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Tuberculosis transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209138/using-whole-genome-sequencing-to-investigate-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system-bovine-tuberculosis-in-new-zealand
#1
Joseph Crispell, Ruth N Zadoks, Simon R Harris, Brent Paterson, Desmond M Collins, Geoffrey W de-Lisle, Paul Livingstone, Mark A Neill, Roman Biek, Samantha J Lycett, Rowland R Kao, Marian Price-Carter
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an important livestock disease raising public health and economic concerns around the world. In New Zealand, a number of wildlife species are implicated in the spread and persistence of bTB in cattle populations, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Whole Genome Sequenced (WGS) M. bovis isolates sourced from infected cattle and wildlife across New Zealand were analysed. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted to estimate the substitution rate of the sampled population and investigate the role of wildlife...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208887/sputum-collection-and-disposal-perceptions-and-practices-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-from-northern-india
#2
Abhishek Singh, Vipin Goyal, Shewtank Goel
INTRODUCTION: Even a single case of pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) can infect many others. Hence, to ensure better control of the disease, it is imperative that all patients dispose their sputum safely. Outcomes of this study would highlight the gaps need to be bridged in order to curtail transmission of TB. AIM: To analyse and ascertain perceptions about the disease and determine the sputum collection and disposal practices followed by sputum-positive TB patients...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202795/tuberculosis-outbreak-in-an-educational-institution-in-norway
#3
Gunnstein Norheim, Siri Seterelv, Trude M Arnesen, Anne Torunn Mengshoel, Tone Tønjum, Janne O Rønning, Vegard Eldholm
Within one week in April 2013, three cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were reported among students attending training sessions at an educational institution in Oslo, Norway. By the end of October 2013, a total of nine epidemiologically linked cases had been reported. The outbreak encompassed a total of 24 cases in the period 2009-14, among which all of the 22 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates available had identical MIRU-VNTR profile (MtbC15-9 code 10287-189), belonging to the Beijing lineage. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of the M...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202091/isolation-unit-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-low-endemic-country-a-step-towards-the-world-health-organization-end-tb-strategy
#4
M C Payen, J P VAN Vooren, O Vandenberg, N Clumeck, S DE Wit
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the second cause of death due to a single infectious agent after HIV/AIDS. The worldwide distribution of TB is heterogeneous. The incidence is decreasing in most high-income regions, but the situation remains worrying in many parts of the world. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to key agents used in treatment (rifampin and isoniazid) contributes to TB transmission around the world. To achieve TB elimination, both high and low endemic countries must upscale their efforts to decrease disease transmission and improve cure rates...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199375/has-universal-screening-with-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-increased-the-proportion-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-diagnosed-in-a-routine-operational-setting
#5
Pren Naidoo, Rory Dunbar, Judy Caldwell, Carl Lombard, Nulda Beyers
SETTING: Primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa where the introduction of Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) enabled simultaneous screening for tuberculosis (TB) and drug susceptibility in all presumptive cases. STUDY AIM: To compare the proportion of TB cases with drug susceptibility tests undertaken and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosed pre-treatment and during the course of 1st line treatment in the previous smear/culture and the newly introduced Xpert-based algorithms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194548/investigation-of-intra-herd-spread-of-mycobacterium-caprae-in-cattle-by-generation-and-use-of-a-whole-genome-sequence
#6
S Broeckl, S Krebs, A Varadharajan, R K Straubinger, H Blum, M Buettner
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) calculated from whole genome sequencing (WGS) are ideally suited to study evolutionary relationships of pathogens and their epidemiology. Mycobacterium caprae infections have been documented frequently in cattle and red deer along the Bavarian and Austrian Alps during the last decade. However, little is still known about the transmission within cattle holdings and possible alterations of the genomes of M. caprae during such events. The aim of this study was to study the molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in selected herds based on isolate-specific genome-wide SNPs and to perform a phylogenetic network analysis...
