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Emergent Airway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780024/the-neutrophil-mobilizing-cytokine-interleukin-26-in-the-airways-of-long-term-tobacco-smokers
#1
Karlhans Fru Che, Ellen Tufvesson, Sara Tengvall, Elisa Lappi-Blanco, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Bettina Levänen, Marie Ekberg, Annelie Brauner, Åsa M Wheelock, Leif Bjermer, C Magnus Sköld, Anders Lindén
Long-term tobacco smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic bronchitis display an excessive accumulation of neutrophils in the airways; an inflammation that responds poorly to established therapy. Thus, there is a need to identify new molecular targets for the development of effective therapy. Here, we hypothesized that the neutrophil-mobilizing cytokine interleukin (IL)-26 (IL-26) is involved in airway inflammation amongst long-term tobacco smokers with or without COPD, chronic bronchitis or colonization by pathogenic bacteria...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768359/case-report-of-gastric-distension-due-to-superior-mesenteric-artery-syndrome-mimicking-hollow-viscus-perforation-considerations-in-critical-care-ultrasound
#2
Yan-Mei Feng, Dong Wan, Rui Guo
RATIONALE: Critical care ultrasound identifies the signs of free intraperitoneal air and echogenic free fluid always indicates hollow viscus perforation (HVP) and needs immediate surgical interventions. However, in rare cases, these classic signs may also mislead proper clinical decisions. We report perforated viscus associated large peritoneal effusion with initial critical care ultrasound findings, whereas computed tomography (CT) examination confirmed a giant stomach due to superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS)...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766739/lingual-thyroid-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-surgical-approaches-in-the-literature
#3
William Stokes, Eric Interval, Rusha Patel
INTRODUCTION: Lingual thyroid cancer is a rare entity with a paucity of literature guiding methods of surgical treatment. Its location presents anatomic challenges with access and excision. OBJECTIVE: We present a case of T4aN1b classical variant papillary thyroid carcinoma of the lingual thyroid that was removed without pharyngeal entry. We also present a review of the literature of this rare entity and propose a treatment algorithm to provide safe and oncologic outcomes...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764553/-interposed-abdominal-pulling-pressing-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-improve-the-resuscitation-effect-for-patients-with-cardiac-arrest
#4
Dabing Wang, Xiaonan Feng, Yujuan Han
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of interposed abdominal pulling-pressing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (IAPP-CPR) for patients with cardiac arrest (CA). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. A total of 122 CA patients admitted to Department of Emergency of Shandong Provincial Mining Industry Group Company Central Hospital from July 2013 to December 2017 were enrolled. They were divided into standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (S-CPR) group (n = 62) and IAPP-CPR group (n = 60) according to order of admission...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757757/use-of-an-airway-exchange-catheter-assisted-extubation-with-continuous-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-monitoring-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-a-known-difficult-airway-a-case-report
#5
Courtney C Yegian, Lana M Volz, Richard E Galgon
Tracheal extubation in children with known difficult airways is associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Currently, there is no reliable measure to predict the need for emergent reintubation due to airway inadequacy. Airway exchange catheter-assisted extubation has been shown to be a useful adjunct in decreasing the risk of adverse events due to failed extubation. We report a case of using an airway exchange catheter-assisted extubation with continuous end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring for a pediatric patient with a known difficult airway...
May 11, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755518/double-barrel-nasal-trumpets-to-prevent-upper-airway-obstruction-after-nasal-and-non-nasal-surgery
#6
Macario Camacho, Justin M Wei, Lauren K Reckley, Sungjin A Song
Objectives: During anesthesia emergence, patients are extubated and the upper airway can become vulnerable to obstruction. Nasal trumpets can help prevent obstruction. However, we have found no manuscript describing how to place nasal trumpets after nasal surgery (septoplasties or septorhinoplasties), likely because (1) the lack of space with nasal splints in place and (2) surgeons may fear that removing the trumpets could displace the splints. The objective of this manuscript is to describe how to place nasal trumpets even with nasal splints in place...
