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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926571/whole-genome-sequencing-illuminates-the-evolution-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-southwest-nigeria
#1
Madikay Senghore, Jacob Otu, Adam Witney, Florian Gehre, Emma L Doughty, Gemma L Kay, Phillip Butcher, Kayode Salako, Aderemi Kehinde, Nneka Onyejepu, Emmanuel Idigbe, Tumani Corrah, Bouke de Jong, Mark J Pallen, Martin Antonio
Nigeria has an emerging problem with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing was used to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and genetics of multi-drug resistance among patients from two tertiary referral centers in Southwest Nigeria. In line with previous molecular epidemiology studies, most isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this dataset belonged to the Cameroon clade within the Euro-American lineage. Phylogenetic analysis showed this clade was undergoing clonal expansion in this region, and suggests that it was involved in community transmission of sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926023/the-political-economy-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-great-britain
#2
R M Bennett
A brief history of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and its control in Great Britain (GB) is presented. Numerous diverse policies to control the disease in humans, cattle and wildlife have been pursued over the last 100 years and many millions of pounds have been spent. After notable success in reducing the incidence and prevalence of bTB in cattle in GB from the 1950s to the mid-1980s, the geographical spread of the disease and the number of cattle slaughtered have increased continually since that time, with a high point of bTB incidence in 2008...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919838/adherence-to-precautions-for-preventing-the-transmission-of-microorganisms-in-primary-health-care-a-qualitative-study
#3
Michely Aparecida Cardoso Maroldi, Adriana Maria da Silva Felix, Ana Angélica Lima Dias, Julia Yaeko Kawagoe, Maria Clara Padoveze, Sílvia Alice Ferreira, Sílvia Helena Zem-Mascarenhas, Stephen Timmons, Rosely Moralez Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Health care associated infections (HAIs) are a source of concern worldwide. No health service in any country can be considered HAI risk-free. However, there is scarcity of data on the risks to which both patients and health workers are subject in non-hospital settings. The aim of this study was to identify issues that determine the adherence of professionals to precautions for preventing transmission of microorganisms in primary health care. METHOD: This was a qualitative study, using focus groups of primary health care staff, in two Brazilian municipalities...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911361/detecting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-test-in-south-africa
#4
S Reddy, S Ntoyanto, Y Sakadavan, T Reddy, S Mahomed, M Dlamini, B Spooner, G Ramjee, A Coutsoudis, N Ngomane, K Naidoo, K Mlisana, P Kiepiela
SETTING: In South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal is the epicentre of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, where approximately 70% of people with tuberculosis (TB) are co-infected with HIV. Undiagnosed TB contributes to high mortality in HIV-infected patients. Delays in diagnosing TB and treatment initiation result in prolonged transmission and increased infectiousness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the LoopampTM MTBC Detection kit (TB-LAMP; based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay), smear microscopy and Xpert test with the gold standard of mycobacterial culture...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911351/comprehensive-understanding-of-health-seeking-behaviour-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-china
#5
Y Jiang, B Cao, N Ohmagari, A-H Wu, Y-X Liu, L-P Guo
SETTING: In China, there were 918 000 tuberculosis (TB) cases in 2015 alone. The primary challenge facing TB control is the allocation of limited health care resources. OBJECTIVE: To gain a comprehensive understanding of the first choice of health care facility among Chinese patients with suspected pulmonary TB (PTB) and the number of visits required to make the diagnosis. DESIGN: Relevant full-text articles in three Chinese and one English literature databases up to November 2016 were reviewed...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911030/whole-genome-sequencing-identifies-nosocomial-transmission-of-extra-pulmonary-m-tuberculosis-response
#6
T M Walker, D W Crook, T E A Peto, C P Conlon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910939/-genotyping-and-drug-susceptibility-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolated-in-changping-district-in-beijing-2011-2015
#7
Z G Zhang, J F Wu, L Wang, L Q Wang, L Han, S B Ma, T J Gao
