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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334088/relapse-re-infection-and-mixed-infections-in-tuberculosis-disease
#1
Amanda McIvor, Hendrik Koornhof, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be characterized by genotypic and phenotypic complexity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli within a single patient. This microbiological heterogeneity has become an area of intense study due its perceived importance in drug tolerance, drug resistance and as a surrogate measure of transmission rates. This review presents a descriptive analysis of research describing the prevalence of mixed strain TB infections in geographically distinct locations. Despite significant variation in disease burden and a rampant HIV-TB co-epidemic, there was no difference in the prevalence range of mixed infections reported in African countries when compared to the rest of the world...
February 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329268/dynamics-of-cough-frequency-in-adults-undergoing-treatment-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
Alvaro Proaño, Marjory A Bravard, José W Lopez, Gwenyth O Lee, David Bui, Sumona Datta, Germán Comina, Mirko Zimic, Jorge Coronel, Luz Caviedes, José L Cabrera, Antonio Salas, Eduardo Ticona, Nancy M Vu, Daniela E Kirwan, Maria-Cristina I Loader, Jon S Friedland, David A Moore, Carlton A Evans, Brian H Tracey, Robert H Gilman
Background: Cough is the major determinant of tuberculosis transmission. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding characteristics of cough frequency throughout the day and in response to tuberculosis therapy. Here we evaluate the circadian cycle of cough; cough frequency risk factors; and the impact of appropriate treatment on cough and bacillary load. Methods: We prospectively evaluated HIV-negative adults (n=64) with a new diagnosis of culture-proven, drug-susceptible pul-monary tuberculosis immediately prior to treatment and repeatedly until treatment day 62...
January 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319170/antibody-response-against-phop-efficiently-discriminates-among-healthy-individuals-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-contacts
#3
Aurobind Vidyarthi, Nargis Khan, Tapan Agnihotri, Kaneez F Siddiqui, Girish R Nair, Ashish Arora, Ashok K Janmeja, Javed N Agrewala
Tuberculosis continues to be one of the most devastating global health problem. Its diagnosis will benefit in timely initiation of the treatment, cure and therefore reduction in the transmission of the disease. Tests are available, but none can be comprehensively relied on for its diagnosis; especially in TB-endemic zones. PhoP is a key player in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence but nothing has been known about its role in the diagnosis of TB. We monitored the presence of anti-PhoP antibodies in the healthy, patients and their contacts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317805/prevalence-and-genetic-determinant-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-patients-completing-intensive-phase-of-treatment-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-nigeria
#4
Aminu Bashir Mohammad, Garba Iliyasu, Abdulrazaq Garba Habib
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) continues to be a challenge in developing countries with poor resources. Despite the high prevalence of primary DR-TB, its routine screening prior to the treatment is not performed in public hospitals in Nigeria. Data regarding drug resistance and its genetic determinant among follow-up patients with TB are lacking in Nigeria. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic determinant of drug resistance among the follow-up patients with TB in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303834/trends-in-spoligotype-patterns-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-in-central-india
#5
Prabha Desikan, Devendra S Chauhan, Nikita Panwalkar, Pragya Sharma, Priyanka Yadav
This study aims to understand trends in spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Central India. Elucidation of these trends may provide baseline information to understand the transmission dynamics of strains of MTB in the region. Spoligotyping was carried out on 340 MTB strains isolated from clinical samples received from 2007 to 2011. The prevalence of ST26/CAS1_Del, ST11/EAI3_IND, ST288/CAS2, ST25/CAS1_Del and Beijing lineages showed waxing and waning trends. ST26/CAS1_Del and ST11/EAI3_IND lineages were consistently present and were predominant...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303814/spoligotype-defined-lineages-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance-merely-a-casual-correlation
#6
REVIEW
Nikita Panwalkar, Devendra S Chauhan, Prabha Desikan
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major challenge to TB control strategy worldwide. Analysis of genetic polymorphism among drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains may help provide some insight into the transmission dynamics of these strains. Spoligotyping is a widely used technique to identify genetic polymorphism, based on 43 known spacers interspersed between direct repeat regions. Considerable work has been done in various parts of the world using this technique to identify and analyse the polymorphic nature of MTB...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303781/delays-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-afb-smear-negative-patients-with-pneumonia
#7
Z X Zhang, L-H Sng, Y Yong, L M Lin, T W Cheng, N H Seong, F K Yong
<h2>BACKGROUND:</h2><p>Diagnostic and treatment delays increase the severity and transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This study aimed to evaluate TB diagnostic and treatment delays in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative patients.</p><h2>METHODS:</h2><p>This was a retrospective observational study. Patients with positive AFB culture of <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex (MTC) were selected from among hospitalised patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298223/migration-to-middle-income-countries-and-tuberculosis-global-policies-for-global-economies
#8
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, M Gabriela M Gomes, Eliseu Alves Waldman
BACKGROUND: International migration to middle-income countries is increasing and its health consequences, in particular increasing transmission rates of tuberculosis (TB), deserve consideration. Migration and TB are a matter of concern in high-income countries and targeted screening of migrants for active and latent TB infection is a main strategy to manage risk and minimize transmission. In this paper, we discuss some aspects of TB control and migration in the context of middle-income countries, together with the prospect of responding with equitable and comprehensive policies...