2018: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755094/-giant-intrathoracic-goiter-requiring-emergency-airway-management-report-of-a-case
#7
Marina Shiikawa, Kazuki Hayasaka, Kei Yarimizu, Katsuyuki Suzuki, Makoto Endo, Naoki Yanagawa, Satoshi Shiono
An 81-year-old woman with acute respiratory distress was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a large mass in the upper mediastinum with severe tracheal stenosis. Endotracheal intubation was performed under the preparation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and high-frequency jet ventilation, and the tumor was completely removed. The pathologic diagnosis was a goiter. Post-operatively, respiratory distress disappeared. No tumor recurrences have been noted for more than 2 years after surgery...
May 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751582/whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-new-host-genomic-susceptibility-factors-in-empyema-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-a-pilot-study
#8
Antonio Salas, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Ruth Barral-Arca, Miriam Cebey-López, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Irene Rivero-Calle, Sara Pischedda, María-José Currás-Tuala, Jorge Amigo, José Gómez-Rial, Federico Martinón-Torres
Pneumonia is the leading cause of death amongst infectious diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for about 25% of pneumonia cases worldwide, and it is a major cause of childhood mortality. We carried out a whole exome sequencing (WES) study in eight patients with complicated cases of pneumococcal pneumonia (empyema). An initial assessment of statistical association of WES variation with pneumonia was carried out using data from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) for the Iberian Peninsula (IBS) as reference controls...
May 3, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751558/connexin-communication-compartments-and-wound-repair-in-epithelial-tissue
#9
REVIEW
Marc Chanson, Masakatsu Watanabe, Erin M O'Shaughnessy, Alice Zoso, Patricia E Martin
Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747958/emergency-department-intubation-success-with-succinylcholine-versus-rocuronium-a-national-emergency-airway-registry-study
#10
Michael D April, Allyson Arana, Daniel J Pallin, Steven G Schauer, Andrea Fantegrossi, Jessie Fernandez, Joseph K Maddry, Shane M Summers, Mark A Antonacci, Calvin A Brown
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although both succinylcholine and rocuronium are used to facilitate emergency department (ED) rapid sequence intubation, the difference in intubation success rate between them is unknown. We compare first-pass intubation success between ED rapid sequence intubation facilitated by succinylcholine versus rocuronium. METHODS: We analyzed prospectively collected data from the National Emergency Airway Registry, a multicenter registry collecting data on all intubations performed in 22 EDs...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746617/a-wake-up-call-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-providers-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-people-living-with-hiv
#11
Robert L Owens, Charles B Hicks
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is defined by repetitive collapse of the upper airway during sleep leading to transient hypoxemia and arousals from sleep. Surges in sympathetic activity, repeated oxygen desaturation, and sleep fragmentation can lead to cardiovascular (eg, myocardial infarction) and neurocognitive (eg, excessive daytime sleepiness) consequences. Emerging data suggest that OSA is common in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and that traditional risk factors for OSA, such as obesity, are not highly predictive of OSA in PLWH...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740589/cervical-hyperostosis-leading-to-dyspnea-aspiration-and-dysphagia-strategies-to-improve-patient-management
#12
Georgios Psychogios, Monika Jering, Johannes Zenk
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a rare but well known cause of dysphagia. In very few cases aspiration and dyspnea are described as a clinical manifestation. An 82-year-old man presented himself in our clinic with severe dyspnea, aspiration, and pneumonia. After performing a microlaryngoscopy an emergency tracheotomy became necessary. In laryngoscopy a severe bulging of the posterior oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal wall was detected. The glottis area was not observable and immobilisation of the right vocal cord could be detected...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734990/exosomal-cargo-properties-endothelial-function-and-treatment-of-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-a-proof-of-concept-study
#13
Rakesh Bhattacharjee, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Babak Mokhlesi, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Isaac Almendros, Eduard Peris, Atul Malhotra, David Gozal
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal studies support the usage of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to improve cardiovascular disease. However, the anticipated benefit is not ubiquitous. In this study, we elucidate whether PAP therapy leads to immediate improvements on endothelial function, a subclinical marker of cardiovascular status, by examining the effect of circulating exosomes, isolated from patients before and after PAP therapy, on naive endothelial cells...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734980/the-longest-obstructive-apnea-you-have-ever-seen-a-patient-with-new-onset-autonomic-dysfunction
#14
Puneet K Aulakh, David E Westerman, Raj C Dedhia
