keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Tuberculosis transmission

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154391/the-value-of-microscopic-observation-drug-susceptibility-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-and-detection-of-multidrug-resistance
#1
Denİz Sertel Şelale, Meltem Uzun
Inexpensive, rapid, and reliable tests for detecting the presence and drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are urgently needed to control the transmission of tuberculosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the accuracy and speed of the microscopic-observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay in the identification of MTBC and detection of multidrug resistance. Sputum samples from patients suspected to have tuberculosis were simultaneously tested with MODS and conventional culture [Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture, BACTEC MGIT™ 960 (MGIT) system], and drug susceptibility testing (MGIT system) methods...
November 20, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152194/seasonal-variation-in-daily-patterns-of-social-contacts-in-the-european-badger-meles-meles
#2
Matthew J Silk, Nicola Weber, Lucy C Steward, Richard J Delahay, Darren P Croft, David J Hodgson, Mike Boots, Robbie A McDonald
Social interactions among hosts influence the persistence and spread of infectious pathogens. Daily and seasonal variation in the frequency and type of social interactions will play an important role in disease epidemiology and, alongside other factors, may have an influence on wider disease dynamics by causing seasonal forcing of infection, especially if the seasonal variation experienced by a population is considerable. We explored temporal variation in within-group contacts in a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149873/health-care-workers-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-tuberculosis-infection-control-nepal
#3
Anita Shrestha, Dipesh Bhattarai, Barsha Thapa, Prem Basel, Rajendra Raj Wagle
BACKGROUND: Infection control remains a key challenge for Tuberculosis (TB) control program with an increased risk of TB transmission among health care workers (HCWs), especially in settings with inadequate TB infection control measures. Poor knowledge among HCWs and inadequate infection control practices may lead to the increased risk of nosocomial TB transmission. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 28 health facilities providing TB services in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
November 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143466/tuberculosis-serosurveillance-and-management-practices-of-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-kavango-zambezi-transfrontier-conservation-area
#4
L E Rosen, T G Hanyire, J Dawson, C M Foggin, A L Michel, K P Huyvaert, M A Miller, F J Olea-Popelka
Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142798/verification-of-diagnosis-in-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-discussion
#5
Amanda M Dave, Abed Adelrahman, Vishist Mehta, Stephen Cavalieri, Renuga Vivekanadan
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis), is a pulmonary infection that is spread by airborne droplet transmission. The development and spread of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosisgreatly jeopardize TB control efforts. We report the case of a previously healthy 43-year-old male, visiting from China, who presented to the emergency department complaining of hemoptysis of 10 days' duration. Cultures were positive for acid fast bacteria and negative for fungi...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136652/tuberculosis-transmission-in-the-indigenous-peoples-of-the-canadian-prairies
#6
Smit Patel, Catherine Paulsen, Courtney Heffernan, Duncan Saunders, Meenu Sharma, Malcolm King, Vernon Hoeppner, Pamela Orr, Dennis Kunimoto, Dick Menzies, Sara Christianson, Joyce Wolfe, Jody Boffa, Kathleen McMullin, Carmen Lopez-Hille, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Richard Long
SETTING: The prairie provinces of Canada. OBJECTIVE: To characterize tuberculosis (TB) transmission among the Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadian-born peoples of the prairie provinces of Canada. DESIGN: A prospective epidemiologic study of consecutively diagnosed adult (age ≥ 14 years) Canadian-born culture-positive pulmonary TB cases on the prairies, hereafter termed "potential transmitters," and the transmission events generated by them...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132318/bugmat-and-findneighbour-command-line-and-server-applications-for-investigating-bacterial-relatedness
#7
Oriol Mazariegos-Canellas, Trien Do, Tim Peto, David W Eyre, Anthony Underwood, Derrick Crook, David H Wyllie
BACKGROUND: Large scale bacterial sequencing has made the determination of genetic relationships within large sequence collections of bacterial genomes derived from the same microbial species an increasingly common task. Solutions to the problem have application to public health (for example, in the detection of possible disease transmission), and as part of divide-and-conquer strategies selecting groups of similar isolates for computationally intensive methods of phylogenetic inference using (for example) maximal likelihood methods...
