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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821876/transcriptomic-biochemical-and-physio-anatomical-investigations-shed-more-light-on-responses-to-drought-stress-in-two-contrasting-sesame-genotypes
#1
Komivi Dossa, Donghua Li, Linhai Wang, Xiaomin Zheng, Aili Liu, Jingyin Yu, Xin Wei, Rong Zhou, Daniel Fonceka, Diaga Diouf, Boshou Liao, Ndiaga Cissé, Xiurong Zhang
Sesame is an important oilseed crop with a high oil quality. It is prone to drought stress in the arid and semi-arid areas where it is widely grown. This study aims to decipher the response of tolerant (DT) and sensitive (DS) genotypes to progressive drought based on transcriptome, biochemical and physio-anatomical characterizations. Results indicated that under severe stress, DT relied on a well-functioning taproot while DS displayed a disintegrated root due to collapsed cortical cells. This was attributed to a higher accumulation of osmoprotectants and strong activity of antioxidant enzymes especially peroxidases in DT...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821389/debris-buster-is-a-drosophila-scavenger-receptor-essential-for-airway-physiology
#2
Almut Wingen, Pilar Carrera, Olympia Ekaterini Psathaki, André Voelzmann, Achim Paululat, Michael Hoch
Scavenger receptors class B (SR-B) are multifunctional transmembrane proteins, which in vertebrates participate in lipid transport, pathogen clearance, lysosomal delivery and intracellular sorting. Drosophila has 14 SR-B members whose functions are still largely unknown. Here, we reveal a novel role for the SR-B family member Debris buster (Dsb) in Drosophila airway physiology. Larvae lacking dsb show yeast avoidance behaviour, hypoxia, and severe growth defects associated with impaired elongation and integrity along the airways...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820880/knock-out-of-a-mitochondrial-sirtuin-protects-neurons-from-degeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Rachele Sangaletti, Massimo D'Amico, Jeff Grant, David Della-Morte, Laura Bianchi
Sirtuins are NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, lipoamidases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that link cellular metabolism to multiple intracellular pathways that influence processes as diverse as cell survival, longevity, and cancer growth. Sirtuins influence the extent of neuronal death in stroke. However, different sirtuins appear to have opposite roles in neuronal protection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that knock-out of mitochondrial sirtuin sir-2.3, homologous to mammalian SIRT4, is protective in both chemical ischemia and hyperactive channel induced necrosis...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818615/deep-transcriptome-profiling-sheds-light-on-key-players-in-nucleus-implantation-induced-immune-response-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-martensii
#4
Wei Wang, Yuyuan Wu, Qiannan Lei, Haiying Liang, Yuewen Deng
Immunological rejection of the pearl oysters following nucleus implantation is a major issue limiting the successful rate of cultured pearls. To date, the molecular mechanism of immune tolerance during pearl formation in the pearl oysters is still largely unknown. Through the RNA sequencing platform and comparative transcriptomic analysis, we investigated the chronic gene expression changes at seven time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 days post implantation or dpi) over a period of 60 days following nucleus implantation in the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii...
August 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815581/th1-polarizing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-scavenger-receptors-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-pemphigus-vulgaris
#5
Dayasagar Das, Vivek Anand, Sujay Khandpur, V K Sharma, Alpana Sharma
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) and Scavenger receptors are key innate immune machinery playing significant role in regulating immune homeostasis at epithelial surface. The roles of these immune components are not yet characterized for the autoimmune skin disorder Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV). Phenotyping and frequency of γδ T cells estimated by Flowcytometry has shown increased frequency of γδ T cells (6.7% vs. 4.4%) producing IFN-γ (35.2% vs. 26.68%), in circulation of patients compared to controls. Dual cytokine (IFN-γ & IL-4) secreting γδ T cells indicate plasticity of these cells...
