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Tuberculosis transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527287/-identification-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-lineage-in-ecuador
#1
Patricia Jiménez, Karina Calvopiña, Diana Herrera, Carlos Rojas, Laura Pérez-Lago, Marcelo Grijalva, Remedios Guna, Darío García-de Viedma
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. OBJECTIVE: To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527252/-characterization-of-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-hiv-positive-individuals-in-colombia-2012
#2
Claudia Castro, Alba Ricardo, Angie Zabaleta, Claudia Llerena, Gloria Puerto
INTRODUCTION: One third of the increase in tuberculosis cases is attributed to the spread of HIV. In 2012, 1,397 HIV-associated tuberculosis cases were reported in Colombia, i.e., 11.8% of the total cases. Molecular epidemiology tools help to understand the transmission of tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from HIV-infected individuals, received at the Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia in the Instituto Nacional de Salud...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525582/challenges-in-the-estimation-of-the-annual-risk-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-children-aged-under-5-years
#3
P Y Khan, J R Glynn, T Mzembe, D Mulawa, R Chiumya, A C Crampin, K Kranzer, K L Fielding
Accurate estimates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in young children provide a critical indicator of on-going community M.tb transmission. Cross reactions due to infection with environmental mycobacteria and/or Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination compromise the estimates derived from population-level tuberculin skin test surveys using traditional cut-off methods. Newer statistical approaches are prone to failure of model convergence, especially in settings where the prevalence of M.tb infection is low and environmental sensitisation is high...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521672/revision-and-implementation-of-clinical-guideline-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-prisons-great-tehran-prison-iran
#4
Behnam Farhoudi, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Minoo Mohraz, Raheleh Golrokhy, Marzieh Farnia, Mohammad Shahbazi, Ramin Alasvand, Bahman Ebrahimi, Jafar Esfehani, Mehrzad Tashakoriyan
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of the revised "Clinical Guideline for HIV and TB" in the Great Tehran Prison during October 2013 to June 2014. METHODS: The guideline includes all aspects of HIV/TB diagnosis based on active case finding (ACF), treatment and care services. Before the implementation, a focus group discussion was conducted, and attended by experts on jail diseases. The objective was to identify defects and limitations of the guideline. After the discussion, the guideline was revised...
May 17, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512556/pediatric-tuberculosis-in-northern-sardinia
#5
Maria Grazia Clemente, Elena Dore, Lidia Abis, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Paolina Olmeo, Roberto Antonucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Migration flux is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, and it raises several public health issues and concerns in pediatric infectious diseases. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a pediatric population at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and the potential role of immigration as a risk factor. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective study of children referred to the only Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit for Northern Sardinia over a 6-year-period (2009-2014)...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511415/impact-of-a-structured-tuberculosis-awareness-strategy-on-the-knowledge-and-behaviour-of-the-families-in-a-slum-area-in-chhattisgarh-india
#6
Janmejaya Samal, Ranjit Kumar Dehury
INTRODUCTION: Of different methods of disease prevention, health education and awareness programmes can empower people regarding several aspects of disease management and thereby enabling them in accessing the right treatment, in right time, at right place. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a structured Tuberculosis (TB) awareness strategy on the knowledge and behaviour of slum dwellers of Durg, Chhattisgarh, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A TB awareness intervention was implemented in terms of informing the houses of marginalized and vulnerable communities about TB, its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) services and the impact of the same was assessed through a survey questionnaire before and after the implementation of the intervention...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510693/sputum-microscopy-with-fluorescein-diacetate-predicts-tuberculosis-infectiousness
#7
Sumona Datta, Jonathan M Sherman, Marco A Tovar, Marjory A Bravard, Teresa Valencia, Rosario Montoya, Willi Quino, Nikki D'Arcy, Eric S Ramos, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
Background.: Sputum from patients with tuberculosis contains subpopulations of metabolically active and inactive Mycobacterium tuberculosis with unknown implications for infectiousness. Methods.: We assessed sputum microscopy with fluorescein diacetate (FDA, evaluating M. tuberculosis metabolic activity) for predicting infectiousness. M. tuberculosis was quantified in pre-treatment sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using FDA microscopy, culture and acid-fast microscopy...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498943/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-whole-genome-sequences-from-southern-india-suggest-novel-resistance-mechanisms-and-the-need-for-region-specific-diagnostics
#8
Abigail L Manson, Thomas Abeel, James E Galagan, Jagadish Chandrabose Sundaramurthi, Alex Salazar, Thies Gehrmann, Siva Kumar Shanmugam, Kannan Palaniyandi, Sujatha Narayanan, Soumya Swaminathan, Ashlee M Earl
Background.: India is home to 25% of all tuberculosis cases and the second highest number of multidrug resistant cases worldwide. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and resistance determinants of Indian Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly for the primary lineages found in India, lineages 1 and 3. Methods.: We whole genome sequenced 223 randomly selected M. tuberculosis strains from 196 patients within the Tiruvallur and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu in Southern India...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490345/post-2015-why-delay-to-seek-healthcare-perceptions-and-field-experiences-from-tb-healthcare-providers-in-northern-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#9
Nathan B W Chimbatata, Chang-Ming Zhou, Chikondi M Chimbatata, Biao Xu
BACKGROUND: Malawi is a low-income country with high Tuberculosis (TB) burden. TB diagnosis delay and untimely initiation of treatment is still a major problem in Malawi which could increase the risk of tuberculosis transmission in the communities. This study investigated factors related to the diagnostic delay of tuberculosis from TB healthcare providers in the northern region of Malawi. METHODS: Nine focus group discussions were conducted with 57 participants in total...
