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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444316/glucose-triggers-stomatal-closure-mediated-by-gin1-gin2-pyr-rcar-ros-no-cdpk6-and-slac1-in-arabidposis
#1
Yan Li, Shanshan Xu, Zhiwei Wang, Lingchao He, Kang Xu, Genxuan Wang
Sugars play important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stomatal movement. Here, we found that glucose triggered stomatal closure, showing a dose-and time-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. Pharmacological data showed that glucose-induced stomatal closure was greatly inhibited by catalase (CAT, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), lanthanum chloride (LaCl3, a Ca2+ channel blocker), ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca2+ chelator), two nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitors, tungstate and sodium azide (NaN3), while not affected by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, a peroxidase inhibitor)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444108/distribution-of-siderophore-gene-systems-on-a-vibrionaceae-phylogeny-database-searches-phylogenetic-analyses-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#2
Sunniva Katharina Thode, Ewelina Rojek, Mikolaj Kozlowski, Rafi Ahmad, Peik Haugen
Siderophores are small molecules synthesized and secreted by bacteria and fungi to scavenge iron. Extracellular ferri-siderohores are recognized by cognate receptors on the cell surface for transport over membranes. Several siderophore systems from Vibrionaceae representatives are known and well understood, e.g., the molecular structure of the siderophore, the biosynthesis gene cluster and pathway, and the gene expression pattern. Less is known about how these systems are distributed among the ~140 Vibrionaceae species, and which evolutionary processes contributed to the present-day distribution...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436680/curcumin-increases-cholesterol-efflux-via-heme-oxygenase%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-mediated-abca1-and-sr%C3%A2-bi-expression-in-macrophages
#3
Yi Zhong, Jian Feng, Zhongcai Fan, Jiafu Li
Curcumin, which is an extract from a traditional Chinese medicine, has previously been demonstrated to exhibit an anti‑atherosclerotic effect, which is closely associated with an increase in cholesterol efflux. However, it is unclear as to whether the increased effect is mediated by heme oxygenase (HO)‑1. Macrophages were treated with different concentrations of curcumin, HO‑1 inhibitor and small interfering (si)RNA in different experiments. Analysis of protein expression was conducted via western blotting...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435718/varroa-destructor-parasitism-reduces-hemocyte-concentrations-and-prophenol-oxidase-gene-expression-in-bees-from-two-populations
#4
Gun Koleoglu, Paul H Goodwin, Mariana Reyes-Quintana, Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Circulating hemocytes are responsible for defensive and healing mechanisms in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Parasitism by the mite Varroa destructor and injection of V. destructor homogenate in buffer, but not buffer injection, showed similar reductions in total hemocyte concentrations in both Africanized and European adult honey bees. This indicated that compounds in V. destructor homogenate can have similar effects as V. destructor parasitism and that the response is not solely due to wounding. Samples from honey bees with different hemocyte concentrations were compared for the expression patterns of hemolectin (AmHml), prophenol oxidase (AmPpo), and class C scavenger receptor (AmSRC-C)...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435202/podocyte-derived-microparticles-promote-proximal-tubule-fibrotic-signaling-via-p38-mapk-and-cd36
#5
Mercedes N Munkonda, Shareef Akbari, Chloe Landry, Suzy Sun, Fengxia Xiao, Maddison Turner, Chet E Holterman, Rania Nasrallah, Richard L Hébert, Christopher R J Kennedy, Dylan Burger
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a hallmark of advanced diabetic kidney disease that is linked to a decline in renal function, however the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Microparticles (MPs) are 100-1000 nm vesicles shed from injured cells that are implicated in intercellular signalling. Our lab recently observed the formation of MPs from podocytes and their release into urine of animal models of type 1 and 2 diabetes and in humans with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of podocyte MPs in tubular epithelial cell fibrotic responses...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434606/macrophage-recognition-of-crystals-and-nanoparticles
#6
REVIEW
Masafumi Nakayama
Inhalation of exogenous crystals such as silica, asbestos, and carbon nanotubes can cause lung fibrosis and cancer. Endogenous crystals such as monosodium urate, cholesterol, and hydroxyapatite are associated with pathogenesis of gout, atherosclerosis, and osteoarthritis, respectively. These crystal-associated-inflammatory diseases are triggered by the macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death. Therefore, it is important to understand how macrophages recognize crystals. However, it is unlikely that macrophages have evolutionally acquired receptors specific for crystals or recently emerged nanoparticles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431866/monocyte-subsets-and-their-phenotypes-during-treatment-with-bcr-abl1-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-leukemia
#7
Takaaki Konuma, Chisato Kohara, Eri Watanabe, Motoko Mizukami, Etsuko Nagai, Susumu Tanoue, Masamichi Isobe, Koji Jimbo, Seiko Kato, Nobuhiro Ohno, Satoshi Takahashi, Arinobu Tojo
BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective agents in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. However, vascular events have developed in some patients receiving each TKI. The perturbation of circulating monocyte subsets and their expressions of chemokine and scavenger receptors are associated with the development of cardiovascular events. Here, we examined the subsets of circulating monocytes and their phenotypes in 51 patients treated with imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib, and 11 healthy subjects in our institute...
