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Tuberculosis transmission

Daniela Munro-Rojas, Esdras Fernandez-Morales, José Zarrabal-Meza, Ma Teresa Martínez-Cazares, Aurora Parissi-Crivelli, Javier Fuentes-Domínguez, Marie Nancy Séraphin, Michael Lauzardo, Jorge Alberto González-Y-Merchand, Sandra Rivera-Gutierrez, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Mexico is one of the most important contributors of drug and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America; however, knowledge of the genetic diversity of drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates is limited. METHODS: In this study, the genetic structure of 112 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from the southeastern Mexico was determined by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs. FINDINGS: The results show eight major lineages, the most of which was T1 (24%), followed by LAM (16%) and H (15%)...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer L Guthrie, Clare Kong, David Roth, Danielle Jorgensen, Mabel Rodrigues, Patrick Tang, Maichael Thejoe, Kevin Elwood, Victoria J Cook, James Johnston, Jennifer L Gardy
Prospective universal genotyping of tuberculosis (TB) isolates is used by many laboratories to detect clusters of cases and inform contact investigations. Prior to universal genotyping, most TB prevention programs genotyped isolates on request only, relying on requests from public health professionals whose knowledge of a patient's clinical, demographic, and epidemiological characteristics suggested potential transmission. To justify the switch from on-request to universal genotyping - particularly in the public health domain, with its limited resources and competing priorities - it is important to demonstrate the additional benefit provided by a universal genotyping program...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
D Cano-Terriza, M A Risalde, S Jiménez-Ruiz, J Vicente, J Isla, J Paniagua, I Moreno, C Gortázar, J A Infantes-Lorenzo, I García-Bocanegra
In recent decades, habitat change and the intensive management of wild ungulates for hunting have led to an increase in their populations in south-central Spain. This implies a higher generation of hunting waste, which can favour the transmission of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the proper disposal of hunting waste as TB control measure in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the 2008/2009 to 2016/2017 hunting seasons...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Francles Blanco-Guillot, M Lucía Castañeda-Cediel, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Rosa Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Pedro Torres-González, Norma Téllez-Vazquez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Genotyping and georeferencing in tuberculosis (TB) have been used to characterize the distribution of the disease and occurrence of transmission within specific groups and communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary TB may occur in spatial and molecular aggregations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary TB. The study area included 12 municipalities in the Sanitary Jurisdiction of Orizaba, Veracruz, México...
2018: PloS One
Fatemeh Riyahi Zaniani, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Esfahani
Background: Increasing drug resistance is an important factor in the complexity of tuberculosis (TB) control. The identification of disease transmission type, recurrence of a previous infection, or new transmission of the disease is the key factor in the control of TB. In this study, we aimed to identify the genetic diversity of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Isfahan province of Iran through the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing method based on 24 loci...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Smriti Srivastava, Devla Bimal, Kapil Bohra, Balram Singh, Prija Ponnan, Ruchi Jain, Mandira Varma-Basil, Jyotirmoy Maity, M Thirumal, Ashok K Prasad
A series of β-d-ribofuranosyl coumarinyl-1,2,3-triazoles have been synthesized by Cu-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction between azidosugar and 7-O-/7-alkynylated coumarins in 62-70% overall yields. The in vitro antimycobacterial activity evaluation of the synthesized triazolo-conjugates against Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed that compounds were bactericidal in nature and some of them were found to be more active than one of the first line antimycobacterial drug ethambutol against sensitive reference strain H37Rv, and 7 to 420 times more active than all four first line antimycobacterial drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin) against multidrug resistant clinical isolate 591...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Simon Perrett, Sandrine Lesellier, Fiona Rogers, Gareth A Williams, Sonya Gowtage, Si Palmer, Deanna Dalley, Dipesh Davé, Ute Weyer, Emma Wood, Francisco J Salguero, Alex Nunez, Nick Reed, Mark A Chambers