May 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484440/in-depth-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-clonal-variants-in-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strain-prone-to-microevolution
#10
Yurena Navarro, Laura Pérez-Lago, Marta Herranz, Olalla Sierra, Iñaki Comas, Javier Sicilia, Emilio Bouza, Darío García de Viedma
The role of clonal complexity has gradually been accepted in infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), although analyses of this issue are limited. We performed an in-depth study of a case of recurrent MTB infection by integrating genotyping, whole genome sequencing, analysis of gene expression and infectivity in in vitro and in vivo models. Four different clonal variants were identified from independent intrapatient evolutionary branches. One of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the variants mapped in mce3R, which encodes a repressor of an operon involved in virulence, and affected expression of the operon...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482960/tuberculosis-disease-among-mexico-born-individuals-living-in-new-york-city-2001-2014
#11
N L Stennis, J S Meissner, D Bhavnani, B Kreiswirth, S Desai Ahuja
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) has decreased substantially in New York City (NYC), but progress has slowed in recent years. Continued declines will require novel approaches tailored to foreign-born populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe TB epidemiology among the Mexico-born population of NYC to inform interventions in this community. DESIGN: The study included NYC patients with TB disease identified from 2001 to 2014. Incidence rates were compared by country of birth groupings...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482956/tuberculosis-in-migrants-in-low-incidence-countries-epidemiology-and-intervention-entry-points
#12
K Lönnroth, Z Mor, C Erkens, J Bruchfeld, R R Nathavitharana, M J van der Werf, C Lange
As tuberculosis (TB) rates continue to decline in native populations in most low TB incidence countries, the proportion of TB patients born outside their country of residence ('foreign-born') increases. Some low-incidence countries have experienced a substantial increase in TB rates related to recent increases in the number of asylum seekers and other migrants from TB-endemic countries. However, average TB rates among the foreign-born in low-incidence countries declined moderately in 2009-2015. TB in foreign-born individuals is commonly the result of reactivation of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis acquired outside the host country...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476627/-the-impact-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-immune-evasion-on-protective-immunity-implications-for-tb-vaccine-design-meeting-report
#13
Cesar Boggiano, Katrin Eichelberg, Lakshmi Ramachandra, Jaqueline Shea, Lalita Ramakrishnan, Samuel Behar, Joel D Ernst, Steven A Porcelli, Markus Maeurer, Hardy Kornfeld
Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death from infectious diseases around the world, particularly in HIV infected individuals. TB vaccine design and development have been focused on improving Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and evaluating recombinant and viral vector expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins, for boosting BCG-primed immunity, but these approaches have not yet yielded significant improvements over the modest effects of BCG in protecting against infection or disease. On March 7-8, 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on "The Impact of Mtb Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" with the goal of defining immune mechanisms that could be targeted through novel research approaches, to inform vaccine design and immune therapeutic interventions for prevention of TB...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475845/comparing-drivers-and-dynamics-of-tuberculosis-tb-in-california-florida-new-york-and-texas
#14
Sourya Shrestha, Andrew N Hill, Suzanne M Marks, David W Dowdy
RATIONALE: There is substantial state-to-state heterogeneity in tuberculosis (TB) in the United States (US); better understanding this heterogeneity can inform effective response to TB at the state level, the level at which most TB control efforts are coordinated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize drivers of state-level heterogeneity in TB epidemiology in the four US states that bear half the country's TB burden: California, Florida, New York and Texas. METHODS: We constructed an individual-based model of TB in the four US states, and calibrated the model to state-specific demographic, and age- and nativity- stratified TB incidence data...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475618/first-time-detection-and-identification-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-members-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-clinical-samples-in-south-tunisia-by-a-single-tube-tetraplex-real-time-pcr-assay
#15
Mariam Siala, Salma Smaoui, Wafa Taktak, Salma Hachicha, Asma Ghorbel, Chema Marouane, Sana Kammoun, Dhikrayet Gamara, Leila Slim, Radhouane Gdoura, Férièle Messadi-Akrout
INTRODUCTION: Tunisia has one of the highest burdens of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among tuberculosis (TB) cases but the contribution of MTBC-mediated human EPTB is unknown. EPTB diagnosis is challenging due to the paucibacillary nature of clinical samples. Therefore, a need of a simplified molecular method for sensitive and specific TB detection and differentiation of MTBC members caused EPTB remains a priority to an early diagnosis, optimize successful anti-TB treatment and minimize transmission...
