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stenotrophomonas maltophilia in childrens

Simon C Langton Hewer, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in most people with cystic fibrosis. Once chronic infection is established, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is virtually impossible to eradicate and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Early infection may be easier to eradicate.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006, 2009 and 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotic treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children and adults with cystic fibrosis eradicates the organism, delays the onset of chronic infection, and results in clinical improvement...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jobran M Alqahtani
  To describe the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients colonized or infected by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) at a Saudi children's hospital, to identify risk factors associated with infection, and to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns of this emerging pathogen.  Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 64 non-duplicating S. maltophilia strains were isolated  in Najran Maternity and Children's Hospital, Najran,  Saudi Arabia between January 2015 to February 2016...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
Julia Dutra Rossetto, Kara M Cavuoto, Carla J Osigian, Ta Chen Peter Chang, Darlene Miller, Hilda Capo, Oriel Spierer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Corneal ulcers can result in severe visual impairment in children. The recent trends of paediatric microbial ulcerative keratitis in the USA are unknown. The purpose of this study is to report the risk factors, microbiological profile and treatment outcomes of paediatric microbial keratitis in South Florida. METHODS: A university-based tertiary eye care centre retrospective case series between 1992 and 2015. Medical records of 107 paediatric patients (age <18 years) with the diagnosis of microbial ulcerative keratitis were analysed...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
D Averbuch, C Avaky, M Harit, P Stepensky, I Fried, T Ben-Ami, V Temper, Y Peled, H Troen, R Masarwa, W Abu Ahmad, M Weintraub, S Revel-Vilk, D Engelhard
PURPOSE: Data on non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NFGNR) bacteremia in children with malignancies are limited. The aim of this study was to present clinical picture, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, risk factors for resistance and outcome in NFGNR bacteremia in children with cancer. METHODS: All episodes of NFGNR bacteremia occurring during 2001-2014 in children with cancer in a tertiary-care hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp...
February 15, 2017: Infection
Ayşe Karaaslan, Eren Çağan, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Serkan Atıcı, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakır
BACKGROUND: The emergence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) has led to the resurrection of colistin use. The data on colistin use and drug-related adverse effects in children are scarce. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of colistin use in critically ill pediatric patients. STUDY DESIGN: This study has a retrospective study design. METHODS: Sixty-one critically ill children were identified through the department's patient files archive during the period from January 2011 to November 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Tariq Mahmud Tariq, Esmatullah Rasool
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of pathogens causing bloodstream infections and evaluate their trends and antibiogram patterns among in-patients in a paediatric tertiary care centre. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC), Kabul, Afghanistan in two phases, from January 2010 to December 2015. METHODOLOGY: Results of blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis admitted in the FMIC, from January 2010 to December 2012 (Period-1), and from January 2013 to December 2015 (Period-2) were completed...
November 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Munehiro Furuichi, Kenta Ito, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Empiric antimicrobial coverage in compromised hosts commonly includes pseudomonal coverage but often lacks coverage against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Identification of risk factors specific for S. maltophilia infection may lead to prompt initiation of appropriate antibiotics and improved outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of pediatric patients with bacteremia due to S. maltophilia or Pseudomonas aeruginosa from April 2002 to July 2014 at a tertiary children's hospital...
February 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Jonathan Cogen, Julia Emerson, Don B Sanders, Clement Ren, Michael S Schechter, Ronald L Gibson, Wayne Morgan, Margaret Rosenfeld
OBJECTIVE: To identify novel risk factors and corroborate previously identified risk factors for mean annual decline in FEV1% predicted in a large, contemporary, United States cohort of young cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of participants in the EPIC Observational Study, who were Pseudomonas-negative and ≤12 years of age at enrollment in 2004-2006. The associations between potential demographic, clinical, and environmental risk factors evaluated during the baseline year and subsequent mean annual decline in FEV1 percent predicted were evaluated using generalized estimating equations...
August 2015: Pediatric Pulmonology
Birgit C P Koch, Sabina R Zabirova, Bart C H van der Nagel, Lidwien M Hanff
BACKGROUND: Sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim are frequently used antibiotics. They work synergistic. In infections with Pneumocystis jiroveci or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, higher dosages are indicated than in other infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is warranted to assure the efficacy while limiting toxicity. Although trimethoprim in combination with sulfamethoxazole is the most common combination with established TDM target concentrations, the intravenous formulation is not suited for children because of its additives ethanol and propylene glycol to increase solubility...
October 2015: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Elias Iosifidis, Stella Stabouli, Anastasia Tsolaki, Vaios Sigounas, Emilia-Barbara Panagiotidou, Maria Sdougka, Emmanuel Roilides
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's criteria were applied by independent investigators for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) diagnosis in critically ill children and compared with tracheal aspirate cultures (TACs). In addition, correlation between antibiotic use, VAP incidence, and epidemiology of TACs was investigated. A modest agreement (κ = 0.41) was found on radiologic findings between 2 investigators. VAP incidence was 7.7 episodes per 1,000 ventilator days, but positive TACs were the most significant factor for driving high antimicrobial usage in the pediatric intensive care unit...
April 1, 2015: American Journal of Infection Control
Jordana E Hoppe, Elinor Towler, Brandie D Wagner, Frank J Accurso, Scott D Sagel, Edith T Zemanick
BACKGROUND: Sputum induction is a safe, well tolerated means of obtaining lower airway secretions from children with cystic fibrosis (CF), particularly for assessment of airway inflammation but the clinical value in diagnosing outpatient infections has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the success rate and microbiologic yield of induced sputum (IS) compared to oropharyngeal swabs (OP) and expectorated sputum (ES) samples in children with CF, and determine if IS culture results impact treatment...
