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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773096/acceptance-of-chemo-prophylaxis-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-high-school-college-student-contacts-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-shanghai-china
#1
Yang Li, Yi Hui Zheng, Li Ping Lu, Mei Xia Yang, Chang Ming Zhou, Zheng An Yuan, Yi Hu, Biao Xu
Student contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases are susceptible to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and chemo-prophylaxis can reduce the risk of active TB among them. This study aimed to assess the acceptance of chemo-prophylaxis for LTBI among students, and their concerns regarding TB and its preventive treatment. A total of 560 students contacts were included in the investigation. The extent of contact was categorized from high to low (4 levels) with 12.9% of the students being close contacts. About 87.0% of the students were willing to receive chemo-prophylaxis if diagnosed with, LTBI, whereas 73 students declined...
April 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770102/rolling-out-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-2003-2017
#2
G Taylor
Multiple issues need to be addressed in order to control the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is key to reducing morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV and has a role in preventing HIV transmission. However, access to cART is very unevenly distributed globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although cost of cART is no longer a major barrier as effective treatment can be had for under US$100 per year, HIV management is compromised by the inadequate number of trained clinicians, the lack of clinical and laboratory infrastructure and the increased prevalence of co-morbidities (e...
February 1, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769160/cross-border-outbreak-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-linked-to-a-university-in-romania
#3
O Popovici, Ph Monk, D Chemtob, D Chiotan, P J Freidlin, R Groenheit, M Haanperä, D Homorodean, M Mansjö, E Robinson, E Rorman, G Smith, H Soini, M J Van Der Werf
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) poses a threat to public health due to its complicated, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. A cluster of three XDR TB cases was detected among foreign medical students of a Romanian university. The contact investigations included tuberculin skin testing or interferon gamma release assay, chest X-ray, sputum smear microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing, genotyping and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and were addressed to students, personnel of the university, family members or other close contacts of the cases...
May 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762657/prospects-for-tuberculosis-elimination-in-the-united-states-results-of-a-transmission-dynamic-model
#4
Nicolas A Menzies, Ted Cohen, Andrew N Hill, Reza Yaesoubi, Kara Galer, Emory Wolf, Suzanne M Marks, Joshua A Salomon
We estimated long-term tuberculosis (TB) trends in the US population and assessed prospects for TB elimination. We used a detailed simulation model allowing for changes in TB transmission, immigration, and other TB risk determinants. We evaluated 5 hypothetical scenarios from 2017 to 2100: 1) maintain current TB prevention and treatment activities (base-case), 2) provision of latent TB infection testing and treatment for new legal immigrants, 3) increased uptake of latent TB infection screening and treatment among high-risk populations, including a 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine regimen, 4) improved TB case detection, 5) improved TB treatment quality...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761768/treatment-delay-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-within-the-pakistan-national-tuberculosis-control-program
#5
Shahab E Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Carmen Amezcua-Prieto, Martínez-Ruiz Virginia
Delay in diagnosis and treatment worsens the disease and clinical outcomes, which further enhances transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in the community. Therefore, this study aims to assess treatment delay and its associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 269 pulmonary TB patients in the district. Binary and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore the factors associated with delay in TB treatment. Results reveal that most patients were from low socioeconomic backgrounds...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757395/genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-to-identify-tuberculosis-transmission-to-pediatric-patients-in-british-columbia-canada-2005-2014
#6
Jennifer L Guthrie, Andy Delli Pizzi, David Roth, Clare Kong, Danielle Jorgensen, Mabel Rodrigues, Patrick Tang, Victoria J Cook, James Johnston, Jennifer L Gardy
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is often an indicator of recent transmission. Genotyping and whole genome sequencing (WGS) can enhance pediatric TB investigations by confirming or refuting transmission events. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all pediatric patients <18 years with culture-confirmed TB in British Columbia (BC) from 2005-2014 (n=49) were genotyped by MIRU-VNTR and compared to adult isolates. Genotypically clustered cases underwent WGS...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752996/unmasking-leading-to-a-health-care-worker-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transmission
#7
