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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921299/one-dose-per-day-compared-to-multiple-doses-per-day-of-gentamicin-for-treatment-of-suspected-or-proven-sepsis-in-neonates
#1
REVIEW
Shripada C Rao, Ravisha Srinivasjois, Kwi Moon
BACKGROUND: Animal studies and trials in older children and adults suggest that a 'one dose per day' regimen of gentamicin is superior to a 'multiple doses per day' regimen. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of one dose per day compared to multiple doses per day of gentamicin in suspected or proven sepsis in neonates. SEARCH METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library (searched 8 April 2016), MEDLINE (1966 to 8 April 2016), Embase (1980 to 8 April 2016), and CINAHL (December 1982 to 8 April 2016)...
December 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920985/the-first-case-of-recurrent-ultra-late-onset-group-b-streptococcal-sepsis-in-a-3-year-old-child
#2
Ai Hosoda, Ryohei Gatayama, Shiori Moriyama, Noriyuki Ishii, Kenichiro Yamada, Youhei Matsuzaki, Masayoshi Shinjoh
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a commonly recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis in neonatal and young infants. Invasive GBS infection is classified into early onset GBS disease (EOD, day 0-6), late onset GBS disease (LOD, day 7-89) and ultra late onset GBS disease (ULOD, after 3 months of age). ULOD is uncommon and recurrence is especially rare. We present the first recurrent case of ULOD GBS sepsis in 3-year-old girl with a past medical history of hydrops fetalis and thoracic congenital lymphatic dysplasia...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919118/preeclampsia-and-the-risk-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants-less-than-32-weeks-gestation
#3
Nancy Soliman, Kathleen Chaput, Belal Alshaikh, Kamran Yusuf
Objective Angiogenesis is essential for normal lung development. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that preeclampsia, an antiangiogenic state, is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Design Prospective cohort study of infants less than 32 weeks' gestation born to mothers with preeclampsia between January 2007 and June 2010 at a single tertiary care center. Their BPD outcome was compared with infants born to the next two normotensive mothers with a ± 1 week gestational age difference...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918382/conventional-versus-prolonged-infusion-of-meropenem-in-neonates-with-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Islam Nour, Heba Elsayed Eldegla, Nehad Nasef, Basma Shouman, Hesham Abdel-Hady
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has been suggested to result in higher microbiologic efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of prolonged infusions versus conventional dosing of meropenem in neonates with Gram negative late onset sepsis (GN-LOS)...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916444/influence-of-weight-at-enterostomy-reversal-on-surgical-outcomes-in-infants-after-emergent-neonatal-stoma-creation
#5
Lindsay J Talbot, Robert D Sinyard, Kristy L Rialon, Brian R Englum, Elizabeth T Tracy, Henry E Rice, Obinna O Adibe
PURPOSE: Neonates after emergent enterostomy creation frequently require reversal at low weight because of complications including cholestasis, dehydration, dumping, failure to thrive, and failure to achieve enteral independence. We investigated whether stoma reversal at low weight (< 2.5kg) is associated with poor surgical outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent enterostomy reversal from 2005 to 2013 at less than 6months old were identified in our institutional database...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#6
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910939/real-time-pcr-based-serotyping-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#7
Kathleen M Breeding, Bhavana Ragipani, Kun-Uk David Lee, Martin Malik, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated, gram-positive pathogen that is an important cause of neonatal invasive infections, including sepsis and meningitis. There are ten known GBS serotypes based on distinct capsule compositions (Ia, Ib, II-IX), and current candidate capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines target only a subset of these. Serotyping of GBS isolates is important for understanding local epidemiology and for monitoring for serotype replacement or capsular switching. However, serotyping generally requires either latex agglutination, multiplex PCR with analysis of band sizes, or analysis of whole genome sequences-all techniques that are either expensive or not widely available...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910218/octreotide-use-and-safety-in-infants-with-hyperinsulinism
#8
Ann W McMahon, Gerold T Wharton, Paul Thornton, Diva D De Leon
BACKGROUND: Octreotide is a synthetic peptide analog of naturally occurring somatostatin. Octreotide is used off-label in children <6 years of age for hyperinsulinism, chylothorax, and gastrointestinal bleeding. There is a lack of controlled data on efficacy or potential adverse events from this off-label use. METHODS: Three pediatric hospitals participated in this study. Patients were hospitalized January 2007-December 2010 and administered octreotide for congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) at least 1 day...