March 15, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284250/estimating-tuberculosis-incidence-from-primary-survey-data-a-mathematical-modeling-approach
#9
S Pandey, V K Chadha, R Laxminarayan, N Arinaminpathy
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for improved estimations of the burden of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To develop a new quantitative method based on mathematical modelling, and to demonstrate its application to TB in India. DESIGN: We developed a simple model of TB transmission dynamics to estimate the annual incidence of TB disease from the annual risk of tuberculous infection and prevalence of smear-positive TB. We first compared model estimates for annual infections per smear-positive TB case using previous empirical estimates from China, Korea and the Philippines...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282458/transcriptome-analysis-of-mycobacteria-in-sputum-samples-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#10
Sumedha Sharma, Michelle B Ryndak, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Rakesh Yadav, Sunil Sethi, Shet Masih, Suman Laal, Indu Verma
Pulmonary tuberculosis, the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, still retains a top rank among the deadliest communicable diseases. Sputum expectorated during the disease continues to be a primary diagnostic specimen and also serves as a reservoir of bacteria. The expression pattern of mycobacteria in sputum will lead to an insight into bacterial adaptation at the most highly transmissible stage of infection and can also help in identifying newer diagnostic as well as drug targets. Thus, in the present study, a whole genome microarray of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used to elucidate the transcriptional profile of mycobacteria in the sputum samples of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275446/evolution-of-the-health-sector-response-to-hiv-in-myanmar-progress-challenges-and-the-way-forward
#11
EDITORIAL
Htun Nyunt Oo, San Hone, Masami Fujita, Amaya Maw-Naing, Krittayawan Boonto, Marjolein Jacobs, Sabe Phyu, Phavady Bollen, Jacquie Cheung, Htin Aung, May Thu Aung Sang, Aye Myat Soe, Razia Pendse, Eamonn Murphy
Critical building blocks for the response to HIV were made until 2012 despite a series of political, social and financial challenges. A rapid increase of HIV service coverage was observed from 2012 to 2015 through collaborative efforts of government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Government facilities, in particular, demonstrated their capacity to expand services for antiretroviral therapy (ART), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, tuberculosis and HIV co-infection and methadone-maintenance therapy (MMT)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273116/mdr-tb-treatment-as-prevention-the-projected-population-level-impact-of-expanded-treatment-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#12
Emily A Kendall, Andrew S Azman, Frank G Cobelens, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: In 2013, approximately 480,000 people developed active multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), while only 97,000 started MDR-TB treatment. We sought to estimate the impact of improving access to MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment, under multiple diagnostic algorithm and treatment regimen scenarios, on ten-year projections of MDR-TB incidence and mortality. METHODS: We constructed a dynamic transmission model of an MDR-TB epidemic in an illustrative East/Southeast Asian setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257261/outbreak-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-homeless-people-in-atlanta-georgia-2008-2015
#13
Krista M Powell, Daniel S VanderEnde, David P Holland, Maryam B Haddad, Benjamin Yarn, Aliya S Yamin, Omar Mohamed, Rose-Marie F Sales, Lauren E DiMiceli, Gail Burns-Grant, Erik J Reaves, Tracie J Gardner, Susan M Ray
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to describe and determine the factors contributing to a recent drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) outbreak in Georgia. METHODS: We defined an outbreak case as TB diagnosed from March 2008 through December 2015 in a person residing in Georgia at the time of diagnosis and for whom (1) the genotype of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate was consistent with the outbreak strain or (2) TB was diagnosed clinically without a genotyped isolate available and connections were established to another outbreak-associated patient...
March 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256382/agents-of-change-the-role-of-healthcare-workers-in-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-and-occupational-tuberculosis
#14
Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Patricia Bond, Angela Dramowski, Koot Kotze, Philip Lederer, Ingrid Oxley, Jurgens A Peters, Chanel Rossouw, Helene-Mari van der Westhuizen, Bart Willems, Tiong Xun Ting, Arne von Delft, Dalene von Delft, Raquel Duarte, Edward Nardell, Alimuddin Zumla
Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a central role in global tuberculosis (TB) elimination efforts but their contributions are undermined by occupational TB. HCWs have higher rates of latent and active TB than the general population due to persistent occupational TB exposure, particularly in settings where there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed TB in healthcare facilities and TB infection control (TB-IC) programmes are absent or poorly implemented. Occupational health programmes in high TB burden settings are often weak or non-existent and thus data that record the extent of the increased risk of occupational TB globally are scarce...