European badgers (Meles meles) are a wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in parts of England, Wales and Ireland, constituting a potential source of tuberculosis (TB) infection for cattle. Vaccination of badgers against TB is one of the tools available for helping reduce the prevalence of bovine TB in badgers, made possible by the licensing in 2010 of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine for intramuscular administration to badgers (BadgerBCG). However, practical limitations associated with administering an injected vaccine to wild animals make an oral, bait-delivered form of the vaccine highly desirable...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Qi Jiang, Liping Lu, Jie Wu, Chongguang Yang, Ravi Prakash, Tianyu Zuo, Qingyun Liu, Jianjun Hong, Xiaoqin Guo, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation has been observed as a useful programmatic tool in active case finding. We collected data of contact cases to evaluate the effectiveness of TB contact investigation programme in Shanghai, China. METHODS: Since 2009, we screened and followed up the close contacts of bacteria-positive TB cases in Songjiang, Shanghai and calculated the incidence of TB in close contacts and confirmed the transmission by genotyping and sequencing...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Anthony L Byrne, Greg J Fox, Ben J Marais
Diagnostic and treatment delays contribute to increased death and disability among the 490,000 adults and children who develop multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis every year. Since the treatment of MDR tuberculosis is complex, costly and often toxic, tuberculosis control programs should prioritize strategies to prevent drug-resistant tuberculosis. Opportunities to limit transmission and prevent disease progression in close contacts of MDR tuberculosis cases are often neglected. Effective MDR tuberculosis preventive strategies could minimize the costs for patients and healthcare systems...
March 9, 2018: Future Microbiology
Michael K Ghebremariam, A L Michel, J C M Vernooij, M Nielen, V P M G Rutten
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in cattle, goats, and camels, and its zoonotic potential within the traditional livestock raising communities in four regions of Eritrea. The Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test (SICTT) as indicator of M. bovis infection was conducted on 1077 cattle, 876 goats, and 195 camels. To elucidate possible risk factors for BTB transmission between animals and its potential zoonotic implication, questionnaire based face-to-face interviews were conducted in households of which 232 raised cattle, 128 goats, and 29 camels...
March 7, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Amrei von Braun, Mohammed Lamorde, Bruno Ledergerber, Allan Buzibye, Lars Henning, Joseph Musaazi, Ursula Gutteck, Paolo Denti, Miné de Kock, Alexander Jetter, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Nadia Eberhard, Joshua Matovu, Moses Joloba, Daniel Muller, Yukari C Manabe, Moses R Kamya, Natascia Corti, Andrew Kambugu, Barbara Castelnuovo, Jan S Fehr
Background: The relationship between concentrations of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, sputum conversion and treatment outcome remains unclear. We sought to determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and sputum conversion among TB-HIV co-infected patients on first-line anti-TB drugs. Method: We enrolled HIV-infected Ugandans with pulmonary TB. Estimation of first-line anti-TB drug concentrations was performed 1, 2, and 4 hours after drug intake at 2, 8, and 24 weeks of TB treatment...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rashmi Shingde, L Ines Habachou, Vaishnavi Calisa, Jonathan C Craig, Allison Tong, Sharon C-A Chen, Germaine Wong
BACKGROUND: Unexpected donor-derived transmission of infections is rare, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to provide an overview of published cases on unexpected infectious transmissions. METHODS: We systematically reviewed all published evidence describing any unexpected donor-derived viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections in kidney transplant recipients. RESULTS: In all, 119 studies (case reports [n = 36], case series [n = 78], cohort studies [n = 2], and case-control studies [n = 3]) involving 139 donors and 207 kidney recipients were included...
