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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676230/insights-into-the-molecular-aspects-of-neuroprotective-bacoside-a-and-bacopaside-i
#1
Vini C Sekhar, Gayathri Viswanathan, Sabulal Baby
Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as Brahmi, has been extensively used as a neuromedicine for various disorders such as anxiety, depression and memory loss. Chemical characterization studies revealed the major active constituents of the herb as the triterpenoid saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A, the vital neuroprotective constituent, is composed of four constituents viz., bacoside A3, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (bacopaside X) and bacopasaponin C. B. monnieri extracts as well as bacosides successfully establish a healthy antioxidant environment in various tissues especially in liver and brain...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668881/hyperactive-ryanodine-receptors-in-human-heart-failure-and-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-reside-outside-of-couplons
#2
Eef Dries, Demetrio J Santiago, Guillaume Gilbert, Ilse Lenaerts, Bert Vandenberk, Chandan K Nagaraju, Daniel M Johnson, Patricia Holemans, H Llewelyn Roderick, Niall Macquaide, Piet Claus, Karin R Sipido
Aims: In ventricular myocytes from humans and large mammals, the transverse and axial tubular system (TATS) network is less extensive than in rodents with consequently a greater proportion of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) not coupled to this membrane system. TATS remodeling in heart failure (HF) and after myocardial infarction (MI) increases the fraction of non-coupled RyR. Here we investigate whether this remodeling alters the activity of coupled and non-coupled RyR sub-populations through changes in local signaling...
April 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668255/differential-recognition-of-nanoparticle-protein-corona-and-modified-low-density-lipoprotein-by-macrophage-receptor-with-collagenous-structure
#3
Sandra Lara, André Perez-Potti, Luciana M Herda, Laurent Adumeau, Kenneth A Dawson, Yan Yan
Key practical challenges such as to understand the immunological processes at the nanoscale, and to control the targeting and accumulation of nano-objects in vivo now further stimulate efforts to underpin phenomenological knowledge of the nanoscale with more mechanistic and molecular insight. Thus, the question as to what constitutes nanoscale biological identity continues to evolve. Certainly nanoparticles in contact with complex biological milieu develop a biological identity, differing from the original nanomaterial, now referred to as the 'biomolecular corona'...
April 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668110/phenylbutyl-isoselenocyanate-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-to-inhibit-androgen-receptor-and-to-initiate-p53-mediated-apoptosis-in-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells
#4
Wei Wu, Deepkamal Karelia, Kartick Pramanik, Shantu G Amin, Arun K Sharma, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lu
Previous studies have established the in vivo bioavailability and efficacious dosages of phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4), a selenium-substituted isothiocyanate, against mouse xenograft models of human melanoma and colorectal cancer. To explore its potential attributes against prostate cancer, we treated human LNCaP prostate cancer cells with ISC-4 and examined their apoptosis responses, and interrogated the signaling mechanisms through pharmacological and siRNA knockdown approaches. Our results show that ISC-4 was more potent at inducing apoptosis than its sulfur analog phenylbutyl isothiocyanate (PBITC) without suppressing protein kinase AKT Ser473 phosphorylation...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667169/expression-of-scavenger-receptor-marco-defines-a-targetable-tumor-associated-macrophage-subset-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Linnéa La Fleur, Vanessa F Boura, Andrey Alexeyenko, Anders Berglund, Victor Pontén, Johanna Sm Mattsson, Dijana Djureinovic, Johan Persson, Hans Brunnström, Johan Isaksson, Eva Brandén, Hirsh Koyi, Patrick Micke, Mikael Ci Karlsson, Johan Botling
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are attractive targets for immunotherapy. Recently, studies in animal models showed that treatment with an anti-TAM antibody directed against the scavenger receptor MARCO resulted in suppression of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Here we investigated the expression of MARCO in relation to other macrophage markers and immune pathways in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohort (n=352). MARCO, CD68, CD163, MSR1 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and associations to other immune cells and regulatory pathways were studied in a subset of cases (n=199) with available RNA-seq data...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665015/the-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-senses-and-gradually-responds-to-inter-specific-competition-for-iron
#6
Anne Leinweber, Michael Weigert, Rolf Kümmerli
Phenotypic plasticity in response to competition is a well-described phenomenon in higher organisms. Here, we show that also bacteria have the ability to sense the presence of competitors and mount fine-tuned responses to match prevailing levels of competition. In our experiments, we studied inter-specific competition for iron between the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and its competitor Burkholderia cenocepacia (BC). We focused on the ability of PA to phenotypically adjust the production of pyoverdine, an iron-scavenging siderophore...
