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Motohiko Kato, Yoko Kubosawa, Yuichiro Hiarai, Keiichiro Abe, Tetsu Hirata, Yoshiaki Takada, Michiko Wada, Yusaku Takatori, Satoshi Kinoshita, Kaoru Takabayashi, Masahiro Kikuchi, Takashi Ohishi, Toshio Uraoka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to elucidate clinical indicators for the detection of advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC). METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary hospital. This study included 333 patients older than 85 years who underwent colonoscopy from April 2006 to May 2010. The detection rate of ACRC was assessed. Then, we analyzed the association between the detection of ACRC and various background factors including mean corpuscular volume (MCV)...
January 10, 2018: Digestion
Xiuxing Chen, Yanfeng Chen, Xiuyu Cai, Dongsheng Zhang, Lei Fan, Huijuan Qiu, Bei Zhang, Guifang Guo
AIMS: Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (CT) has been the standard treatment for advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC) in the last decade. However, whether geriatric patients treated with this combination achieved more benefits or suffered severer toxicities than CT alone remained controversial. This meta-analysis was aimed to provide more convincing evidence. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Randomized control trials (RCTs) and retrospective comparative studies on the comparison between bevacizumab plus CT and CT for geriatric ACRC patients were retrieved in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Ovid until June 2016...
2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
M D Vincent, D Breadner, M C Cripps, D J Jonker, P Klimo, J J Biagi, W Lam, A O'Connell, F Whiston, L Stitt, S A Welch
BACKGROUND: Combination chemotherapy is associated with improved outcomes in trials of selected fit patients with advanced colorectal cancer (acrc). For older or less-fit patients, combination chemotherapy is associated with greater toxicity and less benefit. Capecitabine monotherapy is a reasonable option for those patients, but the optimal dose remains controversial. METHODS: A multicentre phase i/ii trial of reduced-dose capecitabine (2000 mg/m(2), days 1-14 every 21 days) was conducted in 221 patients representing one or more of the following subsets: age greater than 65 years (n = 167), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ecog) performance status of 1 or greater (n = 139), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) (n = 105), or prior pelvic radiation (n = 54)...
August 2017: Current Oncology
Timo Wolf, Julian Droste, Tetiana Gren, Vera Ortseifen, Susanne Schneiker-Bekel, Till Zemke, Alfred Pühler, Jörn Kalinowski
BACKGROUND: Acarbose is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type II and is produced by Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. Although the biosynthesis of acarbose has been intensively studied, profound knowledge about transcription factors involved in acarbose biosynthesis and their binding sites has been missing until now. In contrast to acarbose biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces spp., the corresponding gene cluster of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 lacks genes for transcriptional regulators...
July 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
Shiyong Zhou, Pengfei Liu, Huilai Zhang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a frequently occurring malignant disease of the blood and may result from a variety of genetic disorders. The present study aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms associated with the therapeutic effects of decitabine and cytarabine on AML, using microarray analysis. The microarray datasets GSE40442 and GSE40870 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated sites were identified in AML cells treated with decitabine compared with those treated with cytarabine via the Linear Models for Microarray Data package, following data pre‑processing...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ayman Madi, David Fisher, Timothy S Maughan, James P Colley, Angela M Meade, Sabine Tejpar, Ben Van den Bosch, Julie Maynard, Vikki Humphreys, Harpreet Wasan, Richard A Adams, Shelley Idziaszczyk, Rebecca Harris, Richard S Kaplan, Jeremy P Cheadle
BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) intracellular signalling pathways predict non-response to cetuximab in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC). We hypothesised that common germline variants within these pathways may also play similar roles. METHODS: We analysed 54 potentially functional, common, inherited EGFR pathway variants in 815 patients with aCRC treated with oxaliplatin-fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy plus cetuximab...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
J F Seligmann, D Fisher, C G Smith, S D Richman, F Elliott, S Brown, R Adams, T Maughan, P Quirke, J Cheadle, M Seymour, G Middleton
Background: To improve strategies for the treatment of BRAF-mutant advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC) patients, we examined individual data from patients treated with chemotherapy alone in three randomised trials to identify points on the treatment pathway where outcomes differ from BRAF wild-types. Patients and methods: 2530 aCRC patients were assessed from three randomised trials. End-points were progression-free survival, response rate, disease control rate, post-progression survival (P-PS) and overall survival...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Matthew G Summers, Christopher G Smith, Timothy S Maughan, Richard Kaplan, Valentina Escott-Price, Jeremy P Cheadle
Purpose: Somatic mutation status at KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS is associated with prognosis in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC); however, it remains unclear whether there are intralocus, variant-specific differences in survival and other clinicopathologic parameters.Experimental Design: We profiled 2,157 aCRCs for somatic mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS and determined microsatellite instability status. We sought inter- and intralocus correlations between mutations and variant-specific associations with survival and clinicopathology...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Jenny F Seligmann, Faye Elliott, Susan D Richman, Bart Jacobs, Gemma Hemmings, Sarah Brown, Jennifer H Barrett, Sabine Tejpar, Philip Quirke, Matthew T Seymour
Importance: RAS wild-type (wt) status is necessary but not sufficient for response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agents in advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC). RNA expression of EGFR ligands epiregulin (EREG) and amphiregulin (AREG) may correlate with EGFR-targeted therapy efficacy in aCRC, so may represent a much-needed additional predictive marker for these drugs. Objective: To examine a novel ligand model in a randomized clinical trial of panitumumab, irinotecan, and ciclosporin in colorectal cancer (PICCOLO) with with the a priori hypothesis that high tumor expression of either AREG or EREG would predict panitumumab therapy benefit in RAS-wt patients; and low expression, lack of efficacy...