February 13, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193742/delays-and-pathways-to-final-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-patients-from-a-referral-hospital-in-urban-china
#7
Leonardo Martinez, Lin Xu, Cheng Chen, Juliet N Sekandi, Yongzhong Zhu, Changsheng Zhang, Christopher C Whalen, Limei Zhu
China is among the countries with the largest epidemic of drug susceptible and resistant tuberculosis globally. We investigated the locations tuberculosis patients visited before being diagnosed, total diagnostic delay, and risk factors associated with total delay from a large tuberculosis referral hospital in Nanjing, China. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among tuberculosis patients who initiated anti-tuberculosis treatment within 3 months prior to the study date. Patient information regarding time and locations visited while seeking care for tuberculosis-related symptoms was collected through face-to-face interviews...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193183/factors-associated-with-the-length-of-delay-with-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-among-adult-tuberculosis-patients-attending-at-public-health-facilities-in-gondar-town-northwest-ethiopia
#8
Selamsew Bogale, Ermias Diro, Atsede Mazengia Shiferaw, Melaku Kindie Yenit
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for an effective tuberculosis (TB) control program. However, significant proportion of cases remains undiagnosed and untreated. Delay in diagnosis and treatment increases transmission. Hence, the study assessed the length of delay and associated factors with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adults attending public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May, 2016...
February 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186336/social-and-environmental-factors-affect-tuberculosis-related-mortality-in-wild-meerkats
#9
Stuart Patterson, Julian A Drewe, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Tim H Clutton-Brock
1.Tuberculosis (TB) is an important and widespread disease of wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, but long-term empirical datasets describing this condition are rare. A population of meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in South Africa's Kalahari Desert have been diagnosed with Mycobacterium suricattae, a novel strain of TB, causing fatal disease in this group-living species. 2.This study aimed to find characteristics associated with clinical TB in meerkats. These characteristics could subsequently be used to identify "at risk" animals within a population, and target these individuals for control measures...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#10
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174695/the-effect-of-oral-vaccination-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-on-the-development-of-tuberculosis-in-captive-european-badgers-meles-meles
#11
Mark A Chambers, Frank Aldwell, Gareth A Williams, Si Palmer, Sonya Gowtage, Roland Ashford, Deanna J Dalley, Dipesh Davé, Ute Weyer, Francisco J Salguero, Alejandro Nunez, Allan K Nadian, Timothy Crawshaw, Leigh A L Corner, Sandrine Lesellier
The European badger (Meles meles) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badgers and a research priority is the development of an oral vaccine deliverable to badgers in bait...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168855/vaccination-of-calves-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bacillus-calmette-guerin-reduces-the-frequency-and-severity-of-lesions-of-bovine-tuberculosis-under-a-natural-transmission-setting-in-ethiopia
#12
G Ameni, K Tafess, A Zewde, T Eguale, M Tilahun, T Hailu, A Sirak, F J Salguero, S Berg, A Aseffa, R G Hewinson, H M Vordermeier
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is highly prevalent in intensive dairy farms of the urban "milk-sheds" in Ethiopia, and vaccination could be a cost-effective disease control strategy. In the present study, the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to protect against bTB was assessed in Holstein-Friesian calves in a natural transmission setting. Twenty-three 2-week-old calves were subcutaneously vaccinated with BCG Danish SSI strain 1331, and matched 26 calves were injected with placebo. Six weeks later, calves were introduced into a herd of M...
February 6, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166912/tuberculosis-knowledge-and-attitude-in-aspiring-doctors-and-nurses-is-it-time-for-our-tb-teaching-methods-to-evolve
#13
Preetam Rajgopal Acharya, Monalisa D'Souza, Ramesh Chandra Sahoo
BACKGROUND: India accounts for nearly 24% of all the new tuberculosis (TB) cases globally. A good core knowledge and a positive outlook towards TB patients among our aspiring doctors and nurses are necessities for India to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) proposed by the WHO as a part of its post-2015 global TB strategy and to successfully combat the newer challenges posed by this disease in the future. AIMS: To evaluate knowledge related to transmission, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis amongst medical and nursing students...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166910/tuberculosis-in-congregate-settings-policies-and-practices-in-various-facilities-in-mumbai-india
#14
Yatin Dholakia, Nerges Mistry
Congregate settings and correctional facilities have high risk of transmission of tuberculosis. They should have capacity to identify and diagnose cases early and initiate prompt treatment to prevent spread to inmates and staff. Appropriate interventions should ensure completion of treatment, documentation and reporting, and prevention of reactivation of successfully treated cases. This requires support from local health authorities. Although international policies and guidelines for infection control in congregate settings are available, there is very little information on how these are practiced in such settings...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164754/prevalence-of-adverse-drug-reactions-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-among-hiv-positive-patients-in-imam-khomeini-hospital-of-tehran-iran
#15
Raheleh Golrokhy, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Azita Babaii, Alia Pourdast, Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad, Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam, Reza Rezaei Taheri, Seyed Ahmad SeyedAlinaghi
OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV positive patients referred to Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study regarding side effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in HIV positive patients referred to Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center in Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran, Iran during a period of the year 2009 to 2010. Two hundred patients under antiretroviral treatment evaluated for the side effects of drug based on available records, face to face interviews and written lab data...
