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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422845/response-to-benzodiazepines-and-the-clinical-course-in-malignant-catatonia-associated-with-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#1
Kazutaka Ohi, Aki Kuwata, Takamitsu Shimada, Toshiki Yasuyama, Yusuke Nitta, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Malignant catatonia (MC) is a disorder consisting of catatonic symptoms, hyperthermia, autonomic instability, and altered mental status. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) caused by antipsychotics is considered a variant of MC. Benzodiazepine (BZD) medications are safe and effective treatments providing rapid relief from MC. This case study reports a detailed clinical course of a case of MC associated with schizophrenia initially diagnosed as NMS that responded successfully to BZDs but not to dantrolene...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420309/a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-study-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-3-tesla-clinical-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-system-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-the-left-cerebellum
#2
Hiromichi Ito, Kenji Mori, Masafumi Harada, Sonoka Hisaoka, Yoshihiro Toda, Tatsuo Mori, Aya Goji, Yoko Abe, Masahito Miyazaki, Shoji Kagami
The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate metabolite concentration ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex and left cerebellum in ASD. In the ACC and left cerebellum studies, the ASD group and intelligence quotient- and age-matched control group consisted of 112 and 114 subjects and 65 and 45 subjects, respectively. In the ASD group, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)+/ creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) was significantly decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex, and glutamate (Glu)/Cr was significantly increased and GABA+/Cr was significantly decreased in the left cerebellum compared to those in the control group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413485/therapeutic-efficacy-of-phentolamine-in-the-management-of-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-combined-with-pulmonary-edema
#3
Zhixin Yan, Yaokai Shang, Fengxian Li, Fei Xie, Huili Qian, Youqi Zhang, Bin Yue
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of phentolamine on severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) combined with pulmonary edema (PE). From May 2008 to December 2012, 53 children with severe HFMD plus PE were enrolled in the treatment group, receiving phentolamine intravenously at a loading dose of 5 µg/kg/min. The control group comprised 52 children with the same disease who did not receive phentolamine infusion. Data concerning creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the duration of ventilation dependence and hospitalization were collected...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397310/creatine-supplementation-reduces-sleep-need-and-homeostatic-sleep-pressure-in-rats
#4
Markus Dworak, Tae Kim, Robert W Mccarley, Radhika Basheer
Sleep has been postulated to promote brain energy restoration. It is as yet unknown if increasing the energy availability within the brain reduces sleep need. The guanidine amino acid creatine (Cr) is a well-known energy booster in cellular energy homeostasis. Oral Cr-monohydrate supplementation (CS) increases exercise performance and has been shown to have substantial effects on cognitive performance, neuroprotection and circadian rhythms. The effect of CS on cellular high-energy molecules and sleep-wake behaviour is unclear...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373007/avelumab-for-metastatic-or-locally-advanced-previously-treated-solid-tumours-javelin-solid-tumor-a-phase-1a-multicohort-dose-escalation-trial
#5
Christopher R Heery, Geraldine O'Sullivan-Coyne, Ravi A Madan, Lisa Cordes, Arun Rajan, Myrna Rauckhorst, Elizabeth Lamping, Israel Oyelakin, Jennifer L Marté, Lauren M Lepone, Renee N Donahue, Italia Grenga, Jean-Marie Cuillerot, Berend Neuteboom, Anja von Heydebreck, Kevin Chin, Jeffrey Schlom, James L Gulley
BACKGROUND: Avelumab (MSB0010718C) is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to PD-L1, inhibiting its binding to PD-1, which inactivates T cells. We aimed to establish the safety and pharmacokinetics of avelumab in patients with solid tumours while assessing biological correlatives for future development. METHODS: This open-label, single-centre, phase 1a, dose-escalation trial (part of the JAVELIN Solid Tumor trial) assessed four doses of avelumab (1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg), with dose-level cohort expansions to provide additional safety, pharmacokinetics, and target occupancy data...
March 31, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369467/muscle-specific-expression-of-the-rna-binding-protein-staufen1-induces-progressive-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-via-regulation-of-phosphatase-tensin-homolog
#6
Tara E Crawford Parks, Aymeric Ravel-Chapuis, Emma Bondy-Chorney, Jean-Marc Renaud, Jocelyn Côté, Bernard J Jasmin
Converging lines of evidence have now highlighted the key role for post-transcriptional regulation in the neuromuscular system. In particular, several RNA-binding proteins are known to be misregulated in neuromuscular disorders including myotonic dystrophy type 1, spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, we focused on the RNA-binding protein Staufen1, which assumes multiple functions in both skeletal muscle and neurons. Given our previous work that showed a marked increase in Staufen1 expression in various physiological and pathological conditions including denervated muscle, in embryonic and undifferentiated skeletal muscle, in rhabdomyosarcomas as well as in myotonic dystrophy type 1 muscle samples from both mouse models and humans, we investigated the impact of sustained Staufen1 expression in postnatal skeletal muscle...