November 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126100/using-reports-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-young-children-to-identify-tuberculosis-transmission-in-new-york-city-2006-2012
#8
Jennifer Sanderson Slutsker, Lisa Trieu, Aldo Crossa, Shama Desai Ahuja
Young children with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) indicate recent TB transmission. We reviewed surveillance reports of children with LTBI to assess whether more follow-up is needed to prevent TB among this high-risk population. All children <5 years reported to the New York City Department of Health from 2006-2012 were abstracted from the TB Registry to identify those with LTBI. Potential source cases were identified; defined as any infectious TB case diagnosed in the 2 years before a child was reported and whose residence was within <0...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116640/strain-diversity-and-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#9
Sonia Borrell, Andrej Trauner
Drug resistance is best thought of as an ongoing biological process. Resistant bacteria must emerge, become established and ultimately transmit in order to be relevant to human health. In this context, genetic diversity can influence the rate and likelihood of resistance emerging; it can also modulate the net physiological impact of resistance and the propensity of an organism to improve any defects that arise from it. Combined, these effects can have an impact on a larger scale, with highly transmissible drug-resistant bacterial strains posing a formidable threat to global health...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116639/dna-replication-fidelity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#10
Digby F Warner, Jeremy M Rock, Sarah M Fortune, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is genetically isolated, with no evidence for horizontal gene transfer or the acquisition of episomal genetic information in the modern evolution of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. When considered in the context of the specific features of the disease M. tuberculosis causes (e.g., transmission via cough aerosol, replication within professional phagocytes, subclinical persistence, and stimulation of a destructive immune pathology), this implies that to understand the mechanisms ensuring preservation of genomic integrity in infecting mycobacterial populations is to understand the source of genetic variation, including the emergence of microdiverse sub-populations that may be linked to the acquisition of drug resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116637/epidemiology-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#11
Anna S Dean, Helen Cox, Matteo Zignol
As we move into the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the End TB strategy 2016-2035 with a goal to end the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. Achieving the targets laid out in the Strategy will require strengthening of the whole TB diagnosis and treatment cascade, including improved case detection, the establishment of universal drug susceptibility testing and rapid treatment initiation. An estimated 3.9% of new TB cases and 21% of previously treated cases had rifampicin-resistant (RR) or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in 2015...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116631/biological-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-mtbc-diversity
#12
Mireia Coscolla
Tuberculosis is caused by different groups of bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The combined action of human factors, environmental conditions and bacterial virulence determine the extent and form of human disease. MTBC virulence is a composite of different clinical phenotypes such as transmission rate and disease severity among others. Clinical phenotypes are also influenced by cellular and immunological phenotypes. MTBC phenotypes are determined by the genotype, therefore finding genotypes responsible for clinical phenotypes would allow discovering MTBC virulence factors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116630/genomic-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis
#13
Iñaki Comas
The application of next generation sequencing technologies has opened the door to a new molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis, in which we can now look at transmission at a resolution not possible before. At the same time, new technical and analytical challenges have appeared, and we are still exploring the wider potential of this new technology. Whole genome sequencing in tuberculosis still requires bacterial cultures. Thus, although whole genome sequencing has revolutionized the interpretation of transmission patterns, it is not yet ready to be applied at the point-of-care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116629/the-evolution-of-strain-typing-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#14
Matthias Merker, Thomas A Kohl, Stefan Niemann, Philip Supply