February 11, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Lorenzo Antonuzzo, Elisa Giommoni, Davide Pastorelli, Tiziana Latiano, Ida Pavese, Domenico Azzarello, Michele Aieta, Ilaria Pastina, Francesca Di Fabio, Alessandro Bertolini, Domenico Cristiano Corsi, Selene Mogavero, Valentina Angelini, Mario Pazzagli, Francesco Di Costanzo
AIM: To confirm the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab/XELOX combination for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) in Italy. METHODS: This multicentric, prospective, open-label study included patients with CRC previously untreated with chemotherapy. Patients were administered bevacizumab in combination with XELOX. The primary efficacy end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end-points included time to overall response (TOR), duration of response (DOR), time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS)...
June 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Amber Dahlin, Augusto Litonjua, John J Lima, Mayumi Tamari, Michiaki Kubo, Charles G Irvin, Stephen P Peters, Kelan G Tantisira
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool to identify novel pharmacogenetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are a major class of asthma medications, and genetic factors contribute to variable responses to these drugs. We used GWAS to identify novel SNPs associated with the response to the LTRA, montelukast, in asthmatics. METHODS: Using genome-wide genotype and phenotypic data available from American Lung Association - Asthma Clinical Research Center (ALA-ACRC) cohorts, we evaluated 8-week change in FEV1 related to montelukast administration in a discovery population of 133 asthmatics...
2015: PloS One
Judith R Kroep, Erik van Werkhoven, Marco Polee, Cees J van Groeningen, Aart Beeker, Frans Erdkamp, Nir Weijl, Aart van Bochove, Zoran Erjavec, Ellen Kapiteijn, Anne M Stiggelbout, Hans W R Nortier, Hans Gelderblom
BACKGROUND: Prospective data on chemotherapy for (frail) elderly patients with advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC) are scant. UFT/leucovorin might be as effective as and less toxic than capecitabine. We firstly randomized both agents in patients >65 years with aCRC not amenable to receive combination chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomised between first-line oral UFT/leucovorin and capecitabine in a Dutch multicentre trial. Primarily, efficacy and toxicity were determined...
July 2015: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Hui Xu, Huiying Sun, Haiyuan Zhang, Jiawei Liu, Fangfang Fan, Yilan Li, Xuelian Ning, Yue Sun, Shaochun Dai, Baogang Liu, Min Gao, Songbin Fu, Chunshui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is emerging rapidly as the leading death cause in Chinese cancer patients. The causal factors for Chinese lung cancer development remain largely unclear. Here we employed an shRNA library-based loss-of-function screen in a genome-wide and unbiased manner to interrogate potential tumor suppressor candidates in the immortalized human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. METHODS/RESULTS: Soft agar assays were conducted for screening BEAS-2B cells infected with the retroviral shRNA library with the acquired feature of anchorage-independent growth, large (>0...
