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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724771/intracellular-colocalization-of-influenza-viral-rna-and-rab11a-is-dependent-upon-microtubule-filaments
#1
Eric Nturibi, Amar R Bhagwat, Stefanie Coburn, Mike M Myerburg, Seema S Lakdawala
Influenza A virus (IAV) consists of eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments that are replicated in the host cell nucleus and transported to the plasma membrane for packaging into progeny virions. We have previously proposed a model where sub-complexes of vRNA export from the nucleus and assemble en route to the plasma membrane. However, the role of host cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasmic assembly of IAV vRNA segments remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that IAV vRNA segments transport via Rab11A-containing recycling endosomes (RE) and use both microtubules (MT) and actin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720723/profile-and-outcomes-of-critically-ill-children-in-a-lower-middle-income-country
#2
Muhammad Irfan Habib, Khalid Mehmood A Khan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill children presenting to a paediatric ED in a lower middle-income country. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of children (<14 years) presenting to the ED of the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, between January and December 2014 who were assigned to acuity 1 (requiring immediate life-saving interventions) according to the Emergency Severity Index. Data included demographic variables, presenting complaints, interventions and outcomes in the ED...
July 18, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717510/post-obstructive-pulmonary-edema-from-aspirated-nuts
#3
Ahsan Bashir, Sabina Qureshi Ahmad, Joshua Silverman, Emily Concepcion, Haesoon Lee
OBJECTIVES: Post-obstructive pulmonary edema is thought to occur from hemodynamic changes secondary to forced inspiration against the closed airway due to acute or chronic airway obstruction. We report a case of a 13 month-old boy who developed pulmonary edema from aspirated foreign body, nuts. METHODS: He underwent emergency bronchoscopy to confirm the clinical diagnosis of aspirated nuts in the trachea and nuts were removed endoscopically. His trachea was then intubated and he was mechanically ventilated with oxygen...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715092/the-origins-of-oral-medicine-in-the-hippocratic-collected-works
#4
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Vasileia Nyktari, Alexandra Papaioannou, Georgios Stefanakis, Elina Konsolaki
The collected works of Hippocrates describe for the first time in a systematic way a large number of oral diseases, such as ulcers, inflammations, abscesses and tumours from the epiglottis, mouth, tongue, palate, uvula and the sublingual area. Several of these case reports are remarkable for the accurate observation of clinical symptoms and signs, the aetiology, the pathogenesis and their therapeutic approach in relation to prognosis. The Hippocratic authors report cases of 'aphthae' as part of a polysystemic disease, described many centuries later by Behçet and Adamantiades, while they associate features of splenomegaly from endemic malaria with gingivitis ('ulitis')...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713772/harnessing-neutrophil-survival-mechanisms-during-chronic-infection-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-novel-therapeutic-targets-to-dampen-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Benoît S Marteyn, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Laurent Meijer, Véronique Witko-Sarsat
More than two decades after cloning the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene, the defective gene in cystic fibrosis (CF), we still do not understand how dysfunction of this ion channel causes lung disease and the tremendous neutrophil burden which persists within the airways; nor why chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa develops in CF patients who are thought to be immunocompetent. It appears that the microenvironment within the lung of CF patients provides favorable conditions for both P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711603/mir-139-5p-inhibits-proliferation-and-promoted-apoptosis-of-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-by-downregulating-the-brg1-gene
#6
Huanying Zhang, Zhongmei Sun, Lianfeng Yu, Jie Sun
MicroRNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the role of microRNAs in asthma needs to be further elucidated. In this study, we found that miR-139-5p was greatly decreased in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells from asthmatic humans as well as ASM cells stimulated with cytokines. Overexpression of miR-139-5p markedly suppressed ASM cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, whereas knockdown of miR-139-5p had the opposite effect. Further study verified that Brg1, a chromatin remodeling factor, was upregulated in ASM cells treated with cytokines and acted as a direct target of miR-139-5p...
July 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709415/assessing-anesthesiology-residents-out-of-the-operating-room-ooor-emergent-airway-management
#7
Lauryn R Rochlen, Michelle Housey, Ian Gannon, Shannon Mitchell, Deborah M Rooney, Alan R Tait, Milo Engoren
BACKGROUND: At many academic institutions, anesthesiology residents are responsible for managing emergent intubations outside of the operating room (OOOR), with complications estimated to be as high as 39%. In order to create an OOOR training curriculum, we evaluated residents' familiarity with the content and correct adherence to the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Difficult Airway Algorithm (ASA DAA). METHODS: Residents completed a pre-simulation multiple-choice survey measuring their understanding and use of the DAA...