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease with a complex epidemiology. Therefore, molecular typing (genotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains is of primary importance to effectively guide outbreak investigations, define transmission dynamics and assist global epidemiological surveillance of the disease. Large-scale genotyping is also needed to get better insights into the biological diversity and the evolution of the pathogen. Thanks to its shorter turnaround and simple numerical nomenclature system, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, based on 24 standardized plus 4 hypervariable loci, optionally combined with spoligotyping, has replaced IS6110 DNA fingerprinting over the last decade as a gold standard among classical strain typing methods for many applications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116204/tuberculosis-in-swiss-captive-asian-elephants-microevolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-characterized-by-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#15
Giovanni Ghielmetti, Mireia Coscolla, Maja Ruetten, Ute Friedel, Chloé Loiseau, Julia Feldmann, Hanspeter W Steinmetz, David Stucki, Sebastien Gagneux
Zoonotic tuberculosis is a risk for human health, especially when animals are in close contact with humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from several organs, including lung tissue and gastric mucosa, of three captive elephants euthanized in a Swiss zoo. The elephants presented weight loss, weakness and exercise intolerance. Molecular characterization of the M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping revealed an identical profile, suggesting a single source of infection. Multilocus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) elucidated two divergent populations of bacteria and mixed infection in one elephant, suggesting either different transmission chains or prolonged infection over time...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112747/what-we-know-about-tuberculosis-transmission-an-overview
#16
REVIEW
Gavin Churchyard, Peter Kim, N Sarita Shah, Roxana Rustomjee, Neel Gandhi, Barun Mathema, David Dowdy, Anne Kasmar, Vicky Cardenas
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem with an enormous burden of disease, estimated at 10.4 million new cases in 2015. To stop the tuberculosis epidemic, it is critical that we interrupt tuberculosis transmission. Further, the interventions required to interrupt tuberculosis transmission must be targeted to high-risk groups and settings. A simple cascade for tuberculosis transmission has been proposed in which (1) a source case of tuberculosis (2) generates infectious particles (3) that survive in the air and (4) are inhaled by a susceptible individual (5) who may become infected and (6) then has the potential to develop tuberculosis...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112746/tuberculosis-infectiousness-and-host-susceptibility
#17
REVIEW
Richard D Turner, Christopher Chiu, Gavin J Churchyard, Hanif Esmail, David M Lewinsohn, Neel R Gandhi, Kevin P Fennelly
The transmission of tuberculosis is complex. Necessary factors include a source case with respiratory disease that has developed sufficiently for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to be present in the airways. Viable bacilli must then be released as an aerosol via the respiratory tract of the source case. This is presumed to occur predominantly by coughing but may also happen by other means. Airborne bacilli must be capable of surviving in the external environment before inhalation into a new potential host-steps influenced by ambient conditions and crowding and by M...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112745/drivers-of-tuberculosis-transmission
#18
REVIEW
Barun Mathema, Jason R Andrews, Ted Cohen, Martien W Borgdorff, Marcel Behr, Judith R Glynn, Roxana Rustomjee, Benjamin J Silk, Robin Wood
Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112744/research-roadmap-for-tuberculosis-transmission-science-where-do-we-go-from-here-and-how-will-we-know-when-we-re-there
#19
REVIEW
Sara C Auld, Anne G Kasmar, David W Dowdy, Barun Mathema, Neel R Gandhi, Gavin J Churchyard, Roxana Rustomjee, N Sarita Shah
High rates of tuberculosis transmission are driving the ongoing global tuberculosis epidemic, and there is a pressing need for research focused on understanding and, ultimately, halting transmission. The ongoing tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coepidemic and rising rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis in parts of the world add further urgency to this work. Success in this research will require a concerted, multidisciplinary effort on the part of tuberculosis scientists, clinicians, programs, and funders and must span the research spectrum from biomedical sciences to the social sciences, public health, epidemiology, cost-effectiveness analyses, and operations research...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112743/designing-and-evaluating-interventions-to-halt-the-transmission-of-tuberculosis
#20
REVIEW
David W Dowdy, Alison D Grant, Keertan Dheda, Edward Nardell, Katherine Fielding, David A J Moore
To reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, it is insufficient to simply understand the dynamics of tuberculosis transmission. Rather, we must design and rigorously evaluate interventions to halt transmission, prioritizing those interventions most likely to achieve population-level impact. Synergy in reducing tuberculosis transmission may be attainable by combining interventions that shrink the reservoir of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (preventive therapy), shorten the time between disease onset and treatment initiation (case finding and diagnosis), and prevent transmission in key settings, such as the built environment (infection control)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
keyword
keyword
110019
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"