February 12, 2018: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430178/engineered-exosome-mediated-delivery-of-functionally-active-mir-26a-and-its-enhanced-suppression-effect-in-hepg2-cells
#8
Gaofeng Liang, Shu Kan, Yanliang Zhu, Shuying Feng, Wenpo Feng, Shegan Gao
Introduction: Exosomes are closed-membrane nanovesicles that are secreted by a variety of cells and exist in most body fluids. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of exosomes as natural vehicles that target delivery of functional small RNA and chemotherapeutics to diseased cells. Methods: In this study, we introduce a new approach for the targeted delivery of exosomes loaded with functional miR-26a to scavenger receptor class B type 1-expressing liver cancer cells...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428931/increased-expression-of-the-innate-immune-receptor-tlr10-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-association-with-ros-mediated-oxidative-stress
#9
Sardar Sindhu, Nadeem Akhter, Shihab Kochumon, Reeby Thomas, Ajit Wilson, Steve Shenouda, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metabolic diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D) are known to be associated with chronic low-grade inflammation called metabolic inflammation together with an oxidative stress milieu found in the expanding adipose tissue. The innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLR) such as TLR2 and TLR4 have emerged as key players in metabolic inflammation; nonetheless, TLR10 expression in the adipose tissue and its significance in obesity/T2D remain unclear. METHODS: TLR10 gene expression was determined in the adipose tissue samples from healthy non-diabetic and T2D individuals, 13 each, using real-time RT-PCR...
January 30, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428440/melatonin-a-cutaneous-perspective-on-its-production-metabolism-and-functions
#10
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Ruediger Hardeland, Michal A Zmijewski, Radomir M Slominski, Russel J Reiter, Ralf Paus
Melatonin, an evolutionarily ancient derivative of serotonin with hormonal properties, is the main neuroendocrine secretory product of the pineal gland. Although melatonin is best known to regulate circadian rhythmicity and lower vertebrate skin pigmentation, the full spectrum of functional activities of this free radical-scavenging molecule, which also induces/promotes complex antioxidative and DNA repair systems, includes immunomodulatory, thermoregulatory, and antitumor properties. Because this plethora of functional melatonin properties still awaits to be fully appreciated by dermatologists, the current review synthesizes the main features that render melatonin a promising candidate for the management of several dermatoses associated with substantial oxidative damage...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421784/complement-activation-in-capillary-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#11
Ko Matsuo, Akihiro Shindo, Atsushi Niwa, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Haruhiko Akiyama, Takashi Ayaki, Takakuni Maki, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Ryosuke Takahashi, Shinji Oikawa, Hidekazu Tomimoto
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is classified as type 1 with capillary amyloid β (Aβ) or type 2 without capillary Aβ. While it is known that CAA activates complement, an inflammatory mediator, there is no information on the relationship between capillary Aβ and complement activation. METHODS: We evaluated 34 autopsy brains, including 22 with CAA and 12 with other neurodegenerative diseases. We assessed the vascular density of CAA by analyzing the expression of complement (C1q, C3d, C6, C5b-9), macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR), and apolipoprotein E (ApoE)...
February 8, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420566/a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-carboxymethyllysine-an-advanced-glycation-end-product-in-atherosclerosis-and-pancreatic-cancer
#12
Ulrika Wendel, Nina Persson, Christian Risinger, Eva Bengtsson, Björn Nodin, Lena Danielsson, Charlotte Welinder, Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson, Bo Jansson, Ola Blixt
Advanced glycation end products are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between proteins and carbohydrates, causing irreversible lysine and arginine alterations that severely affect protein structure and function. The resulting modifications induce inflammation by binding to scavenger receptors. An increase in advanced glycation end products is observed in a number of diseases e.g. atherosclerosis and cancer. Since advanced glycation end products also are present in healthy individuals, their detection and quantification are of great importance for usage as potential biomarkers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420090/lxr%C3%AE-is-expressed-at-higher-levels-in-healthy-people-compared-to-atherosclerosis-patients-and-its-over-expression-polarizes-macrophages-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-m%C3%AE-2-phenotype
#13
Mengyuan Liu, Weijian Yang, Shuling Liu, Duncan Hock, Bohao Zhang, Ruth Ya Huo, Xiaoguang Tong, Hua Yan
OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate the expression patterns of MΦ1 and MΦ2 phenotype markers of peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC)-derived macrophages in atherosclerosis patients and healthy controls, as well as the expression correlation among these genes. (2) To elucidate whether a high level of liver X receptor α (LXRα) expression is associated with anti-inflammatory MΦ2-type polarization. DESIGN: Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were obtained from 28 patients with carotid artery plaques and 10 normal persons, who did not have carotid artery plaques...
