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Tuberculosis transmission

Paula Flanagan, Joan O'Donnell, Jolita Mereckiene, Darina O'Flanagan
The risk of communicable disease transmission during air travel is of public health concern and has received much attention over the years. We retrospectively reviewed information from nine flights (≥ 8 hours) associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases in Ireland between September 2011 and November 2014 to investigate whether possible transmission had occurred. Twenty-four flights notified in Ireland associated with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases with a history of air travel were reviewed...
October 6, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Fatemeh Riyahi Zaniani, Sharareh Moghim, Hossein Mirhendi, Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei, Hossein Fazeli, Mahshid Salehi, Bahram Nasr Esfahani
In this study, we aimed to identify the genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Isfahan via the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable number tandem repeat typing method based on 15 loci. Forty-nine M. tuberculosis isolates were collected between 2013 and 2015 from Tuberculosis patients in Mollahadi Sabzevari Tuberculosis Center in Isfahan. All isolates were typed by 15-locus MIRU-VNTR typing. The highest percentage of isolates, 44.89 % (22/49), belonged to the Euro-American lineage, while the frequencies of the East-African-Indian, East-Asian, and Indo-Oceanic lineages were 28...
October 14, 2016: Current Microbiology
Robert W Aldridge, Dominik Zenner, Peter J White, Elizabeth J Williamson, Morris C Muzyamba, Poonam Dhavan, Davide Mosca, H Lucy Thomas, Maeve K Lalor, Ibrahim Abubakar, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis elimination in countries with a low incidence of the disease necessitates multiple interventions, including innovations in migrant screening. We examined a cohort of migrants screened for tuberculosis before entry to England, Wales, and Northern Ireland and tracked the development of disease in this group after arrival. METHODS: As part of a pilot pre-entry screening programme for tuberculosis in 15 countries with a high incidence of the disease, the International Organization for Migration screened all applicants for UK visas aged 11 years or older who intended to stay for more than 6 months...
October 10, 2016: Lancet
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ulziijargal Gurjav, Alexander C Outhred, Peter Jelfs, Nadine McCallum, Qinning Wang, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Ben J Marais, Vitali Sintchenko
Australia has a low tuberculosis incidence rate with most cases occurring among recent immigrants. Given suboptimal cluster resolution achieved with 24-locus mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) genotyping, the added value of whole genome sequencing was explored. MIRU-24 profiles of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were examined and clusters identified. The relatedness of cases within the largest MIRU-24 clusters was assessed using whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses...
2016: PloS One
Kamala Retnam Mayilvaganan, M Naren Satya Srinivas, Vikram N Reddy, Ranjeet Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: A 'watering can penis' secondary to penile tuberculosis is an extremely rare clinical entity. Retrograde Urethrography - Voiding Cystourethrography evaluation of the urethra and the urinary bladder plays a very important role in the diagnostics as well as further management of the urethral abnormalities. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case in literature where a 'watering can penis' was noted secondary to penile TB. This is also the first documented case of 'watering can penis' as a consequence of venereal transmission of TB...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
K Rajkumar, A Bhattacharya, S David, S Hari Balaji, R Hariharan, M Jayakumar, N Balaji
AIM: This study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly from eight revenue villages. And each farmer was interviewed with a questionnaire containing both open- and close-ended questions on various aspects of zoonotic diseases, a total of 49 questionnaires were framed to assess the source and transmission of infection to the farmers and to test their knowledge and awareness about zoonotic diseases...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Reid Fletcher, Joshua D Jones, Neha S Shah
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate differences in TB outcomes among different provider types in Chicago, IL. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all TB cases reported to the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) from 2008 through 2011. Provider type was stratified into three groups: public, public-private, and private providers. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate treatment duration and time to sputum culture conversion. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess treatment completion...
2016: PloS One
Zoë M McLaren, Kathryn Schnippel, Alana Sharp
OBJECTIVE: Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care...
2016: PloS One
Amber Kunkel, Frank G Cobelens, Ted Cohen
BACKGROUND: New drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are becoming available for the first time in over 40 y. Optimal strategies for introducing these drugs have not yet been established. The objective of this study was to compare different strategies for introducing the new TB drug bedaquiline based on patients' resistance patterns. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created a Markov decision model to follow a hypothetical cohort of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB patients under different bedaquiline use strategies...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
M Senkoro, A M V Kumar, P Chinnakali, S G Mfinanga, S Egwaga, V Kamara, F van Leth, S G Hinderaker
SETTING: Tanzania has an estimated tuberculosis (TB) prevalence of 295 per 100 000 adult population. There is currently no nationally representative information on factors associated with TB in Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and clinical factors associated with bacteriologically confirmed TB in the adult general population of Tanzania. DESIGN: A case-control study nested in a nationally representative TB prevalence survey...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
M L Munang, C Browne, J T Evans, E G Smith, P M Hawkey, S B Welch, H Kaur, M J Dedicoat
SETTING: Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2010-2014. OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictors for clustering of tuberculosis (TB) cases and cluster size and to evaluate the impact of cluster investigation using social network data. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. Prioritised cases linked using 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) were interviewed using a social network approach to find epidemiological links...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Horng-Yunn Dou, Yih-Yuan Chen, Ying-Tsong Chen, Jia-Ru Chang, Chien-Hsing Lin, Keh-Ming Wu, Ming-Shian Lin, Ih-Jen Su, Shih-Feng Tsai
To better understand the transmission and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Taiwan, six different MTB isolates (representatives of the Beijing ancient sublineage, Beijing modern sublineage, Haarlem, East-African Indian, T1, and Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM)) were characterized and their genomes were sequenced. Discriminating among large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) that occur once versus those that occur repeatedly in a genomic region may help to elucidate the biological roles of LSPs and to identify the useful phylogenetic relationships...