July 2015: Pediatric Pulmonology
Simon C Langton Hewer, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in most people with cystic fibrosis. Once chronic infection is established, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is virtually impossible to eradicate and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Early infection may be easier to eradicate.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006 and 2009. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotic treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children and adults with cystic fibrosis eradicates the organism, delays the onset of chronic infection, and results in clinical improvement...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ciji Arthur, Xinyu Tang, Jose R Romero, Jeffrey G Gossett, Nada Harik, Parthak Prodhan
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can present as bacteremia, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, soft tissue and wound infections, bone and joint infections, meningitis, and endocarditis especially in immunosuppressed patients and those with underlying medical conditions. The incidence and impact of S. maltophilia in young children with heart disease are poorly defined. A single center retrospective observational study was conducted in infants <180 days of age with positive S. maltophilia cultures over a period of 5 years...
March 2015: Pediatric Cardiology
Yan-Liang Xia, Mei Ge, Zhen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathogens of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and their drug resistance in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in high-altitude areas and to provide a clinical basis for the prevention and treatment of VAP. METHODS: A total of 94 children with VAP hospitalized in the PICU in high-altitude areas between June 2011 and June 2013 were recruited. Their lower respiratory tract secretions were collected for bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test...
August 2014: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Helena Aguilar Peres Homem de Mello de Souza, Libera Maria Dalla-Costa, Fernando José Vicenzi, Dilair Camargo de Souza, Carlos Antônio Riedi, Nelson Augusto Rosario Filho, Marcelo Pilonetto
The predisposition of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) for recurrent pulmonary infections can result in poor prognosis of the disease. Although the clinical significance in CF of micro-organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is well established, the implication of uncommon glucose non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (UGNF-GNB) in respiratory samples from CF patients is still unclear. Because of limitations of traditional methods used in most clinical laboratories, the accurate identification of these microbes is a challenge...
September 2014: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Edith T Zemanick, Julia Emerson, Valeria Thompson, Sharon McNamara, Wayne Morgan, Ronald L Gibson, Margaret Rosenfeld
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical outcomes associated with initial isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) in a large U.S. cystic fibrosis (CF) cohort in the current era of widespread early Pa eradication therapy. METHODS: Participants were children with CF enrolled in the Early Pseudomonas Infection Control (EPIC) Observational Study who had no isolation of Pa from respiratory cultures prior to enrollment. Population-averaged regression models using generalized estimating equation methods were used to estimate the effect of Pa acquisition on endpoints including lung function, growth, pulmonary exacerbation rate, respiratory signs and symptoms, and respiratory cultures...
January 2015: Pediatric Pulmonology
Laura Mihaela Trandafir, Mihaela Moscalu, Georgeta Diaconu, E Cîrdeiu, Alexandra Ana Maria Tudose, Gabriela Coman, Dana Teodora Anton Păduraru
UNLABELLED: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by intestinal malabsorption, impaired growth and lung disease. Recurrent pulmonary infections in children with CF are often associated with nutritional deficiencies. AIM: To emphasize the effects of recurrent pulmonary infections on nutritional status in children with CF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 27 patients diagnosed with CF between 1994 and 2011 in the 3rd Pediatric Clinic of the Iasi "Saint Mary" Children's Hospital...
October 2013: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Gulnur Com, John L Carroll, Maria Melguizo Castro, Xinyu Tang, Supriya Jambhekar, Ariel Berlinski
OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics of children with cystic fibrosis with low initial forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted and to investigate their outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Patients were categorized into low or high initial FEV1 groups using cluster analysis. Comparisons of the demographic and clinical data were performed between the 2 groups. RESULTS: From 122 children, 21 clustered into the low and 101 into the high FEV1 group...
April 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
Adem Karbuz, Halil Özdemir, Ayhan Yaman, Bilge Aldemir Kocabaş, Çağlar Odek, Haluk Güriz, Ahmet Derya Aysev, Ergin Çiftçi, Tanil Kendirli, Can Ateş, Erdal İnce
BACKGROUND: Colistin is active against most multidrug-resistant, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Because of the reported nephrotoxicity during the first years of use of colistin, there were concerns of its use in pediatrics where there was limited experience The aim of this study is to document the clinical characteristics and outcomes of use of colistin in pediatric patients at a pediatric intensive care unit in Turkey. METHODS: We reviewed the medical and laboratory records of 29 critically ill children who were treated with colistin for 38 courses between January 2011 and December 2011 at the Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Ankara University Medical School, Turkey...
January 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Hannah Blau, Barry Linnane, Rosemary Carzino, Esta-Lee Tannenbaum, Billy Skoric, Philip J Robinson, Colin Robertson, Sarath C Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Induced sputum (IS) is feasible and safe in young CF children and is a readily accessible, non-invasive technique. However, it has not been compared to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), the gold standard for diagnosing lower airway infection. METHODS: We compared bacterial yield from IS and BAL in 11 non-expectorating CF children, aged 3 to 7.4 years. IS samples were obtained in 10/11 cases. RESULTS: Eight out of ten had the same predominant bacteria cultured from IS and BAL: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia[1], Staphylococcus aureus[3], and upper respiratory tract flora [4]...
January 2014: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
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