February 27, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256381/breaking-the-barriers-migrants-and-tuberculosis
#15
Giovanni Sotgiu, Masoud Dara, Rosella Centis, Alberto Matteelli, Ivan Solovic, Christina Gratziou, Adrian Rendon, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Tuberculosis (TB) can represent an important clinical and public health in developing and developed countries. Low- and middle-income countries are facing an epidemic which is difficult to address because of the drug-resistance spread and the association of TB with HIV/AIDS. High-income countries, whose TB incidence has decreased in the last decades, can be involved in new TB epidemic waves owing to social, healthcare, and economic hurdles and challenges. In particular, migrants coming from high TB incidence countries can represent a new epidemiological issue in the TB care and control in geographical areas where primary care and specialized centres are not equipped to face the clinical and public health issues associated with the TB disease...
February 27, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253922/counting-the-lives-saved-by-dots-in-india-a-model-based-approach
#16
Sandip Mandal, Vineet K Chadha, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Nimalan Arinaminpathy
BACKGROUND: Against the backdrop of renewed efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, there is a need for improved methods to estimate the public health impact of TB programmes. Such methods should not only address the improved outcomes amongst those receiving care but should also account for the impact of TB services on reducing transmission. METHODS: Vital registration data in India are not sufficiently reliable for estimates of TB mortality. As an alternative approach, we developed a mathematical model of TB transmission dynamics and mortality, capturing the scale-up of DOTS in India, through the rollout of the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP)...
March 3, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249005/identifying-risk-factors-associated-with-smear-positivity-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-kazakhstan
#17
Sabrina Hermosilla, Paul You, Angela Aifah, Tleukhan Abildayev, Ainur Akilzhanova, Ulan Kozhamkulov, Talgat Muminov, Meruert Darisheva, Baurzhan Zhussupov, Assel Terlikbayeva, Nabila El-Bassel, Neil Schluger
BACKGROUND: Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors. METHODS: Data on incident TB cases' (identified between April 2012 and March 2014) socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237030/a-deletion-hampering-appropriate-typing-of-mycobacterium-africanum
#18
Estefanía Abascal, Diana Maricela Herrera, Marta Herranz, Sheila Santantón, Miguel Martínez-Lirola, Griselda Tudó, Juliá Gonzalez, Emilio Bouza, Laura Pérez-Lago, Darío García-de-Viedma
Molecular epidemiology analysis of tuberculosis transmission is based mostly on the application of MIRU-VNTR. In certain isolates a complete 24-loci genotype is not obtained and these incompletely genotyped isolates can not be used in the definition of clusters. In a population-based molecular epidemiology study performed in Almería, Southeast Spain, a context with a high proportion of immigrants, we found that an 88-bp deletion in isolates of Mycobacterium africanum Lineage 5 hampers MIRU-VNTR analysis. A more extensive analysis revealed that this deletion was shared by all the Lineage 5 isolates in certain countries of origin of immigrants, such as Equatorial Guinea, and is likely present in several other African countries and also in the USA...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230095/genetic-diversity-transmission-dynamics-and-drug-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-angola
#19
João Perdigão, Sofia Clemente, Jorge Ramos, Pedro Masakidi, Diana Machado, Carla Silva, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Nuno Taveira, Isabel Portugal
Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious public health problem in Angola. No surveillance data on drug resistance is available and nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and population structure of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Here, we have genotyped and evaluated drug susceptibility of 89 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Luanda. Thirty-three different spoligotype profiles corresponding to 24 different Shared International Types (SIT) and 9 orphan profiles were detected...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225541/perceived-barriers-to-adherence-to-tuberculosis-infection-control-measures-among-health-care-workers-in-the-dominican-republic
#20
Helena J Chapman, Bienvenido A Veras-Estévez, Jamie L Pomeranz, Eddy N Pérez-Then, Belkys Marcelino, Michael Lauzardo
INTRODUCTION Health care workers have an increased risk of infection due to occupational Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, including multidrug-resistant strains. Health care workers' risk of developing tuberculosis is greater than that of the general population, whether in low-, intermediate- or high-incidence countries. Adherence to infection control measures (administrative controls, environmental controls, and personal respiratory protection) is essential to reduce risk of disease transmission between suspected tuberculosis patients and health care workers, but for different reasons, both objective and subjective, adherence is low...
January 2017: MEDICC Review
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