April 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660655/urolithin-a-shows-anti-atherosclerotic-activity-via-activation-of-class-b-scavenger-receptor-and-activation-of-nef2-signaling-pathway
#7
Guang-Hao Cui, Wei-Qian Chen, Zhen-Ya Shen
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the therapeutic potential of urothelin A in attenuating atherosclerotic lesion in wistar rat models and explore the role of Scavenger receptor-class B type I (SR-BI) and activation of Nrf-2 singling pathway. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 48) were feed with high cholesterol diet supplemented with Vitamin D3 and subjected to balloon injury of the aorta. Three days prior to the aortal injury, rats (n = 16) were administered urothelin A (3 mg/kg/d; po)...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659325/reactive-oxygen-species-mediates-50-hz-magnetic-field-induced-egf-receptor-clustering-via-acid-sphingomyelinase-activation
#8
Liyuan Sun, Liangjing Chen, Lina Bai, Yongpeng Xia, Xiaobo Yang, Wei Jiang, Wenjun Sun
PURPOSE: Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-MFs) could elicit biological effects including carcinogenesis. However, the detailed mechanisms by which these ELF-MFs interact with biological system are currently unclear. Previously, we found that a 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) exposure could induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) clustering and phosphorylation on cell membranes. In the present experiment, the possible roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MF-induced EGFR clustering were investigated...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655793/inhibition-of-nlrp9b-attenuates-acute-lung-injury-through-suppressing-inflammation-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-murine-and-cell-models
#9
Qiu Yanling, Cheng Xiaoning, Bai Fei, Fang Liyun, Hu Huizhong, Sun Daqing
Acute lung injury (ALI), known a severe disease along with high morbidity and mortality, is lacking of specific therapies. Inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress are critical pathologies that contribute to ALI. Recently, there is study indicated that NLRP9b, a NOD-like receptor (NLR) member, is critical in modulation of inflammatory response. However, the effects of NLRP9b on sepsis-associated ALI, and the underlying molecular mechanism have not been understood. In the present study, the wild type (WT) and NLRP9b-knockout (NLRP9b-/- ) mice with C57B/L6 background were subjected to a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) for ALI murine model establishment...
April 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653287/detecting-the-functional-complexities-between-high-density-lipoprotein-mimetics
#10
Yoshitaka J Sei, Jungho Ahn, Taeyoung Kim, Eunjung Shin, Angel J Santiago-Lopez, Seung Soon Jang, Noo Li Jeon, Young C Jang, YongTae Kim
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis through its native roles like reverse cholesterol transport. The reconstitution of this natural nanoparticle (NP) has become a nexus between nanomedicine and multi-disease therapies, for which a major portion of HDL functionality is attributed to its primary scaffolding protein, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1). ApoA1-mimetic peptides were formulated as cost-effective alternatives to apoA1-based therapies; reverse-4F (r4F) is one such peptide used as part of a nanoparticle platform...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651042/effects-of-scavenger-receptors-1-class-a-stimulation-on-macrophage-morphology-and-highly-modified-advanced-glycation-end-product-protein-phagocytosis
#11
Shinichi Hamasaki, Takuro Kobori, Yui Yamazaki, Atsuhiro Kitaura, Atsuko Niwa, Takashi Nishinaka, Masahiro Nishibori, Shuji Mori, Shinichi Nakao, Hideo Takahashi
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which comprise non-enzymatically glycosylated proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid amino groups, play an important role in several diseases and aging processes including angiopathy, renal failure, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative diseases. Among AGE-associated phenotypes, toxic AGEs, glyceraldehyde-derived AGE-2, and glycolaldehyde-derived AGE-3 are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In addition, macrophages are reported to remove extracellular AGEs from tissues via scavenger receptors, leading to the progression of atherosclerosis...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642438/sesamol-inhibited-melanogenesis-by-regulating-melanin-related-signal-transduction-in-b16f10-cells
#12
Po-Yuan Wu, Ya-Jhen You, Yi-Jung Liu, Chien-Wei Hou, Chin-Sheng Wu, Kuo-Ching Wen, Chien-Yih Lin, Hsiu-Mei Chiang
Melanin is synthesized through a series of interactions catalyzed by melanogenic enzymes such as tyrosinase, dopachrome tautomerase (tyrosinase-related protein-2; TRP-2), and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). Tyrosinase plays a key role in catalysing the initial and limiting steps of melanogenesis. The melanin that results from melanogenesis has the protective effect of absorbing ultraviolet radiation. However, overproduction of melanin, in addition to altering the appearance of skin, may lead to skin disorders such as melasma, solar lentigo, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627764/dynamic-role-of-the-transmembrane-glycoprotein-cd36-sr-b2-in-cellular-fatty-acid-uptake-and-utilization
#13
Jan F C Glatz, Joost J F P Luiken
The widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein CD36, a scavenger receptor class B protein (SR-B2), serves many functions in lipid metabolism and signaling. Here, we review CD36's role in facilitating cellular long-chain fatty-acid uptake across the plasma membrane, particularly in heart and skeletal muscles. CD36 acts in concert with other membrane proteins, such as peripheral plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (FABPpm), and is an intracellular docking site for cytoplasmic FABP (FABPc). The cellular fatty-acid uptake rate is governed primarily by the presence of CD36 at the cell surface, which is regulated by the subcellular vesicular recycling of CD36 from endosomes to the plasma membrane...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625180/a%C3%AE-oligomer-uptake-and-the-resulting-inflammatory-response-in-adult-human-astrocytes-are-precluded-by-an-anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-in-combination-with-an-apoe-mimetic-peptide
#14
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra D Mulder, Maaike A C Herrebout, Johannes C Baayen, Sandra Villegas, Robert Veerhuis
An imbalance between production and clearance of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) initiates the pathological process in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ-specific antibodies seemed promising as therapeutic option in AD mouse models. In patients, however, vascular side-effects and Aβ-antibody complex-induced microglial and/or perivascular macrophage inflammatory responses were encountered. To prevent inflammatory reactions, we designed a single chain variable fragment (scFv-h3D6), based on monoclonal antibody bapineuzumab (mAb-h3D6), but lacking the Fc region...
