated partnerships between adult literacy teachers and community health providers to deliver a health literacy training program in adult basic education classrooms. Following course completion we interviewed 19 adult education teachers (15 delivering the health literacy program; 4 delivering standard literacy classes) and four community health providers (CHPs) about their experiences, and analysed transcripts using Framework analysis...
May 25, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541193/analysis-of-energy-based-metrics-for-laparoscopic-skills-assessment
#11
Behnaz Poursartip, Marie-Eve LeBel, Rajni Patel, Michael Naish, Ana Luisa Trejos
OBJECTIVE: The complexity of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) requires that trainees practice MIS skills in numerous training sessions. The goal of these training sessions is to learn how to move the instruments smoothly without damaging the surrounding tissue and achieving operative tasks with accuracy. In order to enhance the efficiency of these training sessions, the proficiency of the trainees should be assessed using an objective assessment method. Several performance metrics have been proposed and analyzed for MIS tasks...
May 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540102/awareness-and-knowledge-of-undergraduate-dental-students-about-sterilization-disinfection-methods-of-extracted-human-teeth
#12
S C Deogade, S S Mantri, S Saxena, K Sumathi
BACKGROUND: Dental undergraduate students work on extracted human teeth in preclinical practical's to learn technical skills before entering the clinics and delivering dental care to the patients. AIM: The aim of the present investigation was to assess the awareness and knowledge toward sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth in a selected group of Indian dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the participants consisted of 2(nd)-, 3(rd)-, 4(th)-, and 5(th)-year dental students...
November 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539194/effects-of-the-informed-health-choices-primary-school-intervention-on-the-ability-of-children-in-uganda-to-assess-the-reliability-of-claims-about-treatment-effects-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Allen Nsangi, Daniel Semakula, Andrew D Oxman, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Matt Oxman, Sarah Rosenbaum, Angela Morelli, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Margaret Kaseje, Iain Chalmers, Atle Fretheim, Yunpeng Ding, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Claims about what improves or harms our health are ubiquitous. People need to be able to assess the reliability of these claims. We aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to teach primary school children to assess claims about the effects of treatments (ie, any action intended to maintain or improve health). METHODS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we included primary schools in the central region of Uganda that taught year-5 children (aged 10-12 years)...
May 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538983/assocation-of-a-surgical-task-during-training-with-team-skill-acquisition-among-surgical-residents-the-missing-piece-in-multidisciplinary-team-training
#14
Jessica L Sparks, Dustin L Crouch, Kathryn Sobba, Douglas Evans, Jing Zhang, James E Johnson, Ian Saunders, John Thomas, Sarah Bodin, Ashley Tonidandel, Jeff Carter, Carl Westcott, R Shayn Martin, Amy Hildreth
Importance: The human patient simulators that are currently used in multidisciplinary operating room team training scenarios cannot simulate surgical tasks because they lack a realistic surgical anatomy. Thus, they eliminate the surgeon's primary task in the operating room. The surgical trainee is presented with a significant barrier when he or she attempts to suspend disbelief and engage in the scenario. Objective: To develop and test a simulation-based operating room team training strategy that challenges the communication abilities and teamwork competencies of surgeons while they are engaged in realistic operative maneuvers...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538871/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-interventions-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Larissa Lyra, Luiz Eduardo Rizzo, Camila Sá Sunahara, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Ana Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. The manifestations of ASDs can have an important impact on learning and social functioning that may persist during adulthood. The aim here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538827/metacognitive-reading-strategies-of-children-with-learning-disabilities
#16
Ana Paola Nicolielo-Carrilho, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos Hage
Purpose: to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. Methods: the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest...
May 15, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537754/development-of-a-standardized-kalamazoo-communication-skills-assessment-tool-for-radiologists-validation-multisource-reliability-and-lessons-learned
#17
Stephen D Brown, Elizabeth A Rider, Katherine Jamieson, Elaine C Meyer, Michael J Callahan, Carolynn M DeBenedectis, Sarah D Bixby, Michele Walters, Sara F Forman, Pamela H Varrin, Peter Forbes, Christopher J Roussin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standardized communication skills assessment instrument for radiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Delphi method was used to validate the Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment instrument for radiology by revising and achieving consensus on the 43 items of the preexisting instrument among an interdisciplinary team of experts consisting of five radiologists and four nonradiologists (two men, seven women)...
May 24, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534722/a-survey-of-established-veterinary-clinical-skills-laboratories-from-europe-and-north-america-present-practices-and-recent-developments
#18
Marc Dilly, Emma K Read, Sarah Baillie
Developing competence in clinical skills is important if graduates are to provide entry-level care but it is dependent on having had sufficient hands-on practice. Clinical skills laboratories provide opportunities for students to learn on simulators and models in a safe environment and to supplement training with animals. Interest in facilities for developing veterinary clinical skills has increased in recent years as many veterinary colleges face challenges in training their students with traditional methods alone...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533588/transformative-learning-experience-for-physical-therapy-students-through-a-community-health-promotion-project-for-mothers-of-hearing-challenged-children
#19
Masami Yokogawa, Masako Notoya, Sachiko Madokoro
[Purpose] The purpose of this project was to expose physical therapy students to transformative learning through a community health promotion project for mothers of hearing-challenged children. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were three mothers with their respective hearing-challenged child and twenty physical therapy students. The project consisted of seven sessions supervised throughout by a physical therapy instructor. The students participated in seven sessions, while the mothers were required to attend only two sessions of a health checkup and exercise program...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532348/perceptual-learning-use-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#20
Wu Li
Our perceptual abilities significantly improve with practice. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, offers an ideal window for understanding use-dependent changes in the adult brain. Different experimental approaches have revealed a diversity of behavioral and cortical changes associated with perceptual learning, and different interpretations have been given with respect to the cortical loci and neural processes responsible for the learning. Accumulated evidence has begun to put together a coherent picture of the neural substrates underlying perceptual learning...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
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