Kerry L Holden, Craig W Bradley, Evonne T Curran, Christopher Pollard, Grace Smith, Elisabeth Holden, Patricia Glynn, Mark Garvey
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major health burden worldwide. The disease can present as an individual case, community outbreak or more rarely a nosocomial outbreak. Even in countries with a low prevalence such as the UK, tuberculosis (TB) presents a risk to healthcare workers (HCWs). AIM: To report an outbreak which manifested 12 months after a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis was admitted to Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (QEHB). METHODS: We present the epidemiological and outbreak investigations; the role of whole genome sequencing (WGS) in identifying the outbreak and control measures to prevent further outbreaks...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744042/prevalence-and-patterns-of-drug-resistance-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-hangzhou-china
#8
Qingchun Li, Gang Zhao, Limin Wu, Min Lu, Wei Liu, Yifei Wu, Le Wang, Ke Wang, Han-Zhu Qian, Li Xie
Background: To evaluate prevalence and patterns of drug resistance among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Hangzhou City, China. Methods: Sputum samples of smear positive TB patients enrolled in 2011 and 2015 were collected and tested for drug susceptibility, and demographic and medical record data were extracted from the electronic database of China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Chi-square test was used to compare drug resistance prevalence between new and treated patients and between male and female patients, and Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence over calendar years 2011 and 2015...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742106/disparities-in-model-based-cost-effectiveness-analyses-of-tuberculosis-diagnosis-a-systematic-review
#9
T I Armina Padmasawitri, Gerardus W Frederix, Bachti Alisjahbana, Olaf Klungel, Anke M Hövels
BACKGROUND: Structural approach disparities were minimally addressed in past systematic reviews of model-based cost-effectiveness analyses addressing Tuberculosis management strategies. This review aimed to identify the structural approach disparities in model-based cost-effectiveness analysis studies addressing Tuberculosis diagnosis and describe potential hazards caused by those disparities. METHODS: A systematic search to identify studies published before October 2015 was performed in five electronic databases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721826/importance-of-differential-identification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-for-understanding-differences-in-their-prevalence-treatment-efficacy-and-vaccine-development
#10
REVIEW
Hansong Chae, Sung Jae Shin
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a serious global health problem in the 21st century because of its high mortality. Mtb is an extremely successful human-adapted pathogen that displays a multifactorial ability to control the host immune response and to evade killing by drugs, resulting in the breakdown of BCG vaccine-conferred anti-TB immunity and development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mtb. Although genetic components of the genomes of the Mtb complex strains are highly conserved, showing over 99% similarity to other bacterial genera, recently accumulated evidence suggests that the genetic diversity of the Mtb complex strains has implications for treatment outcomes, development of MDR/XDR Mtb, BCG vaccine efficacy, transmissibility, and epidemiological outbreaks...
May 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721803/appraisal-of-interpretation-criteria-for-the-single-intra-dermal-comparative-cervical-tuberculin-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-dromedary-camels-in-ethiopia
#11
Yasmin Jibril, Gezahegne Mamo, Ahmed Issa, Aboma Zewude, Gobena Ameni
Dromedary camels are the main sources of milk, meat and income for the Ethiopian pastoralists as they withstand the harsh environments of the regions of the country. Tuberculosis (TB) affects dromedary camels causing morbidity and mortality in these animals. Hence, early diagnosis and identification of infected camels play a significant role in reducing the transmission of TB in camels. This study was conducted on 168 camels between October 2014 and July 2015 to evaluate the performance of single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) to diagnose TB in camels...
May 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720095/addressing-knowledge-gaps-and-prevention-for-tuberculosis-infected-indian-adults-a-vital-part-of-elimination
#12
Andrea DeLuca, Gauri Dhumal, Mandar Paradkar, Nishi Suryavanshi, Vidya Mave, Rewa Kohli, Shri Vijay Bala Yogendra Shivakumar, Vidula Hulyolkar, Archana Gaikwad, Ashwini Nangude, Geeta Pardeshi, Dileep Kadam, Amita Gupta
BACKGROUND: India plans to eliminate tuberculosis (TB) by 2025, and has identified screening and prevention as key activities. Household contacts (HHCs) of index TB cases are a high-risk population that would benefit from rapid implementation of these strategies. However, best practices for TB prevention and knowledge gaps among HHCs have not been studied. We evaluated TB knowledge and understanding of prevention among tuberculin skin-test (TST) positive HHCs. While extensive information is available in other high-burden settings regarding TB knowledge gaps, identifying how Indian adult contacts view their transmission risk and prevention options may inform novel screening algorithms and education efforts that will be part of the new elimination plan...