March 24, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352055/progressive-encephalomyelitis-with-rigidity-and-myoclonus-in-an-intellectually-disabled-patient-mimicking-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome
#7
Zheyu Xu, Kalpana Prasad, Tianrong Yeo
We present a case of 32-year-old male with profound mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder who had presented with seizures, rigidity and elevated creatine kinase and was initially diagnosed as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). The patient subsequently had a complicated clinical course, developing refractory status epilepticus, which lead to the eventual diagnosis of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM). We discuss the clinical similarities and differences between NMS and PERM, and highlight the need to consider alternative diagnoses when the clinical picture of NMS is atypical, particularly in this patient group where the history and clinical examination may be challenging...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350397/diagnosis-and-body-mass-index-effects-on-hippocampal-volumes-and-neurochemistry-in-bipolar-disorder
#8
D J Bond, L E Silveira, E L MacMillan, I J Torres, D J Lang, W Su, W G Honer, R W Lam, L N Yatham
We previously reported that higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with greater hippocampal glutamate+glutamine in people with bipolar disorder (BD), but not in non-BD healthy comparator subjects (HSs). In the current report, we extend these findings by examining the impact of BD diagnosis and BMI on hippocampal volumes and the concentrations of several additional neurochemicals in 57 early-stage BD patients and 31 HSs. Using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we measured bilateral hippocampal volumes and the hippocampal concentrations of four neurochemicals relevant to BD: N-acetylaspartate+N-acteylaspartylglutamate (tNAA), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cre), myoinositol (Ins) and glycerophosphocholine+phosphatidylcholine (Cho)...
March 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349360/decreased-glutamatergic-activity-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-single-prolonged-stress-model-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-proton-mr-spectroscopy
#9
Song-I Lim, Kyu-Ho Song, Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe
Single prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the preclinical models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. Not every traumatized person develops PTSD and the onset of the disease varies from months to many years after exposure to life-threatening events. The pathogenetic neurometabolites in PTSD have not been investigated to date, and could provide a means for therapeutic interventions. Therefore the present study aimed to evaluate neurochemical changes in the frontal cortex in the SPS model during time-dependent sensitization using in vivo and ex vivo proton magnetic spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337245/multifarious-beneficial-effect-of-nonessential-amino-acid-glycine-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Meerza Abdul Razak, Pathan Shajahan Begum, Buddolla Viswanath, Senthilkumar Rajagopal
Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332112/perspectives-on-exertional-rhabdomyolysis
#11
REVIEW
Eric S Rawson, Priscilla M Clarkson, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Exertional (exercise-induced) rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition that has been the subject of research, intense discussion, and media attention. The causes of rhabdomyolysis are numerous and can include direct muscle injury, unaccustomed exercise, ischemia, extreme temperatures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrinologic conditions, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, infections, drugs, toxins, and venoms. The objective of this article is to review the literature on exertional rhabdomyolysis, identify precipitating factors, and examine the role of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322973/imidazoline-i2-receptors-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Jun-Xu Li
Since first introduced more than two decades ago, the research in imidazoline I2 receptors has been steadily increasing. This review provides an update on the current status of I2 receptor pharmacology. Imidazoline I2 receptors or I2 binding sites refer to several (at least four) different proteins that bind to [(3)H]-idazoxan and [(3)H]-2-BFI with high affinity. The molecular identities of the proteins remain elusive. One of the proteins (45 kD) seems to be consistent with the identity of brain creatine kinase...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321398/unveiling-the-metabolic-changes-on-muscle-cell-metabolism-underlying-p-phenylenediamine-toxicity
#13
Igor Marín de Mas, Silvia Marín, Gisela Pachón, Juan C Rodríguez-Prados, Pedro Vizán, Josep J Centelles, Romà Tauler, Amaya Azqueta, Vitaly Selivanov, Adela López de Ceraín, Marta Cascante
Rhabdomyolysis is a disorder characterized by acute damage of the sarcolemma of the skeletal muscle leading to release of potentially toxic muscle cell components into the circulation, most notably creatine phosphokinase (CK) and myoglobulin, and is frequently accompanied by myoglobinuria. In the present work, we evaluated the toxicity of p-phenylenediamine (PPD), a main component of hair dyes which is reported to induce rhabdomyolysis. We studied the metabolic effect of this compound in vivo with Wistar rats and in vitro with C2C12 muscle cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315295/proton-nmr-metabolic-profiling-of-csf-reveals-distinct-differentiation-of-meningitis-from-negative-controls
#14
Tanushri Chatterji, Suruchi Singh, Manodeep Sen, Ajai Kumar Singh, Gaurav Raj Agarwal, Deepak Kumar Singh, Janmejai Kumar Srivastava, Alka Singh, Rajeshwar Nath Srivastava, Raja Roy
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an essential bio-fluid of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a vital role in the protection of CNS and performing neuronal function regulation. The chemical composition of CSF varies during onset of meningitis, neurodegenerative disorders (positive controls) and in traumatic cases (negative controls). METHODS: The study design was broadly categorized into meningitis cases, negative controls and positive controls. Further differentiation among the three groups was carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA)...