2016: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Rein M G J Houben, Nicolas A Menzies, Tom Sumner, Grace H Huynh, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Hsien-Ho Lin, Chieh-Yin Wu, Sandip Mandal, Surabhi Pandey, Sze-Chuan Suen, Eran Bendavid, Andrew S Azman, David W Dowdy, Nicolas Bacaër, Allison S Rhines, Marcus W Feldman, Andreas Handel, Christopher C Whalen, Stewart T Chang, Bradley G Wagner, Philip A Eckhoff, James M Trauer, Justin T Denholm, Emma S McBryde, Ted Cohen, Joshua A Salomon, Carel Pretorius, Marek Lalli, Jeffrey W Eaton, Delia Boccia, Mehran Hosseini, Gabriela B Gomez, Suvanand Sahu, Colleen Daniels, Lucica Ditiu, Daniel P Chin, Lixia Wang, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Puneet Dewan, Piotr Hippner, Salome Charalambous, Alison D Grant, Gavin Churchyard, Yogan Pillay, L David Mametja, Michael E Kimerling, Anna Vassall, Richard G White
BACKGROUND: The post-2015 End TB Strategy proposes targets of 50% reduction in tuberculosis incidence and 75% reduction in mortality from tuberculosis by 2025. We aimed to assess whether these targets are feasible in three high-burden countries with contrasting epidemiology and previous programmatic achievements. METHODS: 11 independently developed mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission projected the epidemiological impact of currently available tuberculosis interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in China, India, and South Africa...
October 5, 2016: Lancet Global Health
Ru-Bo Wang, Jia-Qiang Dong, Zhi-Gui Xia, Tao Cai, Qing-Feng Zhang, Yao Zhang, Yang-Hui Tian, Xiao-Ying Sun, Guang-Yun Zhang, Qing-Pu Li, Xiao-Yu Xu, Jia-Yin Li, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: For many countries where malaria is endemic, the burden of malaria is high in border regions. In ethnic minority areas along the Myanmar-China border, residents have poor access to medical care for diagnosis and treatment, and there have been many malaria outbreaks in such areas. Since 2007, with the support of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), a malaria control project was introduced to reduce the malaria burden in several ethnic minority regions...
October 6, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Dayse Sanchez Guimarães Paião, Everton Ferreira Lemos, Andrea da Silva Santos Carbone, Renata Viebrantz Enne Sgarbi, Alexandre Laranjeira Junior, Fellipe Matos da Silva, Letícia Marques Brandão, Luciana Squarizi Dos Santos, Vaneli Silva Martins, Simone Simionatto, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Maurício Antônio Pompílio, Juliana Urrego, Albert Icksang Ko, Jason Randolph Andrews, Julio Croda
BACKGROUND: Globally, prison inmates are a high-risk population for tuberculosis (TB), but the specific drivers of disease and impact of mass screening interventions are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study to characterize the incidence and risk factors for tuberculosis infection and disease in 12 Brazilian prisons, and to investigate the effect of mass screening on subsequent disease risk. After recruiting a stratified random sample of inmates, we administered a questionnaire to ascertain symptoms and potential risk factors for tuberculosis; performed tuberculin skin testing (TST); collected sera for HIV testing; and obtained two sputum samples for smear microscopy and culture, from participants reporting a cough of any duration...
October 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sharifa Nasreen, Mostafa Shokoohi, Monali S Malvankar-Mehta
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Twenty-two high burden countries contributed to the majority of worldwide tuberculosis cases in 2015. Health care workers are at high risk of acquiring tuberculosis through occupational exposure. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among health care workers in high burden countries. METHODS: Databases including MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science (Thompson-Reuters), and grey literature were searched for English language records on relevant medical subject headings (MeSH) terms of LTBI and health care providers...
2016: PloS One
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
Nicola Casali, Agnieszka Broda, Simon R Harris, Julian Parkhill, Timothy Brown, Francis Drobniewski
BACKGROUND: A large isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis outbreak centred on London, United Kingdom, has been ongoing since 1995. The aim of this study was to investigate the power and value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to resolve the transmission network compared to current molecular strain typing approaches, including analysis of intra-host diversity within a specimen, across body sites, and over time, with identification of genetic factors underlying the epidemiological success of this cluster...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
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