July 15, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706720/endotype-driven-treatment-in-chronic-upper-airway-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Glynnis De Greve, Peter W Hellings, Wytske J Fokkens, Benoit Pugin, Brecht Steelant, Sven F Seys
Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are the two major clinical entities of chronic upper airway disease. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and allergic rhinitis (AR) affect respectively up to 10 and 30% of the total population, hence being associated with an important socio-economic burden. Different phenotypes of rhinitis and CRS have been described based on symptom severity and duration, atopy status, level of control, comorbidities and presence or absence of nasal polyps in CRS. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are diverse, with different, and sometimes overlapping, endotypes being recognized...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705229/brugada-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-case-report
#9
Anusha Battineni, Rohit Gummi, Naresh Mullaguri, Raghav Govindarajan
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive death of the upper and lower motor neurons in the central nervous system. Patients with this disease die mostly as a result of respiratory failure; however, owing to prolonged survival through assisted ventilation, cardiovascular causes are increasingly responsible for mortality. We report what is to the best of our knowledge the first case of type 2 Brugada syndrome causing ventricular tachyarrhythmia and cardiac arrest in a patient with upper limb onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701849/blunt-trauma-neck-with-complete-tracheal-transection-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge-to-the-trauma-team
#10
K N J Prakash Raju, D Anandhi, R Surendar, Ashwith Shetty, Vinay R Pandit
Survival following trachea-esophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Airway management is a unique and a defining element to the specialty of emergency medicine. There is no doubt regarding the significance of establishing a patent airway in the critically ill patient in the emergency department. Cannot intubate and cannot ventilate situation is a nightmare to all emergency physicians. The most important take-home message from this case report is that every Emergency physician should have the ability to predict "difficult airway" and recognize "failed airway" very early and be skilled in performing rescue techniques when routine oral-tracheal intubation fails...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696802/correlation-of-induced-sputum-eosinophil-levels-with-clinical-parameters-in-mild-and-moderate-persistent-asthma-in-children-aged-7-18%C3%A2-years
#11
Prachi Kansal, Devki Nandan, Sheetal Agarwal, Neha Patharia, Narendra Arya
BACKGROUND: Treatment decisions in asthma are currently based on clinical assessment and spirometry. Sputum eosinophil, being a marker of airway inflammation, can serve as a tool for assessing severity and response to treatment in asthma patients. OBJECTIVES: To measure eosinophil percentage in induced sputum in children with asthma and correlate it with clinical asthma parameters. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed at tertiary care hospital on 91 children aged 7-18 years with newly diagnosed mild or moderate persistent asthma...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693491/hypoxia-and-hypotension-in-patients-intubated-by-physician-staffed-helicopter-emergency-medical-services-a-prospective-observational-multi-centre-study
#12
Geir Arne Sunde, Mårten Sandberg, Richard Lyon, Knut Fredriksen, Brian Burns, Karl Ove Hufthammer, Jo Røislien, Akos Soti, Helena Jäntti, David Lockey, Jon-Kenneth Heltne, Stephen J M Sollid
BACKGROUND: The effective treatment of airway compromise in trauma and non-trauma patients is important. Hypoxia and hypotension are predictors of negative patient outcomes and increased mortality, and may be important quality indicators of care provided by emergency medical services. Excluding cardiac arrests, critical trauma and non-trauma patients remain the two major groups to which helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are dispatched. Several studies describe the impact of pre-hospital hypoxia or hypotension on trauma patients, but few studies compare this in trauma and non-trauma patients...
July 11, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693463/descriptive-analysis-of-cochrane-child-relevant-systematic-reviews-an-update-and-comparison-between-2009-and-2013
#13
Katelynn Crick, Denise Thomson, Ricardo M Fernandes, Megan Nuspl, Dean T Eurich, Brian H Rowe, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews support health systems and clinical decision-making by identifying and summarizing all existing studies on a particular topic. In 2009, a comprehensive description of child-relevant systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was compiled. This study aims to provide an update, and to describe these systematic reviews according to their content and methodological approaches. METHODS: All child-relevant systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Collaboration in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) as of March, 2013 were identified and described in relation to their content and methodological approaches...
July 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692347/prevalence-of-difficult-intubation-and-failed-intubation-in-a-diverse-obstetric-community-based-population
#14
Richard Pollard, Matthew Wagner, Katherine Grichnik, Brittany C Clyne, Ashraf S Habib
Objective To describe the incidence of difficult and failed intubations in obstetric patients during a 6-year period monitored by a quality assurance program together with American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) scores, and obesity (Body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)). Methods Following Institutional Review Board approval, data about obstetric patients who experienced unanticipated difficult or failed intubations from 2010-2015 were obtained from the quality assurance database of a large, community-based anesthesiology group practice...