December 2, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909996/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-human-milk-and-breastfeeding-in-preterm-infants-in-the-united-kingdom
#9
James Mahon, Lindsay Claxton, Hannah Wood
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost savings and health benefits in the UK NHS that could be achieved if human milk usage in the NICU was increased. METHODS: A systematic review established the disease areas with the strong sources of evidence of the short, medium and long-term benefits of human milk for preterm infants as opposed to the use of formula milk. The analysis assessed the economic impact of reducing rates of necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis, sudden infant death syndrome, leukaemia, otitis media, obesity and neurodevelopmental impairment...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908329/pediatric-sepsis
#10
REVIEW
Melanie K Prusakowski, Audrey P Chen
Pediatric sepsis is distinct from adult sepsis in its definitions, clinical presentations, and management. Recognition of pediatric sepsis is complicated by the various pediatric-specific comorbidities that contribute to its mortality and the age- and development-specific vital sign and clinical parameters that obscure its recognition. This article outlines the clinical presentation and management of sepsis in neonates, infants, and children, and highlights some key populations who require specialized care.
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#11
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#12
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896154/use-of-t-tube-enterostomy-in-neonatal-gastro-intestinal-surgery
#14
Maher Al-Zaiem, Abdulhai F Al-Garni, Abdulrahman Al-Maghrebi, Asim A Asghar
Aim: To evaluate the results of the use of the T-tube ileostomy in neonatal intestinal surgery cases. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of sixty two neonates underwent intestinal obstruction surgery by using T-tube ileostomy was conducted between January 1990 and January 2013.The pathologies of the intestinal obstruction were; thirty four of jejunoileal atresia cases, thirteen case meconium ileus, eight cases perforated necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), three cases meconium peritonitis, three cases with bowel resection due to intestinal volvulus, and one case of gastroschisis...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895847/efficacy-of-a-low-cost-bubble-cpap-system-in-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-in-a-neonatal-ward-in-malawi
#15
Kondwani Kawaza, Heather E Machen, Jocelyn Brown, Zondiwe Mwanza, Suzanne Iniguez, Al Gest, E O'Brian Smith, Maria Oden, Rebecca R Richards-Kortum, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891340/dual-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-by-burkholderia-cepacia-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-a-neonate-a-case-report
#16
Neeta Gade, Sanjay Singh Negi, Atul Jindal, Ujjwala Gaikwad, Padma Das, Anudita Bhargava
Burkholderia cepacia (B.cepacia) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A.baumannii), the highly intrinsically resistant nonfermenters are known to cause frequent infections in immunocomproimsed or hospitalized patients with significant mortality rate. In this rare clinical presentation, both were simultaneously isolated from a case of neonatal sepsis with respiratory failure. The prompt early diagnosis and antibiogram of these nonfermenters were proved to be of tremendous help in the present case with successful treatment outcome of dual infection of B...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#17
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890981/neonatal-cholestasis-single-centre-experience-in-central-india
#18
Mayank Jain, Sagar Adkar, Chandrashekhar Waghmare, Jenisha Jain, Shikhar Jain, Kamna Jain, Gouri Rao Passi, Rashmi Shad Vinay, M K Soni
BACKGROUND: Neonatal cholestasis syndrome (NCS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The disorder has rarely been studied in centers from Central India. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence, clinical presentation and etiology of NCS at a tertiary referral center in Central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out at a tertiary referral center in Central India. The study is a descriptive study. The records of all patients with suspected NCS treated in the Department of Pediatrics from 2007-2012 were analyzed...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889717/clinical-profile-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-of-neonatal-sepsis-due-to-burkholderia-capacia-complex
#19
Aparna Chandrasekaran, Nivedhana Subburaju, Muzamil Mustafa, Sulochana Putlibai
We report the clinical profile of 59 neonates who presented to a tertiary care extramural neonatal unit with Burkholderia cepacia complex infection. Among the 3265 admissions over 45 months, incidence of Burkholderia sepsis was 18 per 1000 admissions. Case fatality rate was 17%. Most (95%) isolates were sensitive to cotrimoxazole.
November 5, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885296/outcome-of-twin-deliveries-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-eastern-nepal
#20
S Chaudhary, R R Singh, G S Shah, J Agrawal, S Kafle, L Shah
BACKGROUND: Twins, compared to singletons, have higher perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to describe the twinning rate, epidemiological variables and hospital outcome of twin deliveries and to find out ways of better management of twins in our part. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of the outcome of 92 twin pregnancies during one year study period (1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014) was conducted at BPKIHS. Twins delivered within the institution were included but cases less than 28 weeks gestation were excluded...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
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