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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921425/-oxldl-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-complex-as-a-pro-atherogenic-autoantigen-is-atherosclerosis-an-autoimmune-disease
#1
Pavel Kraml
Oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidation stress and inflammation are closely interrelated and they can potentiate one another. In the subendothelial space of the arterial intima, monocytes/macrophages become activated and phagocyte oxidized LDL (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors. It has been demonstrated that oxLDL forms complex with plasma β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and becomes autoantigenic triggering synthesis of specific antiphosholipid antibodies...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920529/synthetic-high-density-lipoproteins-for-delivery-of-10-hydroxycamptothecin
#2
Yue Yuan, Jian Wen, Jie Tang, Qiming Kan, Rose Ackermann, Karl Olsen, Anna Schwendeman
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel synthetic high-density lipoprotein (sHDL) nanoparticle delivery system for 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) for treatment of colon carcinoma. HDL is recognized by scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI) over-expressed in colon carcinomas 5- to 35-fold relative to the human fibroblasts. The sHDL nanoparticles were composed of apolipoprotein A-I mimic peptide (5A) and contained 0.5%-1.5% (w/w) of HCPT. An optimized HCPT-sHDL formulation exhibited 0.7% HCPT loading with 70% efficiency with an average size of 10-12 nm...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919824/melatonin-s-role-as-a-co-adjuvant-treatment-in-colonic-diseases-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Purificación Ochoa-Moneo, Celia Buisac-Ramón, Miguel Rivas-Jiménez, Silvia Castán-Ruiz, Ángel Antoñanzas-Lombarte, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland as well as many other organs, including the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that resists oxidative stress due to its capacity to directly scavenge reactive species, to modulate the antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and to stimulate the innate immune response through its direct and indirect actions. In addition, the dysregulation of the circadian system is observed to be related with alterations in colonic motility and cell disruptions due to the modifications of clock genes expression...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913648/cd36-mediated-uptake-of-surfactant-lipids-by-human-macrophages-promotes-intracellular-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
Claire E Dodd, Charlie J Pyle, Rebecca Glowinski, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger
Mycobacterium tuberculosis imposes a large global health burden as the airborne agent of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been flourishing in human populations for millennia and is therefore highly adapted to the lung environment. Alveolar macrophages, a major host cell niche for M. tuberculosis, are not only phagocytose inhaled microbes and particulate matter but are also crucial in catabolizing lung surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that lines the alveolar spaces. Because macrophage host defense properties can be regulated by surfactant and M...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907088/silver-nanoparticle-directed-mast-cell-degranulation-is-mediated-through-calcium-and-pi3k-signaling-independent-of-the-high-affinity-ige-receptor
#5
Nasser B Alsaleh, Indushekhar Persaud, Jared M Brown
Engineered nanomaterial (ENM)-mediated toxicity often involves triggering immune responses. Mast cells can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses and are key effectors in allergic diseases and inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials used in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties. We have previously shown that AgNPs induce mast cell degranulation that was dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. Furthermore, we identified a role for scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) in AgNP-mediated mast cell degranulation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904582/the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-coactivator-1-gene-in-skin-aging
#6
REVIEW
Shahrzad Aghaei, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Maryam Aghaei
Skin aging is a continuous process that exhibits fine and deep wrinkles, thin and transparent skin, loss of underlying fat, dry skin and itch, following decreased collagen and elastin synthesis. Both extrinsic and intrinsic agents are considered in the pathogenesis on skin aging. Extrinsic factors such as sun exposure, windy and dry weather, nutrition, and lifestyle may induce premature aging, toxic-free radicals, and reactive oxygen species due to decreasing normal function of mitochondria which play the major intrinsic factors in premature skin aging...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903090/pediococcus-acidilactici-lab4-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-lab12-assimilate-cholesterol-and-modulate-abca1-cd36-npc1l1-and-scarb1-in-vitro
#7
F T Lim, S M Lim, K Ramasamy
There is growing interest in the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for prevention of hypercholesterolaemia. This study assessed the cholesterol lowering ability of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 in growth media. Both LAB yielded >98% (39.2 μg/ml) cholesterol lowering in growth media. Nile Red staining indicated direct assimilation of cholesterol by the LAB. The LAB were then explored for their prophylactic (pre-treatment of HT29 cells with LAB prior to cholesterol exposure) and biotherapeutic (treatment of HT29 cells with LAB after exposure to cholesterol) use against short and prolonged exposure of HT29 cells to cholesterol, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900049/toll-like-receptors-and-cutaneous-melanoma