April 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624112/cathepsin-s-is-associated-with-degradation-of-collagen-i-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#15
Veronika Klaus, Fadwa Schmies, Christian Reeps, Matthias Trenner, Sarah Geisbüsch, Fabian Lohoefer, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Jaroslav Pelisek
BACKGROUND: Cathepsins have been described in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), their exact role, especially in collagen degradation, is still unclear. The aim of the present study was therefore to analyse relevant cathepsins in human AAA tissue samples in relation to collagen I, III, and their degradation products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 37 AAA patients obtained from elective open surgical repair and eight healthy non-aneurysmatic aortas from kidney donors were included...
April 6, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619884/cardioprotective-effect-of-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-m2000-as-a-novel-nsaid-on-gene-expression-of-oxldl-scavenger-receptors-in-the-experimental-diabetic-model
#16
Seyed Shahabeddin Mortazavi-Jahromi, Shahab Alizadeh, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Abbas Mirshafiey
CONTEXT: The investigations have shown that patients with diabetes have the elevated levels of glucose and oxLDL. These two play an important role in increased expression levels of oxLDL scavenger receptors on the surface of macrophages and endothelial cells that leads to deposition of oxLDL and macrophages in vascular walls. OBJECTIVE: The present study intends to show the effects of β-d-mannuronic acid (M2000) on the expression profile of ox-LDL scavenger receptors (including SR-A, LOX-1, CD36, and CD68) in an experimental model of diabetes...
April 5, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618492/autophagy-regulates-testosterone-synthesis-by-facilitating-cholesterol-uptake-in-leydig-cells
#17
Fengyi Gao, Guoping Li, Chao Liu, Hui Gao, Hao Wang, Weixiao Liu, Min Chen, Yongliang Shang, Lina Wang, Jian Shi, Wenlong Xia, Jianwei Jiao, Fei Gao, Jian Li, Liang Chen, Wei Li
Testosterone is indispensable for sexual development and maintaining male characteristics, and deficiency of this hormone results in primary or late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Testosterone is primarily produced in Leydig cells, where autophagy has been reported to be extremely active. However, the functional role of autophagy in testosterone synthesis remains unknown. In this study, we show that steroidogenic cell-specific disruption of autophagy influenced the sexual behavior of aging male mice because of a reduction in serum testosterone, which is similar to the symptoms of LOH...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617722/pcsk9-regulates-expression-of-scavenger-receptors-and-ox-ldl-uptake-in-macrophages
#18
Zufeng Ding, Shijie Liu, Xianwei Wang, Sue Theus, Xiaoyan Deng, Yubo Fan, Sichang Zhou, Jawahar L Mehta
Aims: PCSK9 has been shown to influence macrophage biology and modulate atherogenesis. We conducted this study to examine the regulation of scavenger receptors (SRs) (LOX-1, SRA and CD36) and oxidized liporoptein cholesterol (ox-LDL) uptake in macrophages by PCSK9. Methods and Results: Treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with TNF-α resulted in concentration-dependent modest, but significant, increase in PCSK9 expression. Importantly, treatment of TNF-α primed macrophages with recombinant murine PCSK9 increased the expression of LOX-1, SRA and CD36 2-5 fold, and enhanced ox-LDL uptake by ≈5-fold...
March 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617044/pcsk9-plays-a-novel-immunological-role-in-the-oxidized-ldl-induced-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-t-cell-activation-from-human-blood-and-atherosclerotic-plaque
#19
Anquan Liu, Johan Frostegård
BACKGROUND: Activated T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) occur in atherosclerotic plaques. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) targets the LDL-receptor (LDLR), and results in increased LDL-levels. We here investigate immune effects of PCSK9 on OxLDL induced DC maturation and T cell activation. METHODS: T cells were isolated from carotid specimens of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, or from peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Human peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into DCs...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617041/direct-binding-and-internalization-of-diverse-extracellular-nucleic-acid-species-through-the-collagenous-domain-of-class-a-scavenger-receptors
#20
Kaushal Baid, Srinivas Nellimarla, Angela Huynh, Stephen Boulton, Alba Guarné, Giuseppe Melacini, Susan E Collins, Karen L Mossman
Nucleic acids are potential pathogen-associated or danger-associated molecular patterns that modulate immune responses and the development of autoimmune disorders. Class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are a diverse group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize a variety of polyanionic ligands including nucleic acids. While SR-As are important for the recognition and internalization of extracellular dsRNA, little is known about extracellular DNA, despite its association with chronic infections and autoimmune disorders...
April 4, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
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