May 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720068/national-position-statement-for-the-management-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#13
David Stock
The primary role of any tuberculosis (TB) control program is to ensure the prompt identification and effective treatment of active disease. The host immune system often succeeds in containing the initial (or primary) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but may fail to eliminate the pathogen. The persistence of viable organisms explains the potential for the development of active disease years or even decades after infection. This is known as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) although, rather than a distinct entity, this probably represents part of a dynamic spectrum...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720067/national-tuberculosis-advisory-committee-guideline-management-of-tuberculosis-risk-in-healthcare-workers-in-australia
#14
Justin Waring, Justin Waring
Tuberculosis (TB) is uncommon in Australia and not commonly managed by most healthcare workers (HCWs). However, even in a low incidence setting, occasional exposure of HCWs is inevitable and transmission of TB to HCWs leading to disease does occur. In addition, HCWs may have been recruited to Australia from countries with high TB incidence. These HCWs are more likely to be infected with TB before arrival and subsequently develop active disease while working in health settings in Australia. In 2001, there were 20 TB notifications in HCWs in Australia, of which 10 were born overseas, whereas in 2013, 70 of 77 notified cases (91%) were people born overseas...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714162/exhaled-nitric-oxide-is-not-a-biomarker-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#15
José W López, Maria-Cristina I Loader, Dan Smith, Dan Pastorius, Marjory Bravard, Luz Caviedes, Karina M Romero, Taryn Clark, William Checkley, Eduardo Ticona, Jon S Friedland, Robert H Gilman
To reduce transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in resource-limited countries where TB remains a major cause of mortality, novel diagnostic tools are urgently needed. We evaluated the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as an easily measured, noninvasive potential biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response in participants with pulmonary TB including multidrug resistant-TB in Lima, Peru. In a longitudinal study however, we found no differences in baseline median FeNO levels between 38 TB participants and 93 age-matched controls (13 parts per billion [ppb] [interquartile range (IQR) = 8-26] versus 15 ppb [IQR = 12-24]), and there was no change over 60 days of treatment (15 ppb [IQR = 10-19] at day 60)...
April 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709976/tuberculosis-disease-among-healthcare-workers-clinical-microbiological-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-at-chiang-mai-university-hospital-thailand
#16
Juthamas Inchai, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Juntima Eauthrongchit, Pattraporn Tajareunmuang, Chaicharn Pothirat
Tuberculosis (TB) among healthcare workers (HCWs) highly impacts morbidity and TB transmission in hospital. A retrospective cohort study of TB among HCWs (HCW-TB) was conducted using a registered database from 2003 to 2016 at Chiang Mai University Hospital to determine clinical and microbiological characteristics and treatment outcomes of HCW-TB. Seventy-six cases of HCWs, 54 nurses (71.1%), 12 physicians (15.8%) and 10 paramedics (13.2%), were diagnosed with TB disease. Female to male ratio of 51:25, mean age of 37...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706130/migration-and-tuberculosis-transmission-in-a-middle-income-country-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-central-area-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#17
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Vera Simonsen, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Laura C Rodrigues, Rosangela S Oliveira, Eliseu Alves Waldman, Rein Houben
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of growing migration on the pattern of tuberculosis (TB) transmission in middle-income countries. We estimated TB recent transmission and its associated factors and investigated the presence of cross-transmission between South American migrants and Brazilians. METHODS: We studied a convenient sample of cases of people with pulmonary TB in a central area of São Paulo, Brazil, diagnosed between 2013 and 2014. Cases with similar restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) patterns of their Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates were grouped in clusters (recent transmission)...
April 30, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703981/transmission-events-revealed-in-tuberculosis-contact-investigations-in-london
#18
Sean M Cavany, Emilia Vynnycky, Tom Sumner, Neil Macdonald, H Lucy Thomas, Jacqui White, Richard G White, Helen Maguire, Charlotte Anderson
Contact tracing is a key part of tuberculosis prevention and care, aiming to hasten diagnosis and prevent transmission. The proportion of case-contact pairs for which recent transmission occurred and the typical timespans between the index case and their contact accessing care are not known; we aimed to calculate these. We analysed individual-level TB contact tracing data, collected in London from 20/01/2011-31/12/2015, linked to tuberculosis surveillance and MIRU-VNTR 24-locus strain-typing information. Of pairs of index cases and contacts diagnosed with active tuberculosis, 85/314 (27%) had strain typing data available for both...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703425/effect-of-generalised-access-to-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-and-targeted-mass-drug-administration-on-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-eastern-myanmar-an-observational-study-of-a-regional-elimination-programme
#19
Jordi Landier, Daniel M Parker, Aung Myint Thu, Khin Maung Lwin, Gilles Delmas, François H Nosten
BACKGROUND: Potentially untreatable Plasmodium falciparum malaria threatens the Greater Mekong subregion. A previous series of pilot projects in Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam suggested that mass drug administration was safe, and when added to provision of early diagnosis and treatment, could reduce the reservoir of P falciparum and interrupts transmission. We examined the effects of a scaled-up programme of this strategy in four townships of eastern Myanmar on the incidence of P falciparum malaria...
April 24, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697779/transmission-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-patients-who-are-nucleic-acid-amplification-test-negative
#20
Yingda L Xie, Wendy A Cronin, Michael Proschan, Richard Oatis, Silvia Cohn, Scott R Curry, Jonathan E Golub, Clifton E Barry Iii, Susan E Dorman
Background: Among adults with signs and symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), recognition of transmissible TB has implications for airborne infection isolation and public health activities. Sputum smear-negative TB patients account for around one-fifth of tuberculosis transmission. The tuberculosis transmission risk of TB patients with negative results on nucleic acid amplification (NAA) testing of respiratory specimens has not been established. We sought to estimate the tuberculosis transmission risk of NAA test-negative TB patients...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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