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Mary Hammes
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October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Yang Chen, Lei Wang, Ashley L Pitzer, Xiang Li, Pin-Lan Li, Yang Zhang
: Recent studies indicate that inflammasomes serve as intracellular machinery to initiate classical cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses and play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, whether or not the activation of endothelial inflammasomes directly causes cell dysfunction or tissue injury without recruitment of inflammatory cells is unknown. We explored the role of endothelial cell inflammasome activation in mediating tight junction disruption, a hallmark event of endothelial barrier dysfunction leading to endothelial hyperpermeability in diabetes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
O Šeda, F Liška, M Pravenec, Z Vernerová, L Kazdová, D Křenová, V Zídek, L Šedová, M Krupková, V Křen
We assessed the effect of the previously uncovered gap junction protein alpha 8 (Gja8) mutation present in spontaneously hypertensive rat - dominant cataract (SHR-Dca) strain on blood pressure, metabolic profile, and heart and renal transcriptomes. Adult, standard chow-fed male rats of SHR and SHR-Dca strains were used. We found a significant, consistent 10-15 mmHg decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in SHR-Dca compared with SHR (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively; repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA))...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Lubka T Roumenina, Julie Rayes, Marie Frimat, Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi
Endothelium is strategically located at the interface between blood and interstitial tissues, placing thus endothelial cell as a key player in vascular homeostasis. Endothelial cells are in a dynamic equilibrium with their environment and constitute concomitantly a source, a barrier, and a target of defensive mediators. This review will discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the complex crosstalk between the endothelium, the complement system and the hemostasis in health and in disease. The first part will provide a general introduction on endothelial cells heterogeneity and on the physiologic role of the complement and hemostatic systems...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Petr G Lokhov, Elena E Balashova
Recently it was demonstrated that tumors induce specific changes to the surface of human endothelial cells thereby providing the basis for designing endothelial cell-based vaccines that directly target antigens expressed by the tumor endothelium. The present report extends these studies in vitro by investigating the efficacy of allogeneic antigens with regard to their ability to target immune responses against the tumor vasculature since alloantigens simplify vaccine development and implementation in clinical practice...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Alexander Mildner, Goran Marinkovic, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are short-lived mononuclear phagocytes that circulate in the bloodstream and comprise two main subpopulations that in the mouse are best defined by the Ly6C marker. Intravascular functions of "classical" Ly6C+ monocytes and their interactions with other lymphoid and myeloid leukocytes in the circulation remain poorly understood. Rather, these cells are known to efficiently extravasate into tissues. Indeed, Ly6C+ monocytes and their descendants have emerged as a third, highly plastic and dynamic cellular system that complements the two classical, tissue-resident mononuclear phagocyte compartments, i...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
I Iwan-Zietek, B Ruszkowska-Ciastek, M Michalska, E Overskaug, K Goralczyk, S Dabrowiecki, D Rosc
Adipokines regulate glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, lipids metabolism, reproduction, as well as endothelial and platelets function. The study compares the plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of total adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR) in morbidly obese patients. Additionally it evaluates selected adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), endothelial markers and LAR depending on the gender in morbidly obese and non-obese subjects. The study involved 51 patients (31 women aged 21 - 60 (mean age of 39) and 20 men aged 24 to 60 (mean age of 41))...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
S Cacanyiova, A Berenyiova, F Kristek, M Drobna, K Ondrias, M Grman
The aorta plays an important role in blood pressure control so the early determination of its vasoactive properties could predict pathological changes in hypertension. The aim of study was to compare vasoactive properties and geometry of thoracic aorta (TA) and the participation of two vasoactive transmitters, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), in TA tone regulation in young Wistar rats (WR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Four-weeks-old WR and SHR were used. Systolic blood pressure (sBP) was measured by plethysmography...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Katinka Karenberg, Hannes Hudalla, David Frommhold
Impaired cellular innate immune defense accounts for susceptibility to sepsis and its high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Leukocyte recruitment is an integral part of the cellular immune response and follows a well-defined cascade of events from rolling of leukocytes along the endothelium to firm adhesion and finally transmigration which is concerted by a variety of adhesion molecules. Recent analytical advances such as fetal intravital microscopy have granted new insights into ontogenetic regulation and maturation of fetal immune cell recruitment...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
Magdalena Widziolek, Tomasz K Prajsnar, Simon Tazzyman, Graham P Stafford, Jan Potempa, Craig Murdoch
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is a keystone pathogen in the aetiology of chronic periodontitis. However, recent evidence suggests that the bacterium is also able to enter the bloodstream, interact with host cells and tissues, and ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we established a novel zebrafish larvae systemic infection model showing that Pg rapidly adheres to and penetrates the zebrafish vascular endothelium causing a dose- and time-dependent mortality with associated development of pericardial oedemas and cardiac damage...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chaid Schwarz, Benjamin T Aldrich, Kimberlee A Burckart, Gregory A Schmidt, M Bridget Zimmerman, Cynthia R Reed, Mark A Greiner, Edward A Sander
Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is an increasingly popular surgical procedure for treating ocular diseases that require a corneal transplant. Previous studies have found that tissue tearing during surgical preparation is more likely elevated in eyes from donors with a history of diabetes mellitus. To quantify these potential differences, we established an experimental technique for quantifying the force required to separate the endothelium-Descemet membrane complex (EDM) from stroma in human donor corneal tissue, and we assessed differences in adhesion strength between diabetic and non-diabetic donor corneas...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Kun-Ling Tsai, Ching-Hsia Hung, Shih-Hung Chan, Jhih-Yuan Shih, Yung-Hsin Cheng, Yi-Ju Tsai, Huei-Chen Lin, Pei-Ming Chu
Atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Oxidative transformations in the lipid and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) constituent of low density lipoprotein drive the initial step in atherogenesis due to macrophage scavenger receptors identify oxidized LDL (oxLDL) but non-oxidized LDL. The human vascular endothelial cells fact a critical role in vasodilation, provides a nonadhesive surface for circulation, reduces vascular smooth muscle proliferation, inflammation, thrombus formation and platelet aggregation...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Katrin Ehlers, Amey S Bhide, Dawit G Tekleyohans, Benjamin Wittkop, Rod J Snowdon, Annette Becker
Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant...