#8
Ilaria Coati, Serena Miotto, Irene Zanetti, Mauro Alaibac
Innate immune cells recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that PRRs also recognize endogenous molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are derived from damaged cells. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors. To date, 10 TLRs have been identified in humans and each receptor responds to a different ligand...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899487/glomerular-endothelial-mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-essential-and-characteristic-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-susceptibility
#9
Ilse Daehn, Haiying Qi, Gabriella Casalena, Shaolin Shi, Liping Yu, Kerstin Ebefors, Yezhou Sun, Weijia Zhang, Vivette D'Agati, Detlef Schlondorff, Börje Haraldsson, Erwin Böttinger
The molecular signaling mechanisms between glomerular cell types during initiation/progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remain poorly understood. We compared the early transcriptome profile between DKD resistant C57BL/6J (B6) and DKD susceptible DBA/2J (D2) glomeruli, and demonstrated a significant down regulation of essential mitochondrial genes in glomeruli from diabetic D2 mice, but not in B6 with comparable hyperglycemia. Diabetic D2 mice manifested increased mtDNA lesions (8-oxoG), exclusively localized to glomerular endothelial cells after 3 weeks of diabetes and these accumulated over time as well as increased urine secretion of 8-oxodG...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899258/characterization-of-bioactive-constituents-from-the-gum-resin-of-gardenia-lucida-and-its-pharmacological-potential
#10
Priyanka Maurya, Shilpi Singh, Madan Mohan Gupta, Suaib Luqman
In the present study we mined the information on Gardenia lucida (Dikamali) and identified seven polymethoxyflavones from its gum resin. We also investigated its antiproliferative and antioxidant potential. Xanthomicrol (8) found as potent DPPH scavenger (85.86±1.3%) along with strong ferric plummeting ability (53.60±2.0 FSE) and reducing potential (1.07±0.01) as compared to ascorbic acid. Gardenin B (5) strongly inhibit biochemical production of nitric oxide (IC50 10.59±0.4μg/mL) followed by 5-Desmethylnobiletin (7) and Gardenin E (10, IC5011...
November 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896028/the-scavenger-receptor-repertoire-in-six-cnidarian-species-and-its-putative-role-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#11
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR) are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895089/oxidized-high-density-lipoprotein-induces-macrophage-apoptosis-via-toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-chop-pathway
#12
Shutong Yao, Hua Tian, Li Zhao, Jinguo Li, Libo Yang, Feng Yue, Yanyan Li, Peng Jiao, Nana Yang, Yiwei Wang, Xiangjian Zhang, Shucun Qin
Oxidized high-density lipoprotein (ox-HDL), unlike native HDL that exerts antiatherogenic effects, plays a proatherogenic role. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. This study was designed to explore the inductive effect of ox-HDL on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)-mediated macrophage apoptosis and its upstream mechanisms. Our results showed that ox-HDL could be ingested by macrophages, causing intracellular lipid accumulation. Like tunicamycin (an ER stress inducer), ox-HDL induced macrophage apoptosis with concomitant activation of ER stress pathway, including nuclear translocation of activating transcription factor 6, phosphorylation of protein kinase-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, and upregulation of glucose regulated protein 78 and CHOP, which were inhibited by 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA, an ER stress inhibitor) and CHOP gene silencing...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895015/protective-effects-of-human-and-mouse-soluble-scavenger-like-cd6-lymphocyte-receptor-in-a-lethal-model-of-polymicrobial-sepsis
#13
Mario Martínez-Florensa, Marta Consuegra-Fernández, Fernando Aranda, Noelia Armiger-Borràs, Marianna Di Scala, Esther Carrasco, Jerónimo Pachón, Jordi Vila, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza, Francisco Lozano
Sepsis still constitutes an unmet clinical need, which could benefit from novel adjunctive strategies to conventional antibiotic therapy. The soluble form of the scavenger-like human CD6 lymphocyte receptor (shCD6) binds to key pathogenic components from Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and shows time- and dose-dependent efficacy in mouse models of monobacterial sepsis. The objective of the present work was to demonstrate the effectiveness of infusing mouse and human sCD6 by different systemic routes, either alone or as adjunctive therapy to gold-standard antibiotics, in a lethal model of polymicrobial sepsis...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888192/atypical-chemokine-receptor-ackr2-controls-branching-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-mammary-gland
#14
Gillian J Wilson, Kay D Hewit, Kenneth J Pallas, Claire J Cairney, Kit M Lee, Christopher A Hansell, Torsten Stein, Gerard J Graham