February 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419792/revealing-subtle-functional-subgroups-in-class-a-scavenger-receptors-by-pattern-discovery-and-disentanglement-of-aligned-pattern-clusters
#14
Pei-Yuan Zhou, En-Shiun Annie Lee, Antonio Sze-To, Andrew K C Wong
A protein family has similar and diverse functions locally conserved as aligned sequence segments. Further discovering their association patterns could reveal subtle family subgroup characteristics. Since aligned residues associations (ARAs) in Aligned Pattern Clusters (APCs) are complex and intertwined due to entangled function, factors, and variance in the source environment, we have recently developed a novel method: Aligned Residue Association Discovery and Disentanglement (ARADD) to solve this problem...
February 8, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415995/plasma-hemopexin-ameliorates-murine-spinal-cord-injury-by-switching-microglia-from-the-m1-state-to-the-m2-state
#15
Dunxin Han, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Dou Yin, Yingyan Pu, Jifeng Feng, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Li Cao, Cheng He
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating type of central nervous system (CNS) trauma with limited therapeutic treatments. The polarization of microglia into the M1 or M2 state has been documented to play important roles in the pathogenesis of SCI, although the complete repertoire of underlying factors has not been identified. Interestingly, the time point at which hematomyelia (intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage) is alleviated coincides with a decrease in the number of M2 microglia. Here the function of Hemopexin (Hpx), a hematogenous glycoprotein, was examined in the crush model of SCI...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410501/liver-x-receptor-exerts-a-protective-effect-against-the-oxidative-stress-in-the-peripheral-nerve
#16
Mehdi Hichor, Venkat Krishnan Sundaram, Stéphanie A Eid, Ronza Abdel-Rassoul, Patrice X Petit, Didier Borderie, Jean Bastin, Assaad A Eid, Marin Manuel, Julien Grenier, Charbel Massaad
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modify proteins and lipids leading to deleterious outcomes. Thus, maintaining their homeostatic levels is vital. This study highlights the endogenous role of LXRs (LXRα and β) in the regulation of oxidative stress in peripheral nerves. We report that the genetic ablation of both LXR isoforms in mice (LXRdKO) provokes significant locomotor defects correlated with enhanced anion superoxide production, lipid oxidization and protein carbonylation in the sciatic nerves despite the activation of Nrf2-dependant antioxidant response...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409856/crocin-mediated-amelioration-of-oxidative-burden-and-inflammatory-cascade-suppresses-diabetic-nephropathy-progression-in-diabetic-rats
#17
Hadeer O Abou-Hany, Hoda Atef, Eman Said, Hassan Elkashef, Hatem A Salem
Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is one of the main complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Persistently elevated blood glucose level drives histopathological changes in renal tissues that hinder normal kidney functions. In the current study, crocin; the main bioactive constituent of Crocus sativus was investigated as a reno-protective agent against DN by virtue of its numerous pharmacological activities. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawely rats through intravenous injection of streptozocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg), DN was confirmed eight weeks post diabetes induction...
February 2, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409792/role-of-scavenger-receptor-from-octopus-ocellatus-as-a-co-receptor-of-toll-like-receptor-in-initiation-of-tlr-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-during-anti-bacterial-response
#18
Xiumei Wei, Tianyu Zhao, Kete Ai, Huiying Li, Jiang Xu, Cheng Li, Qianqian Wang, Jianmin Yang, Ranran Zhang, Jialong Yang
Scavenger receptors are crucial for innate immunity owing to their prominent role in clearance of harmful endogenous factors, immune recognition, and more importantly, as co-receptors of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to initiate downstream responses. At present, invertebrate scavenger receptors, especially their role in immune mechanisms, are largely unknown. We report here that scavenger receptors form a diverse superfamily in Octopus ocellatus, including at least five different members with distinct tissue expression patterns...
January 31, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408809/foxo-transcription-factors-are-required-for-hepatic-hdl-cholesterol-clearance
#19
Samuel X Lee, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan, Jing Liu, Gabriella Belnavis, Ido Haimi, Alexander W Fischer, Henry Ginsberg, Joerg Heeren, Franz Rinninger, Rebecca A Haeusler
Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The insulin-repressible FoxO transcription factors are potential mediators of insulin's effect on HDL-C. FoxOs mediate a substantial portion of insulin-regulated transcription, and poor FoxO repression is thought to contribute to the excessive glucose production in diabetes. In this work, we show that mice with liver-specific triple FoxO knockout (L-FoxO1,3,4), which are known to have reduced hepatic glucose production, also have increased HDL-C...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408009/design-of-peptide-mimetics-to-block-pro-inflammatory-functions-of-ha-fragments
#20
REVIEW
Alexandra Hauser-Kawaguchi, Leonard G Luyt, Eva Turley
Hyaluronan is a simple extracellular matrix polysaccharide that actively regulates inflammation in tissue repair and disease processes. The native HA polymer, which is large (>500 kDa), contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis. In remodeling and diseased tissues, polymer size is strikingly polydisperse, ranging from <10 kDa to >500 kDa. In a diseased or stressed tissue context, both smaller HA fragments and high molecular weight HA polymers can acquire pro-inflammatory functions, which result in the activation of multiple receptors, triggering pro-inflammatory signaling to diverse stimuli...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
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