August 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811710/single-amino-acid-mutation-of-sr-bi-decreases-infectivity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-derived-from-cell-culture-in-a-cell-culture-model
#6
Rong Gao, Wei Gao, Gang Xu, Jie Xu, Hao Ren
AIM: To investigate the effect of a single amino acid mutation in human class B scavenger receptor I (SR-BI) on the infectivity of cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus (HCVcc) in SR-BI knock-down Huh7-siSR-BI cells. METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct the SR-BI S112F mutation, and the mutation was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. SR-BI knock-down Huh7-siSR-BI cells were transfected with SR-BI S112F, SR-BI wild type (WT) and control plasmids, and then infected with HCVpp (HCV pseudoparticles) and hepatitis C virus derived from cell culture (HCVcc)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808162/listeria-monocytogenes-and-shigella-flexneri-activate-the-nlrp1b-inflammasome
#7
Jana Neiman-Zenevich, Sarah Stuart, Mena Abdel-Nour, Stephen E Girardin, Jeremy Mogridge
Activation of the innate immune receptor NLRP1B leads to the formation of an inflammasome, which induces autoproteolytic processing of pro-caspase-1, and ultimately to the release of inflammatory cytokines and to the execution of pyroptosis. One of the signals to which NLRP1B responds is metabolic stress that occurs in cells deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors. NLRP1B might, therefore, sense microbial infection as intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri cause metabolic stress as a result of nutrient scavenging and host cell damage...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807994/a-novel-computational-model-predicts-key-regulators-of-chemokine-gradient-formation-in-lymph-nodes-and-site-specific-roles-for-ccl19-and-ackr4
#8
Mohammad Jafarnejad, David C Zawieja, Bindi S Brook, Robert J B Nibbs, James E Moore
The chemokine receptor CCR7 drives leukocyte migration into and within lymph nodes (LNs). It is activated by chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are scavenged by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4. CCR7-dependent navigation is determined by the distribution of extracellular CCL19 and CCL21, which form concentration gradients at specific microanatomical locations. The mechanisms underpinning the establishment and regulation of these gradients are poorly understood. In this article, we have incorporated multiple biochemical processes describing the CCL19-CCL21-CCR7-ACKR4 network into our model of LN fluid flow to establish a computational model to investigate intranodal chemokine gradients...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804718/cd36-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-intracerebral-hemorrhage-susceptibility-in-a-han-chinese-population
#9
Qiu-Wen Gong, Mao-Fan Liao, Liang Liu, Xiao-Yi Xiong, Qin Zhang, Qi Zhong, Kai Zhou, Yuan-Rui Yang, Zhao-You Meng, Chang-Xiong Gong, Rui Xu, Qing-Wu Yang
The CD36 gene encodes a membrane glycoprotein (type B scavenger receptor, SR-B2) that plays a crucial role in lipid sensing, innate immunity, atherogenesis, and glycolipid metabolism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between CD36 gene polymorphisms and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a Han Chinese population. We performed genotype and allele analyses for eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CD36 in a case-controlled study involving 292 ICH patients and 298 control participants...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798231/p2x7-receptor-antagonism-prevents-il-1%C3%AE-release-from-salivary-epithelial-cells-and-reduces-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-autoimmune-exocrinopathy
#10
Mahmoud G Khalafalla, Lucas T Woods, Jean M Camden, Aslam A Khan, Kirsten H Limesand, Michael J Petris, Laurie Erb, Gary A Weisman
Salivary gland inflammation is a hallmark of Sjogrens syndrome (SS), a common autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary gland and loss of saliva secretion, predominantly in women. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is an ATP-gated non-selective cation channel that induces inflammatory responses in cells and tissues, including salivary gland epithelium. In immune cells, P2X7R activation induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and IL-18, by inducing the oligomerization of the multiprotein complex NLRP3-type inflammasome...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798097/suramin-inhibits-osteoarthritic-cartilage-degradation-by-increasing-extracellular-levels-of-chondroprotective-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinases-3-timp-3
#11
Anastasios Chanalaris, Christine Doherty, Brian D Marsden, Gabriel Bambridge, Stephen P Wren, Hideaki Nagase, Linda Troeberg
Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease for which no disease-modifying drugs are currently available. Attempts to treat the disease with small molecule inhibitors of the metalloproteinases that degrade the cartilage matrix have been hampered by a lack of specificity. We aimed to inhibit cartilage degradation by augmenting levels of the endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP-3), through blocking its interaction with the endocytic scavenger receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794555/itolizumab-in-psoriasis
#12
Ankita Srivastava
A number of biologics is being used for the treatment of psoriasis. Itolizumab is one such agent which has been approved in India. It is an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody that acts by binding to scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) distal domain 1 of CD6. Itolizumab has been found to be safe, with infusion reactions as the most common adverse effect. However, its advantages and disadvantages over other biologicals and immunosuppressants need to be established. Also, its utility in treating other immune-mediated disorders is being explored...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791414/tetramethylpyrazine-suppresses-lipid-accumulation-in-macrophages-via-upregulation-of-the-atp-binding-cassette-transporters-and-downregulation-of-scavenger-receptors
#13
Jie Duan, Dong Xiang, Hongli Luo, Guojun Wang, Yun Ye, Chao Yu, Xiuying Li
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a biologically active ingredient first extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant Ligusticum wallichii Franchat., has athero-protective activity, yet the particular mechanisms have not been completely explored. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of TMP and its possible mechanisms in RAW264.7 macrophages and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. TMP treatment markedly increased the cholesterol efflux and inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake, thus, ameliorating lipid accumulation in macrophages...
August 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774817/euphorbia-factor-l1-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-by-regulating-cellular-redox-status-and-induces-fas-mediated-apoptosis-in-osteoclast
#14
Seong-Eun Hong, Jiae Lee, Dong-Hyun Seo, Hye In Lee, Doo Ri Park, Gong-Rak Lee, You-Jin Jo, Narae Kim, Minjung Kwon, Hansem Shon, Eun Kyoung Seo, Han-Sung Kim, Soo Young Lee, Woojin Jeong
Excessive bone resorption caused by increased osteoclast number or activity leads to a variety of bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Thus, the therapeutic strategy for these diseases has been focused primarily on the inhibition of osteoclast formation and function. This study shows that euphorbia factor L1 (EFL1), a diterpenoid isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, inhibited osteoclastogenesis and induced osteoclast apoptosis. EFL1 suppressed osteoclast formation and bone resorption at both initial and terminal differentiation stages...