May 5, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472445/defining-the-population-attributable-fraction-for-infectious-diseases
#16
Ellen Brooks-Pollock, Leon Danon
Background: The population attributable fraction (PAF) is used to quantify the contribution of a risk group to disease burden. For infectious diseases, high-risk individuals may increase disease risk for the wider population in addition to themselves; therefore methods are required to estimate the PAF for infectious diseases. Methods: A mathematical model of disease transmission in a population with a high-risk group was used to compare existing approaches for calculating the PAF...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465507/the-role-of-hydrophobicity-in-tuberculosis-evolution-and-pathogenicity
#17
Monika Jankute, Vijayashankar Nataraj, Oona Y-C Lee, Houdini H T Wu, Malin Ridell, Natalie J Garton, Michael R Barer, David E Minnikin, Apoorva Bhatt, Gurdyal S Besra
The evolution of tubercle bacilli parallels a route from environmental Mycobacterium kansasii, through intermediate "Mycobacterium canettii", to the modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Cell envelope outer membrane lipids change systematically from hydrophilic lipooligosaccharides and phenolic glycolipids to hydrophobic phthiocerol dimycocerosates, di- and pentaacyl trehaloses and sulfoglycolipids. Such lipid changes point to a hydrophobic phenotype for M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. Using Congo Red staining and hexadecane-aqueous buffer partitioning, the hydrophobicity of rough morphology M...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456705/positive-epistasis-of-major-low-cost-drug-resistance-mutations-rpob531-ttg-and-katg315-acc-depends-on-the-phylogenetic-background-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#18
Qin-Jing Li, Wei-Wei Jiao, Qing-Qin Yin, Ying-Jia Li, Jie-Qiong Li, Fang Xu, Lin Sun, Jing Xiao, Hui Qi, Ting Wang, Igor Mokrousov, Hai-Rong Huang, A-Dong Shen
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains increasingly circulate in different world regions, either as historical endemic, e.g. in East Asia, or recently imported, e.g. in South America, and this family is regarded as the most successful lineage of the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Here we analysed the transmission capacity of these strains in the context of their phylogenetic background and drug resistance mutations. The study collection included all multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Beijing genotype isolated in Beijing Chest Hospital, the largest tertiary TB facility in North China, in 2011-2013 (n = 278)...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454653/strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transmitting-infection-in-brazilian-households-and-those-associated-with-community-transmission-of-tuberculosis
#19
Solange Alves Vinhas, Edward C Jones-López, Rodrigo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Mary Gaeddert, Renata Lyrio Peres, Patricia Marques-Rodrigues, Paola Poloni Lobo de Aguiar, Laura Forsberg White, David Alland, Padmini Salgame, David Hom, Jerrold J Ellner, Reynaldo Dietze, Lauren F Collins, Elena Shashkina, Barry Kreiswirth, Moisés Palaci
Molecular epidemiologic studies have shown that the dynamics of tuberculosis transmission varies geographically. We sought to determine which strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) were infecting household contacts (HHC), and which were causing clusters of tuberculosis (TB) disease in Vitoria-ES, Brazil. A total of 741 households contacts (445 TST +) and 139 index cases were characterized according to the proportion of contacts in each household that had a tuberculin skin test positive: low (LT) (≤40% TST+), high (HT) (≥70% TST+) and (40-70% TST+) intermediate (IT) transmission...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453240/virological-response-and-resistances-over-12-months-among-hiv-infected-children-less-than-two-years-receiving-first-line-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-cote-d-ivoire-and-burkina-faso-the-monod-anrs-12206-cohort
#20
Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Karen Malateste, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Malik Coulibaly, Sophie Dattez, Arlette Emieme, Mamadou Barry, Christine Rouzioux, Sylvie N'gbeche, Caroline Yonaba, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Véronique Mea, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Nicolas Meda, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: Lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-infected children less than three years. However, little is known about its field implementation and effectiveness in West Africa. We assessed the 12-month response to lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of West African children treated before the age of two years. METHODS: HIV-1-infected, ART-naive except for a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), tuberculosis-free, and less than two years of age children with parent's consent were enrolled in a 12-month prospective therapeutic cohort with lopinavir/ritonavir ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Ouagadougou and Abidjan...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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