March 6, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
D B de Castro, M Sadahiro, R C Pinto, B C de Albuquerque, J U Braga
SETTING: Brazil ranks eighteenth worldwide in annual numbers of new tuberculosis (TB) cases. The municipality of Manaus, Amazonas State, has the highest incidence of TB in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of TB epidemiological surveillance, and to describe the spatial distribution pattern of TB incidence in Manaus and its social determinants. DESIGN: An ecological study was performed based on secondary data from TB epidemiological surveillance reports...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Nothando Ngwenya, Dumile Gumede, Maryam Shahmanesh, Nuala McGrath, Alison Grant, Janet Seeley
Following calls for targeted HIV prevention interventions in so-called "hotspots", we explored subjective perceptions of community members in places considered to be high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission areas and those with low prevalence. Although more people now have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), some areas are still experiencing high HIV transmission rates, presenting a barrier to the elimination of HIV. A rapid qualitative assessment approach was used to access a sample of 230 people who contributed narratives of their experiences and perceptions of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV and TB in their communities...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
I Carvalho, D Goletti, S Manga, D R Silva, D Manissero, G Migliori
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this review is to describe the management of the child with TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To develop this article, a working group reviewed relevant epidemiological and other scientific studies and established practices in conducting LBTI and TB in children. The article describes how to manage the child with LTBI, considering transmission and infectiousness of tuberculosis, contact screening and prioritization of contacts and recommendations on treatment of children with LTBI and how to manage the child with TB considering the susceptibility of children to developing tuberculosis, epidemiology and classification of tuberculosis in children, diagnosis and treatment...
March 1, 2018: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
Herlianna Naning, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed Al-Darraji, Scott Alex Mcdonald, Noor Azina Ismail, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of tuberculosis (TB) treatment strategies interventions in an overcrowded and poorly ventilated prison with both high (5 months) and low (3 years) turnover of inmates against improved environmental conditions. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate the effects of treatment of latent TB infection and active TB, or the combination of both treatment strategies. Without any intervention, the TB prevalence is estimated to increase to 8.8% for a prison with low turnover of inmates but modestly stabilize at 5...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Dehua Liu, Ben Chung-Lap Chan, Ling Cheng, Miranda Sin-Man Tsang, Jing Zhu, Chun-Wai Wong, Delong Jiao, Helen Yau-Tsz Chan, Ping Chung Leung, Christopher Wai-Kei Lam, Chun Kwok Wong
The immune system responds to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection by forming granulomas to quarantine the bacteria from spreading. Granuloma-mediated inflammation is a cause of lung destruction and disease transmission. Sophora flavescens (SF) has been demonstrated to exhibit bactericidal activities against MTB. However, its immune modulatory activities on MTB-mediated granulomatous inflammation have not been reported. In the present study, we found that flavonoids from Sophora flavescens (FSF) significantly suppressed the pro-inflammatory mediators released from mouse lung alveolar macrophages (MH-S) upon stimulation by trehalose dimycolate (TDM), the most abundant lipoglycan on MTB surface...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Khursheed Siddiqi, Parvez Alam, Sumit Kumar Chaturvedi, Mohsin Vahid Khan, Saima Nusrat, Sadia Malik, Rizwan Hasan Khan
Protein aggregation and amyloid fibrillation are responsible for several serious pathological conditions (like type II diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases etc.) and protein drugs ineffectiveness. Therefore, a molecule that can inhibit the amyloid fibrillation and potentially clear amyloid fibrils is of great therapeutic value. In this manuscript, we investigated the antiamyloidogenic, fibril disaggregating, as well as cell protective effect of an anti-tuberculosis drug, Capreomycin (CN). Aggregation kinetics data, as monitored by ThT fluorescence, inferred that CN retards the insulin amyloid fibrillation by primarily targeting the fibril elongation step with little effect on lag time...
February 26, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot, Fessahaye Alemseged Tesfamichael
Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly. However, strategies targeting bus drivers as key agents unlike targeting all passengers might be less costly for window opening. Method: Data were collected from November 18/2014 to December 21/2014 in inter-region bus stations of Addis Ababa using cross sectional study design...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Kamela Charmaine Ng, Conor Joseph Meehan, Gabriela Torrea, Léonie Goeminne, Maren Diels, Leen Rigouts, Bouke Catherine de Jong, Emmanuel André
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the highest-mortality infectious disease in the world and the main cause of death related to antimicrobial resistance, yet its surveillance is still paper-based. Rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is an urgent public health crisis. The World Health Organization has, since 2010, endorsed a series of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that enable rapid detection of drug-resistant strains and produce large volumes of data. In parallel, most high-burden countries have adopted connectivity solutions that allow linking of diagnostics, real-time capture, and shared repository of these test results...
February 27, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
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