Objective: To understand the genotype distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis with different genotypes in Changping district of Beijing and evaluate the application of genotyping of M. tuberculosis in local tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control. Methods: A total of 1 099 M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Changping from 2011 to 2015 were used. Spoligotyping and 12-locus VNTR recommended by Gao were used for the genotyping of these isolates. In addition, the susceptibility of the M...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910933/-visual-spatial-and-temporal-characteristics-related-to-infectious-tuberculosis-epidemics-in-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-2012-2015
#8
M Lin, Z Z Cui, D W Lin, D B Liang, M Y Huang, H B Su, X Y Tang
Objective: To study the spatial and temporal mode of infectious TB transmission in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi). Methods: Data related to infectious TB case (Include smear and/or culture positive patients) in Guangxi were collected from the National Notifiable Disease Reported System (NNDRS) from 2010 to 2015. Spatial-temporal analysis and prediction were performed by SaTScan 7.0.2, GeoDa 1.8.12, R program v 3.3.1 and SPSS 19.0 software, using the time series model, Moran's I global and local spatial autocorrelation (Empirical Bayes adjustment)...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904562/proceedings-from-the-cih-lmu-5th-infectious-diseases-symposium-2016-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-old-disease-new-challenge
#9
Celso Khosa, Krutarth Patel, Karlygash Abdiyeva, Nurkeldi Turebekov, Bettina Prüller, Norbert Heinrich
The 5th CIH(LMU) Infectious Disease Symposium, Munich, Germany, March 12, 2016 brought together Tuberculosis Experts from developed and low middle-income countries to discuss the control of drug resistance Tuberculosis. The meeting featured 9 presentations: Tuberculosis history and current scenario, Tuberculosis and migration - current scenario in Germany, Mechanism of Tuberculosis resistance development, Epidemiology of resistance - transmission vs. new generation of resistance, The impact of diagnostic in patients beyond - sensitivity and specificity, The Bangladesh regimen - new hope trough old drugs, New drugs and regimens - an overview on studies and Multi and Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis from Europe...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902922/molecular-clustering-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Francles Blanco-Guillot, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Pedro Torres-González, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have explored the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) demonstrating increased risk of TB among patients with DM and poor prognosis of patients suffering from the association of DM/TB. Owing to a paucity of studies addressing this question, it remains unclear whether patients with DM and TB are more likely than TB patients without DM to be grouped into molecular clusters defined according to the genotype of the infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900077/-the-spectrum-of-mutations-in-genes-associated-with-resistance-to-rifampicin-isoniazid-and-fluoroquinolones-in-the-clinical-strains-of-m-tuberculosis-reflects-the-transmissibility-of-mutant-clones
#11
A Ergeshov, S N Andreevskaya, E E Larionova, T G Smirnova, L N Chernousova
To study the transmissibility of drug resistant mutant clones, M. tuberculosis samples were isolated from the patients of the clinical department and the polyclinic of the Central TB Research Institute (n = 1455) for 2011-2014. A number of clones were phenotypically resistant to rifampicin (n = 829), isoniazid (n = 968), and fluoroquinolones (n = 220). We have detected 21 resistance-associated variants in eight codons of rpoB, six variants in three codons of katG, three variants in two positions of inhA, four variants in four positions of ahpC, and nine variants in five codons of gyrA, which were represented in the analyzed samples with varied frequencies...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895749/challenges-with-diagnosing-and-investigating-suspected-active-tuberculosis-disease-in-military-trainees
#12
David Chang, Bryant J Webber, Steven M Hetrick, Jerry B Owen, Audra A Blasi, Bernadette M Steele, Heather C Yun
Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2016, a total of 14 U.S. and international military personnel in training at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX, were hospitalized due to suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); of these, five personnel were diagnosed with active TB disease. Only one TB case had pulmonary symptoms, but these symptoms were not suggestive of TB. The incidence rate in the training population was 1.89 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 0.81, 4.42), with a higher rate when restricted to international military students attending the Defense Language Institute English Language Center...