January 17, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163165/the-risk-of-global-epidemic-replacement-with-drug-resistant-m-tuberculosis-strains
#16
REVIEW
Emma S McBryde, Michael T Meehan, Tan N Doan, Romain Ragonnet, Ben J Marais, Vanina Guernier, James M Trauer
OBJECTIVES: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat to TB control. To guide TB control, it is essential to understand the extent to which and the circumstances in which MDR-TB will replace drug-susceptible TB (DS-TB) as the dominant phenotype. We examined the issue by presenting evidence from genomics, pharmacokinetics and epidemiology studies. We then synthesised this evidence into a mathematical model. METHODS: Our model consider two TB strains, one with and one without MDR phenotype...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157469/heterogeneity-of-distribution-of-tuberculosis-in-sheka-zone-ethiopia-drivers-and-temporal-trends
#17
D Shaweno, T Shaweno, J M Trauer, J T Denholm, E S McBryde
OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of tuberculosis (TB) and its drivers in Sheka Zone, a geographically remote region of Ethiopia. METHODS: We collected data on TB patients treated from 2010 to 2014 in the Sheka Zone. Predictors of TB incidence were determined using a multivariate generalised linear regression model. RESULTS: We found significant spatial autocorrelation of TB incidence by kebele (the smallest administrative geographical subdivision in Ethiopia) (Moran's I = 0...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157466/is-ipt-more-effective-in-high-burden-settings-modelling-the-effect-of-tuberculosis-incidence-on-ipt-impact
#18
R Ragonnet, J M Trauer, E S McBryde, R M G J Houben, J T Denholm, A Handel, T Sumner
SETTING: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is effective for preventing active tuberculosis (TB), although its mechanism of action is poorly understood and the optimal disease burden for IPT use has not been defined. OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between TB incidence and IPT effectiveness. METHODS: We constructed a model of TB transmission dynamics to investigate IPT effectiveness under various epidemiological settings. The model structure was intended to be highly adaptable to uncertainty in both input parameters and the mechanism of action of IPT...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157458/estimating-the-global-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-prevalent-cases-of-tuberculosis
#19
S Nourzad, H E Jenkins, M Milstein, C D Mitnick
BACKGROUND: Estimates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden are based on incomplete, infrequently updated data among a limited pool of notified or incident pulmonary TB cases. METHODS: Using World Health Organization data reported by 217 countries/territories in 2014, we calculated the MDR-TB burden among prevalent TB cases and compared these with estimates among incident and notified TB patients. We also compared treatment coverage across estimates...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157163/transmission-electron-microscopy-of-xdr-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-grown-on-high-dose-of-o%C3%AF-oxacin
#20
Mohammad Arjomandzadegan, Maryam Sadrnia, Leonid Titov, Larissa Surkova, Hossein Sarmadian, Reza Ghasemikhah, Hossein Hosseiny
The aim of the study was to investigate behavior of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates under a high dose of ofloxacin and its morphological changes. 19 extensively drug resistant (XDR) clinical isolates of MTB were grown on Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing progressively increasing concentrations of ofloxacin (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 mg/L). Ultra-structure analyses of resistant isolates grown on ofloxacin were conducted by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fixation was carried out by 4% glutaraldehyde in 0...
February 2, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
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