July 31, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767417/a-novel-deubiquitinase-inhibitor-b-ap15-triggers-apoptosis-in-both-androgen-receptor-dependent-and-independent-prostate-cancers
#15
Jianyu Cai, Xiaohong Xia, Yuning Liao, Ningning Liu, Zhiqiang Guo, Jinghong Chen, Li Yang, Huidan Long, Qianqian Yang, Xiaolan Zhang, Lu Xiao, Xuejun Wang, Hongbiao Huang, Jinbao Liu
Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Especially, a subset of patients will eventually progress to the metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) which is currently incurable. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) associated with the 19S proteasome regulatory particle are increasingly emerging as significant therapeutic targets in numerous cancers. Recently, a novel small molecule b-AP15 is identified as an inhibitor of the USP14/UCHL5 (DUBs) of the 19S proteasome, resulting in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in several human cancer cell lines...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766509/high-density-lipoprotein-metabolism-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport-strategies-for-raising-hdl-cholesterol
#16
Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Sonja Topuzovska
A key to effective treatment of cardiovascular disease is to understand the body's complex lipoprotein transport system. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the process of cholesterol movement from the extrahepatic tissues back to the liver. Lipoproteins containing apoA-I [highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)] are key mediators in RCT, whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. HDL particles are heterogeneous; they differ in proportion of proteins and lipids, size, shape, and charge...
August 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765216/key-role-of-the-scavenger-receptor-marco-in-mediating-adenovirus-infection-and-subsequent-innate-responses-of-macrophages
#17
Mareike D Maler, Peter J Nielsen, Nicole Stichling, Idan Cohen, Zsolt Ruzsics, Connor Wood, Peggy Engelhard, Maarit Suomalainen, Ildiko Gyory, Michael Huber, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Wolfgang W A Schamel, Siamon Gordon, Thilo Jakob, Stefan F Martin, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Urs F Greber, Marina A Freudenberg, György Fejer
The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed in several subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages and has been shown to participate in the recognition of various bacterial pathogens. However, the role of MARCO in antiviral defense is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated whether MARCO might be involved in the innate sensing of infection with adenovirus and recombinant adenoviral vectors by macrophages, which elicit vigorous immune responses in vivo Using cells derived from mice, we show that adenovirus infection is significantly more efficient in MARCO-positive alveolar macrophages (AMs) and in AM-like primary macrophage lines (Max Planck Institute cells) than in MARCO-negative bone marrow-derived macrophages...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765047/lysophosphatidic-acid-directly-induces-macrophage-derived-foam-cell-formation-by-blocking-the-expression-of-srbi
#18
Linmu Chen, Jun Zhang, Xiao Deng, Yan Liu, Xi Yang, Qiong Wu, Chao Yu
The leading cause of morbidity and mortality is the result of cardiovascular disease, mainly atherosclerosis. The formation of macrophage foam cells by ingesting ox-LDL and focal retention in the subendothelial space are the hallmarks of the early atherosclerotic lesion. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is a low-molecular weight lysophospholipid enriched in oxidized LDL, exerts a range of effects on the cardiovascular system. Previous reports show that LPA increases the uptake of ox-LDL to promote the formation of foam cells...
July 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763372/xinxuekang-regulates-reverse-cholesterol-transport-by-improving-high-density-lipoprotein-synthesis-maturation-and-catabolism
#19
Guang-Xin Dong, Wen-Wen Li, Ruo-Zhu Wang, Wen-Jun Zou, Zhen-Dong Zhong, Bo-Gang Li
Di'ao Xinxuekang (XXK) is an herbal product in China and the Netherlands that has been clinically shown to attenuate atherosclerosis; however, the underlying antiatherosclerotic mechanism remains unclear. Because of its role in cholesterol homeostasis, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a potential target for these beneficial effects. This study investigated the effects of XXK on RCT and related proteins. After treating ApoE-deficient mice with XXK for 8 weeks, we observed an increase in the expression level of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1, which in turn stimulated cholesterol efflux and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758667/reciprocal-upregulation-of-scavenger-receptors-complicates-interpretation-of-nanoparticle-uptake-in-non-phagocytic-cells
#20
Kanlaya Prapainop, Rong Miao, Christoffer Åberg, Anna Salvati, Kenneth A Dawson
Nanoparticles have great potential as drug delivery vehicles or as imaging agents for treatment and diagnosis of various diseases. It is therefore crucial to understand how nanoparticles are taken up by cells, both phagocytic and non-phagocytic. Small interference RNA has previously been used to isolate the effect of particular receptors in nanoparticle uptake by silencing their expression. Here we show that, when it comes to receptors with overlapping function, interpretation of such data has to be done with caution...
July 31, 2017: Nanoscale
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