July 10, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680511/emergency-department-procedural-sedation-for-primary-electrical-cardioversion-a-comparison-with-procedural-sedations-for-other-reasons
#15
Michael Butler, Patrick Froese, Peter Zed, George Kovacs, Robert MacKinley, Kirk Magee, Mary-Lynn Watson, Samuel G Campbell
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia treated in the emergency department (ED), with primary electrical cardioversion (PEC) the preferred method of rhythm control. Anecdotally, patients undergoing ED procedural sedation (EDPS) for PEC differ from those requiring EDPS for other procedures: they are at higher risk of adverse events, and require fewer drugs and lower doses. We attempt to verify this using an EDPS registry at a Canadian, tertiary care teaching hospital...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677878/hypocalcaemia-induced-tetany-secondary-to-total-thyroidectomy-a-nursing-case-review
#16
Shannon Bakon, Judy Craft, Martin Christensen
Presentations to the emergency department with a diagnosis of hypocalcaemia-induced tetany secondary to total thyroidectomy are rare. A patient presented to the emergency department of a regional Australian hospital with hypocalcaemia-induced tetany. A case study was employed to reflect on the care provided and identify knowledge practice deficits within this unusual patient presentation. Calcium plays a central role within the nervous system and is vital for both cardiac and muscular contraction. The clinical manifestations of electrolyte disturbances such as hypocalcaemia can be life threatening, and therefore, appropriate assessment, monitoring and management are essential to ensure positive patient outcomes...
July 5, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673655/peak-inspiratory-flow-as-predictor-for-tracheotomy
#17
M Lesnik, J J Sanchez-Guerrero, O De Crouy Chanel, C Hervé, J Guerlain, S Périé
OBJECTIVES: Quantitative evaluation of upper airway obstruction cannot be commonly performed under acute dyspnea, especially in head and neck cancer (HNC); the decision whether or not to perform airway control surgery may be difficult to reach. Peak inspiratory flow (PIF) has been previously demonstrated to be a useful tool to decide on decannulation after HNC surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of PIF as a standardized non-invasive tool in quantifying severe inspiratory dyspnea requiring emergency tracheostomy...
June 30, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672861/free-and-nanoencapsulated-tobramycin-effects-on-planktonic-and-biofilm-forms-of-pseudomonas
#18
Eulalia Sans-Serramitjana, Marta Jorba, Ester Fusté, José Luis Pedraz, Teresa Vinuesa, Miguel Viñas
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder in which frequent pulmonary infections develop secondarily. One of the major pulmonary pathogens colonizing the respiratory tract of CF patients and causing chronic airway infections is Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Although tobramycin was initially effective against P. aeruginosa, tobramycin-resistant strains have emerged. Among the strategies for overcoming resistance to tobramycin and other antibiotics is encapsulation of the drugs in nanoparticles. In this study, we explored the antimicrobial activity of nanoencapsulated tobramycin, both in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), against clinical isolates of P...
June 26, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670686/anaesthesia-practices-for-endovascular-therapy-of-acute-ischaemic-stroke-a-nordic-survey
#19
M Rasmussen, C Z Simonsen, L H Sørensen, S Dyrskog, D A Rusy, D Sharma, N Juul
BACKGROUND: The optimal method of anaesthesia for endovascular therapy (EVT) in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has not been identified. Nordic departments of anaesthesiology may handle EVT cases for AIS differently. The aim of this survey was to describe the current practice patterns of Nordic anaesthesia departments in anaesthetic management of EVT in AIS. METHODS: A survey consisting of 13 questions was sent to one qualified individual at all Nordic departments of anaesthesiology who manage anaesthesia for EVT interventions...
July 2, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669462/advanced-pediatric-airway-simulation
#20
REVIEW
Charles M Myer, Noel Jabbour
Simulation is an emerging and viable means to increase pediatric airway surgical training. A variety of simulators currently exist that may be used or modified for laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and endoscopic intervention, although anatomic realism and utility for complex procedures are limited. There is a need for further development of improved endoscopic and anatomic models. Innovative techniques are enabling small-scale manufacturing of generalizable and patient-specific simulators. The high acuity of the pediatric airway patient makes the use of simulation an attractive modality for training, competency maintenance, and patient safety quality-improvement studies...
June 29, 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
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