Macrophages are important regulators of branching morphogenesis during development, and postnatally in the mammary gland. Regulation of macrophage dynamics during these processes can therefore have a profound impact on development. We demonstrate here that the developing mammary gland expresses high levels of inflammatory CC-chemokines which are essential in vivo regulators of macrophage migration. We further demonstrate that the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2, which scavenges inflammatory CC-chemokines, is differentially expressed during mammary gland development...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885637/the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-in-epilepsy
#15
Tore Eid, Shaun E Gruenbaum, Roni Dhaher, Tih-Shih W Lee, Yun Zhou, Niels Christian Danbolt
Epilepsy is a complex, multifactorial disease characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and an increased incidence of comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, cognitive dysfunction, and sudden unexpected death. About 70 million people worldwide are estimated to suffer from epilepsy, and up to one-third of all people with epilepsy are expected to be refractory to current medications. Development of more effective and specific antiepileptic interventions is therefore requisite. Perturbations in the brain's glutamate-glutamine cycle, such as increased extracellular levels of glutamate, loss of astroglial glutamine synthetase, and changes in glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase, are frequently encountered in patients with epilepsy...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884693/design-synthesis-and-characterization-of-rhein-analogs-as-novel-inhibitors-of-scavenger-receptor-a
#16
Yi Zheng, Xia Li, Piyusha P Pagare, Yunyun Yuan, Xiang-Yang Wang, Yan Zhang
Scavenger receptor A (SRA) has been known as an immunosuppressive factor and therefore therapeutic inhibition of SRA may be potentially exploited for cancer immunotherapy. Our previously work suggested that rhein may act as an inhibitor of SRA in reversing immunosuppression of SRA during T cells activation. Herein, three deconstruction analogs of rhein, compound 1, 2, and 3, were further studied as inhibitors of SRA. These three compounds, particularly compound 1, also known as a natural product danthron, enhanced T cells activation, indicated by increased transcriptional activation of interleukin 2 (Il2) gene, production of IL-2 protein, and proliferation of T cells...
November 12, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882944/grk6-regulates-ros-response-and-maintains-hematopoietic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#17
Qiumin Le, Wenqing Yao, Yuejun Chen, Biao Yan, Cao Liu, Man Yuan, Yuqing Zhou, Lan Ma
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are critically involved in immune response through regulation of cytokine receptors in mature leukocytes, but their role in hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that GRK6 knockout (GRK6(-/-)) mice exhibit lymphocytopenia, loss of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and multiple progenitor populations. GRK6 deficiency leads to compromised lymphoid differentiation, largely owing to the impairment of HSC self-renewal. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis suggest that GRK6 is involved in reactive oxygen species signaling...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881657/crystal-structure-of-the-fifth-scavenger-receptor-cysteine-rich-domain-srcr5-from-porcine-cd163-reveals-an-important-residue-involved-in-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection
#18
Hongfang Ma, Longguang Jiang, Songlin Qiao, Yubao Zhi, Xin-Xin Chen, Yanyan Yang, Xiaojing Huang, Mingdong Huang, Rui Li, Gai-Ping Zhang
: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become an economically critical factor in swine industry since its world-wide spread in the 1990s. The infection of its causative agent, PRRS virus (PRRSV), is proven to be mediated by an indispensable receptor, porcine CD163 (pCD163) and the fifth scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain (SRCR5) is essential for the virus infection. However, the structural details and specific residues of pCD163 SRCR5 involved in infection have not been defined yet...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881484/cell-penetrating-peptides-recruit-type-a-scavenger-receptors-to-the-plasma-membrane-for-cellular-delivery-of-nucleic-acids
#19
Carmen Juks, Annely Lorents, Piret Arukuusk, Ülo Langel, Margus Pooga
Scavenger receptors (SRs) are a large family of multifunctional receptors that are involved in a range of physiologic and pathologic processes. The ability of class A scavenger receptors (SRs)-As to bind anionic ligands facilitates the internalization of negatively charged cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-nucleic acid nanocomplexes and thus makes them attractive targets for delivery of various nucleic acids. Recently, we demonstrated that SR-A3 and SR-A5 are recruited from intracellular membranes to the plasma membrane after incubation with PepFect 14-splice-switching oligonucleotide complexes...
November 23, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881422/association-of-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-with-clinical-features-of-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-atherosclerosis
#20
Julie Gall, Eric Frisdal, Randa Bittar, Wilfried Le Goff, Eric Bruckert, Philippe Lesnik, Maryse Guerin, Philippe Giral
BACKGROUND: The contribution of high-density lipoprotein to cardiovascular benefit is closely linked to its role in the cellular cholesterol efflux process; however, various clinical and biochemical variables are known to modulate the overall cholesterol efflux process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which clinical and biological anomalies associated with the establishment of the metabolic syndrome modulate cholesterol efflux capacity and contribute to development of atherosclerosis...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
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