Autonomic dysfunction (AD) has been associated with both obstructive and central sleep apneas. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the emergence of sleep apnea in AD, which include impaired sensory input, compromised local reflexes, and altered central processing. We present a case of a 70-year-old woman who had experienced cardiac arrest four times related to hypoxic events due to the apparent sudden onset of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the setting of AD. The episodes of OSA were profoundly prolonged and a tracheostomy was ultimately needed due to the inability of positive airway pressure therapy with supplemental oxygen to control events...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732233/pathogenesis-of-recalcitrant-chronic-rhinosinusitis-the-emerging-role-of-innate-immune-cells
#15
REVIEW
Il Gyu Kong, Dae Woo Kim
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major part of the recalcitrant inflammatory diseases of the upper airway that needs enormous socioeconomic burden. T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses recruiting eosinophils were the most well-known immune players in CRS pathogenesis especially in western countries. By the piling up of a vast amount of researches to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of CRS recently, heterogeneous inflammatory processes were found to be related to the phenotypes of CRS. Recently more cells other than T cells were in the focus of CRS pathogenesis, such as the epithelial cell, macrophage, innate lymphoid cells, and neutrophils...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729549/targeting-arginase-and-nitric-oxide-metabolism-in-chronic-airway-diseases-and-their-co-morbidities
#16
REVIEW
Mariska Pm van den Berg, Herman Meurs, Reinoud Gosens
In the airways, arginase and NOS compete for the common substrate l-arginine. In chronic airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD, elevated arginase expression contributes to airway contractility, hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and remodeling. The disrupted l-arginine homeostasis, through changes in arginase and NOS expression and activity, does not only play a central role in the development of various airways diseases such as asthma or COPD. It possibly also affects l-arginine homeostasis throughout the body contributing to the emergence of co-morbidities...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727727/it-takes-a-village-phagocytes-play-a-central-role-in-fungal-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Michael B Feldman, Jatin M Vyas, Michael K Mansour
Phagocytosis is an essential step in the innate immune response to invasive fungal infections. This process is carried out by a proverbial "village" of professional phagocytic cells, which have evolved efficient machinery to recognize and ingest pathogens, namely macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells. These innate immune cells drive early cytokine production, fungicidal activity, antigen presentation and activation of the adaptive immune system. Despite the development of antifungal agents with potent activity, the biological activity of professional phagocytic innate immune cells has proven indispensable in protecting a host from invasive fungal infections...
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723609/advanced-vs-basic-life-support-in-the-treatment-of-out-of-hospital-cardiopulmonary-arrest-in-the-resuscitation-outcomes-consortium
#18
Michael Christopher Kurz, Robert H Schmicker, Brian Leroux, Graham Nichol, Tom P Aufderheide, Sheldon Cheskes, Brian Grunau, Jamie Jasti, Peter Kudenchuk, Gary M Vilke, Jason Buick, Lynn Wittwer, Ritu Sahni, Ronald Straight, Henry E Wang
BACKGROUND: Prior observational studies suggest no additional benefit from advanced life support (ALS) when compared with providing basic life support (BLS) for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We compared the association of ALS care with OHCA outcomes using prospective clinical data from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC). METHODS: Included were consecutive adults OHCA treated by participating emergency medical services (EMS) agencies between June 1, 2011, and June 30, 2015...
April 30, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718738/treatment-of-severe-uncontrolled-eosinophilic-asthma-where-we-are-heading
#19
Jonathan A Bernstein, Reynold Panettieri
OBJECTIVE: We sought to highlight how our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe asthma has evolved over time and discuss the role of biomarkers in treatment advances and emerging new therapies. DATA SOURCES: Nonsystematic PubMed literature search. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were selected based on areas of relevance to the classification of asthma by endotype, with an emphasis on the evolution of current treatment guidelines for severe asthma...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712728/acidic-mammalian-chitinase-negatively-affects-immune-responses-during-acute-and-chronic-aspergillus-fumigatus-exposure
#20
Jaleesa M Garth, Joseph J Mackel, Kristen M Reeder, Jonathan P Blackburn, Chad W Dunaway, Zhihong Yu, Sadis Matalon, Lori Fitz, Chad Steele
Chitin is a polysaccharide that provides structure and rigidity to the cell walls of fungi and insects. Mammals possess multiple chitinases, which function to degrade chitin, thereby supporting a role for chitinases in immune defense. However, chitin degradation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here, we determined the impact of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase; Chia ) deficiency on host defense during acute exposure to the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus as well as its contribution to A...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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