2015: PloS One
Oriana Ciani, Marc Buyse, Ruth Garside, Jaime Peters, Everardo D Saad, Ken Stein, Rod S Taylor
OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare the treatment effects on three surrogate end points, progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP), and tumor response rate (TR) vs. overall survival (OS) based on a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drug interventions in advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We systematically searched for RCTs of pharmacologic therapies in aCRC between 2003 and 2013. Trial characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes were recorded based on a predefined form...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Alain Hendlisz, Amélie Deleporte, Caroline Vandeputte, Nicolas Charette, Marianne Paesmans, Thomas Guiot, Camilo Garcia, Patrick Flamen
INTRODUCTION: Regorafenib was recently approved for patients with pretreated advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC), despite a moderate improvement of the patients' outcome, and significant toxicities. Based on previous studies showing that early fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-based metabolic response assessment (MRA) might adequately select patients unlikely to benefit from treatment, the RegARd-C trial uses early MRA to identify likely non-responders to regorafenib in a population of patients with aCRC and guide a comprehensive evaluation of genomic and epigenetic determinants of resistance to treatment...
March 9, 2015: BMJ Open
Matthew G Krebs, Andrew G Renehan, Alison Backen, Simon Gollins, Ian Chau, Jurjees Hasan, Juan W Valle, Karen Morris, Janette Beech, Linda Ashcroft, Mark P Saunders, Caroline Dive
BACKGROUND: Multidrug regimens are active against advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC). However, the increased toxicity requires the use of biomarkers to select the patients who will derive the most benefit. We assessed circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a prognostic biomarker in patients treated with a 4-drug regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-arm phase II trial (Erbitux Study of CPT11, Oxaliplatin, UFToral Targeted-therapy [eSCOUT]) was undertaken in patients with previously untreated KRAS wild-type ACRC using a regimen of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and tegafur-uracil with leucovorin and cetuximab...
June 2015: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Jiaxiang Ye, Jiawei Chen, Lianying Ge, Aiqun Liu, Shaozhang Zhou
Objectives. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of S-1-based therapy (SBT) versus 5-fluorouracil-based therapy (FBT) for advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC). Methods. A meta-analysis of all eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. Results. A total of 1625 patients from twelve RCTs including 820 patients in the SBT group and 805 patients in the FBT group were available for analysis. The meta-analysis of overall survival (hazards ratio HR = 0...
2014: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Sharlene Gill, Scot Dowden, Bruce Colwell, Loretta L Collins, Scott Berry
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among males and second among females worldwide. The treatment landscape for advanced CRC (aCRC) is rapidly evolving and there are now a number of randomized trials assessing treatment of aCRC beyond first-line, prompting important questions about how to optimize therapy and maximize benefit. The availability of targeted agents has increased the complexity of post-progression treatment of aCRC. Targeted biological agents with varying modes of action are now approved for use in second-line and beyond, including the VEGF-inhibitors bevacizumab and aflibercept, the VEGFR/multikinase-inhibitor regorafenib, and the EGFR-inhibitors cetuximab and panitumumab...
December 2014: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Yoshiki Kimura, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Motoyasu Oosawa, Minoru Fujita, Ken-Ichi Tarumi, Tomoari Kamada, Akiko Shiotani, Ken Haruma
We evaluated the relationship between colorectal neoplasms and visceral obesity using computed tomographic colonography and adipocytokine levels. We included 123 patients and classified them into four groups as per computed tomographic colonography: no lesion (NL; n=40), adenomatous polyp (polyp; n=41), early colorectal cancer (eCRC; n=21), and advanced CRC (aCRC; n=21). We also measured the patients' serum metabolic markers and adipocytokine levels. The visceral adiposity index in the polyp and eCRC groups was significantly higher than that in the NL group...
November 2014: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Shiro Kibe, Shigeru Yutani, Satoru Motoyama, Takanobu Nomura, Natsuki Tanaka, Akihiko Kawahara, Tomohiko Yamaguchi, Satoko Matsueda, Nobukazu Komatsu, Masatomo Miura, Yudai Hinai, Satoshi Hattori, Akira Yamada, Masayoshi Kage, Kyogo Itoh, Yoshito Akagi, Tetsuro Sasada
The prognosis of advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC) remains poor, and development of new therapeutic approaches, including immunotherapy, is needed urgently. Herein we report on our phase II study of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) in 60 previously treated patients with aCRC, who had failed at least one regimen of standard chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy. For PPV, a maximum of four HLA-matched peptides were individually selected from a pool of 31 different peptide candidates based on preexisting host immunity, and administered subcutaneously without severe adverse events...
December 2014: Cancer Immunology Research
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