2016: PloS One
S Cacanyiova, A Berenyiova, F Kristek
Cardiovascular studies have confirmed that hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is involved in various signaling pathways in both physiological and pathological conditions, including hypertension. In contrast to nitric oxide (NO), which has a clear vasorelaxant action, H(2)S has both vasorelaxing and vasoconstricting effects on the cardiovascular system. H(2)S is an important antihypertensive agent, and the reduced production of H(2)S and the alterations in its functions are involved in the initiation of spontaneous hypertension...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Hariane Côco, Larissa Pernomian, Priscila C Pereira, Mayara S Gomes, Katia C Marchi, Alexandre H Lopes, Thiago M Cunha, Carlos R Tirapelli, Ana M de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of chronic restraint stress on the vascular contractile response induced by angiotensin (Ang) II in rat carotid. METHODS: Concentration-response curves for AngII were obtained in endothelium-intact or endothelium-denuded carotid rings, in the absence or presence of SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor), SC-236 (COX-2 inhibitor), wortmannin (PI3 K-Akt inhibitor), ML171 (NOX-1 inhibitor), VAS2870 (NOX-4 inhibitor), tiron (O2- scavenger) or PEG-catalase (H2 O2 scavenger)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
R M Bruno, K D Reesink, L Ghiadoni
AIM: The present paper is a selective review on the methodology and clinical significance of techniques to assess specifically endothelial function, carotid mechanics and renal vascular function, particularly in the light of vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Endothelial dysfunction appears to be earlier detectable in the microcirculation of patients with altered glucose metabolism, while it attains significance in the macrocirculation at more advanced disease stages...
September 15, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Marie Garraud, Kahina Khacef, Anne-Clémence Vion, Claire Leconte, Min Yin, Jean-Marie Renard, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Chantal M Boulanger, Isabelle Margaill, Virginie Beray-Berthat
Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is currently the only approved pharmacological strategy for acute ischemic stroke. However, rt-PA exhibits vascular toxicity mainly due to endothelial damage. To investigate the mechanisms underlying rt-PA-induced endothelial alterations, we assessed the role of rt-PA in the generation of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), emerging biological markers and effectors of endothelial dysfunction. The mouse brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ghaemeh Nabaei, Shahram Oveisgharan, Askar Ghorbani, Farzad Fatehi
OBJECTIVES: Methamphetamine use is a strong risk factor for stroke. This study was designed to evaluate arterial function and structure in methamphetamine users ultrasonographically. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 20 methamphetamine users and 21 controls, aged between 20 and 40years, were enrolled. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) marker of early atherogenesis, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) determinants of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD) independent marker of vasodilation were measured in two groups...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
George L Bakris, John M Burkart, Eric D Weinhandl, Peter A McCullough, Michael A Kraus
Hypertension is a cardinal feature of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hypertensive nephropathy is the primary cause of ESRD for nearly 30% of patients, and the prevalence of hypertension is >85% in new patients with ESRD. In contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean predialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) is nearly 150mmHg, and about 70%, 50%, and 40% use β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, respectively. Predialysis SBP generally exhibits a U-shaped association with mortality risk...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Takeshi Kinoshita, Masashi Tawa, Tomoaki Suzuki, Yoshinari Aimi, Tohru Asai, Tomio Okamura
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the association between chronic kidney disease and the endothelial function of internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. An isometric tension study was performed in ITA strips obtained during surgery. Concentration-response curves for acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside were constructed in ITA strips partially precontracted with phenylephrine under the inhibition of cyclooxygenase...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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