August 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894715/survival-rates-among-co-infected-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-tuberculosis-in-tehran-iran
#13
Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Masoud Sabouri Ghannad, Jalal Poorolajal, Minoo Mohraz, Leila Molaeipoor
BACKGROUND: The number of deaths related with co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV remains inappropriately high worldwide. TB is anticipated to be the major reason of HIV-related deaths globally. This study aimed to find out and evaluate the characteristics of the possible risk factors influencing the survival time of co-infected patients with HIV/TB in Tehran the capital of Iran. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on the referred patients to the one of two Behavioral Diseases Counseling Centers, Imam Khomeini, and Zamzam Centers, Tehran, Iran, in 2004-2013...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887289/baseline-resistance-and-cross-resistance-among-fluoroquinolones-in-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-at-a-national-reference-laboratory
#14
Mamatha H G, V Shanthi
OBJECTIVES: Pre-existing fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Multiple Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients is a major threat in treating MDR TB. This study was conducted to assess the percentage of FQ resistance among MDR TB patients and to determine whether there is complete cross-resistance between FQs (ofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) used as second line drugs in TB treatment. METHODS: Among 879 MDR TB suspects tested, 68 were confirmed to be MDRTB and mono rifampicin resistant...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886072/stakeholder-perspectives-for-optimization-of-tuberculosis-contact-investigation-in-a-high-burden-setting
#15
Diana Marangu, Hannah Mwaniki, Salome Nduku, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Walter Jaoko, Joseph Babigumira, Grace John-Stewart, Deepa Rao
INTRODUCTION: Optimal tuberculosis contact investigation impacts TB prevention, timely case finding and linkage to care, however data on routine implementation in high burden contexts is limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multi-method qualitative study based on individual interviews with TB patients, facility observations and focus group discussions with health workers (HWs) in 13 public health facilities, and key informant interviews with governmental and non-governmental experts, we describe TB contact investigation in the context of an urban setting in Kenya and identify opportunities for optimization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879159/molecular-characterisation-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-from-malawi
#16
Tarsizio Chikaonda, Irene Ketseoglou, Nelson Nguluwe, Robert Krysiak, Isaac Thengolose, Felix Nyakwawa, Nora E Rosenberg, Christopher Stanley, James Mpunga, Irving F Hoffman, Maria A Papathanasopoulos, Mina Hosseinipour, Lesley Scott, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Availability and access to the detection of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs remains a significant challenge in Malawi due to limited diagnostic services. The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin in a single, rapid assay. Rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis has not been well studied in Malawi. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine mutations in the rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene of M...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877156/performance-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-assay-among-hiv-infected-children-with-active-tuberculosis-in-france
#17
Myriam Hormi, Valérie Guérin-El Khourouj, Virginie Pommelet, Mohamed Jeljeli, Béatrice Pédron, Jean-Sébastien Diana, Albert Faye, Ghislaine Sterkers
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the use of QuantiFERON to assist the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children is limited, especially in countries with low incidence of TB/HIV co-infection. METHODS: QuantiFERON results were analyzed in 63 HIV-infected children who presented to our hospital in Paris, France. Seventeen HIV-uninfected children with active TB (4 culture-confirmed) were included for comparison. RESULTS: The 63 HIV-infected children (median age: 11 years) had 113 QuantiFERON tests...
September 5, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875168/ceftazidime-avibactam-has-potent-sterilizing-activity-against-highly-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#18
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Moti Chapagain, Gesham Magombedze, Katherine R Martin, Kayle N Cirrincione, Pooi S Lee, Thearith Koeuth, Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo
There are currently many patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Ongoing transmission of the highly drug-resistant strains and high mortality despite treatment remain problematic. The current strategy of drug discovery and development takes up to a decade to bring a new drug to clinical use. We embarked on a strategy to screen all antibiotics in current use and examined them for use in tuberculosis. We found that ceftazidime-avibactam, which is already used in the clinic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacillary infections, markedly killed rapidly growing, intracellular, and semidormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the hollow fiber system model...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875155/risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-for-health-care-workers-an-updated-meta-analysis
#19
Lydia Uden, Ella Barber, Nathan Ford, Graham S Cooke
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge to global health. Healthcare workers (HCWs) appear to be at increased risk of TB compared with the general population, despite efforts to scale up infection control and reduce nosocomial TB transmission. This review aims to provide an updated estimate of the occupational risk of latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB among HCWs compared with the general population. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify studies published over the last 10 years reporting TB prevalence or incidence among HCWs and a control group...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864395/bronchoscopic-techniques-in-the-management-of-patients-with-tuberculosis
#20
REVIEW
Michele Mondoni, Alice Repossi, Paolo Carlucci, Stefano Centanni, Giovanni Sotgiu
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. Bronchoscopy can play a primary role in pulmonary TB diagnosis, particularly for suspected patients with scarce sputum or sputum smear negativity, and with endobronchial disease. Bronchoscopic needle aspiration techniques are accurate and safe means adopted to investigate hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes in cases of suspected TB lymphadenopathy...
August 29, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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