March 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302251/levetiracetam-induced-increase-in-creatine-phosphokinase-levels
#15
Naila Shahbaz, Syed Muneeb Younus, Sohaib Ahmed Khan, Qurrat -Ul- Ain, Mudassir Ahmed Khan, Mohammad Hassan Memon
Levetiracetam is an antiepileptic drug used for the treatment of generalised or partial seizures, either alone or in a combination therapy. Adverse effects have been reported with its clinical use, including headache, dizziness, liver failure etc. A rare but an important adverse effect is an increase in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels with its use. Herein, we present a case of 43-year male, known intravenous (IV) drug abuser with a history of decompressive craniotomy. Patient presented with severe behavioural disorder for which risperidone was given...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296232/inhibitors-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-minimize-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cardiac-damage-in-normal-hypertensive-and-diabetic-rats
#16
Oliul Islam, Prashanth Patil, Sumanta K Goswami, Rema Razdan, Mohammed N Inamdar, Mohammed Rizwan, Jubin Mathew, Bora Inceoglu, Kin S Stephen Lee, Sung H Hwang, Bruce D Hammock
AIM: We designed a study to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of two soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors, 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (TPPU) and trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]cyclohexyloxy}benzoic acid (t-TUCB), in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model. METHODS: Cardioprotective effects of the sEH inhibitors were evaluated against IR-induced myocardial damage in hearts from normal, hypertensive and diabetic rats using Langendorff's apparatus...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296209/the-urinary-1-h-nmr-metabolomics-profile-of-an-italian-autistic-children-population-and-their-unaffected-siblings
#17
Milena Lussu, Antonio Noto, Alice Masili, Andrea C Rinaldi, Angelica Dessì, Maria De Angelis, Andrea De Giacomo, Vassilios Fanos, Luigi Atzori, Ruggiero Francavilla
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) make a dishomogeneous group of psychiatric diseases having either genetic and environmental components, including changes of the microbiota. The rate of diagnosis, based on a series of psychological tests and observed behavior, dramatically increased in the past few decades. Currently, no biological markers are available and the pathogenesis is not defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of (1) H-NMR metabolomics to analyze the global biochemical signature of ASD patients (n = 21) and controls (n = 21), these being siblings of autistic patients...
March 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284393/epilepsy-in-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-with-therapeutic-options
#18
Jaume Campistol
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare conditions that represent more than 1000 diseases, with a global prevalence of approximately 1:2000 individuals. Approximately, 40%-60% of IEM may present with epilepsy as one of the main neurologic signs. Epilepsy in IEM may appear at any age (fetal, newborn, infant, adolescent, or even adult). Different pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for the clinical phenotype, such as disturbances in energy metabolism (mitochondrial and fatty oxidation disorders, GLUT-1, and cerebral creatine deficiency), accumulation of complex molecules (lysosomal storage disorders), toxic mechanisms (organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders), or impairment of neurotransmission...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284390/creatine-defects-and-central-nervous-system
#19
Carmen Fons, Jaume Campistol
Creatine deficiency syndromes are a group of disorders of creatine (Cr) synthesis and transport characterized by intellectual disability, language delay, epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and movement disorders secondary to decrease of Cr concentration in the brain. Synthesis defects are treatable, therefore an early diagnosis and treatment is essential. The aim of this article is to review the Cr metabolism and function in the central nervous system. We describe the optimal diagnostic protocol in Cr deficiency syndromes based on biochemical methods, neuroradiological (1H-MRS), and molecular analysis...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277227/-red-yeast-rice-induced-muscular-injuries-analysis-of-french-pharmacovigilance-database-and-literature-review
#20
Christelle Philibert, Virginie Bres, Marie-Josèphe Jean-Pastor, Claire Guy, Bénédicte Lebrun-Vignes, Perrine Robin, Véronique Pinzani, Dominique Hillaire-Buys
Red yeast rice (RYR) is a dietary supplement containing monacolins obtained by fermentation of Monascus purpureus strains. Because of its structural homology with lovastatin, monacolin K inhibits HMG-CoA reductase and shows hypocholesterolemic properties comparable to synthetic statins. We studied all cases of myopathy involving RYR reported in the French national pharmacovigilance database (6 cases) and in scientific literature (9 cases). Among these cases, 9 showed elevated creatine kinase, 3 rhabdomyolysis and 2 myalgia...
October 27, 2016: Thérapie
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