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Paula A Rochon, Andrea Gruneir, Sudeep S Gill, Wei Wu, Lynn Zhu, Nathan Herrmann, Chaim M Bell, Peter C Austin, Nathan M Stall, Lisa McCarthy, Vasily Giannakeas, Amanda Alberga, Dallas P Seitz, Sharon-Lise Normand, Jerry H Gurwitz, Susan E Bronskill
OBJECTIVES: To examine dose-related prescribing and short-term serious events associated with initiation of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Women (n=47,829) and men (n=32,503) aged 66 and older who initiated a ChEI between April 1, 2010, and June 30, 2016. MEASUREMENTS: All-cause serious events (emergency department (ED) visits, inpatient hospitalizations, death) within 30 days of ChEI initiation...
July 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Karen Mallet, Rany Shamloul, Michael Pugliese, Emma Power, Dale Corbett, Simon Hatcher, Michel Shamy, Grant Stotts, Lise Zakutney, Sean Dukelow, Dar Dowlatshahi
Background/aim We previously reported the feasibility of RecoverNow (a mobile tablet-based post-stroke communication therapy in acute care). RecoverNow has since expanded to include fine motor and cognitive therapies. Our objectives were to gain a better understanding of patient experiences and recovery goals using mobile tablets. Methods Speech-language pathologists or occupational therapists identified patients with stroke and communication, fine motor, or cognitive/perceptual deficits. Patients were provided with iPads individually programmed with applications based on assessment results, and instructed to use it at least 1 h/day...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Florence M G Cavalli, Jens-Martin Hübner, Tanvi Sharma, Betty Luu, Martin Sill, Michal Zapotocky, Stephen C Mack, Hendrik Witt, Tong Lin, David J H Shih, Ben Ho, Mariarita Santi, Lyndsey Emery, Juliette Hukin, Christopher Dunham, Roger E McLendon, Eric S Lipp, Sridharan Gururangan, Andrew Grossbach, Pim French, Johan M Kros, Marie-Lise C van Veelen, Amulya A Nageswara Rao, Caterina Giannini, Sarah Leary, Shin Jung, Claudia C Faria, Jaume Mora, Ulrich Schüller, Marta M Alonso, Jennifer A Chan, Almos Klekner, Lola B Chambless, Eugene I Hwang, Maura Massimino, Charles G Eberhart, Matthias A Karajannis, Benjamin Lu, Linda M Liau, Massimo Zollo, Veronica Ferrucci, Carlos Carlotti, Daniela P C Tirapelli, Uri Tabori, Eric Bouffet, Marina Ryzhova, David W Ellison, Thomas E Merchant, Mark R Gilbert, Terri S Armstrong, Andrey Korshunov, Stefan M Pfister, Michael D Taylor, Kenneth Aldape, Kristian W Pajtler, Marcel Kool, Vijay Ramaswamy
Posterior fossa ependymoma comprise three distinct molecular variants, termed PF-EPN-A (PFA), PF-EPN-B (PFB), and PF-EPN-SE (subependymoma). Clinically, they are very disparate and PFB tumors are currently being considered for a trial of radiation avoidance. However, to move forward, unraveling the heterogeneity within PFB would be highly desirable. To discern the molecular heterogeneity within PFB, we performed an integrated analysis consisting of DNA methylation profiling, copy-number profiling, gene expression profiling, and clinical correlation across a cohort of 212 primary posterior fossa PFB tumors...
July 17, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Alice Bordessoule, Lise Piquilloud, Aissam Lyazidi, Amelia Moreira, Peter C Rimensberger
BACKGROUND: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is used in cases of neonatal and pediatric acute respiratory failure, sometimes even as the primary ventilatory mode. Allowing patients (at least neonates) on HFOV to breathe spontaneously soon after intubation has been shown to be feasible, and this is becoming a more generally used approach for infants and small children. However, such an approach may increase the imposed work of breathing (WOB), raising the question of whether the imposed WOB varies with the use of newer-generation HFOV devices, which operate according to different functional principles...
July 17, 2018: Respiratory Care
Lindi Masson, Shaun Barnabas, Jennifer Deese, Katie Lennard, Smritee Dabee, Hoyam Gamieldien, Shameem Z Jaumdally, Anna-Lise Williamson, Francesca Little, Lut Van Damme, Khatija Ahmed, Tania Crucitti, Saïd Abdellati, Linda-Gail Bekker, Glenda Gray, Janan Dietrich, Heather Jaspan, Jo-Ann S Passmore
OBJECTIVES: Vaginal dysbiosis and STIs are important drivers of the HIV epidemic and reproductive complications. These conditions remain prevalent, partly because most cases are asymptomatic. We have shown that inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β and interferon-γ-induced protein (IP)-10 are biomarkers for detecting asymptomatic STIs and vaginal dysbiosis (bacterial vaginosis (BV) or intermediate microbiota). This study aimed to validate the performance of these biomarkers in African women recruited regardless of symptoms...
July 17, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
P Barton Duell, Gerald Salen, Florian S Eichler, Andrea E DeBarber, Sonja L Connor, Lise Casaday, Suman Jayadev, Yasushi Kisanuki, Patamaporn Lekprasert, Mary J Malloy, Ritesh A Ramdhani, Paul E Ziajka, Joseph F Quinn, Kimmy G Su, Andrew S Geller, Margaret R Diffenderfer, Ernst J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare disorder due to defective sterol 27-hydroxylase causing a lack of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) production and high plasma cholestanol levels. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to review the diagnosis and treatment results in 43 CTX cases. METHODS: We conducted a careful review of the diagnosis, laboratory values, treatment, and clinical course in 43 CTX cases. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 32 years; the average follow-up was 8 years...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Rhiannon E Mayhugh, Paul J Laurienti, Jason Fanning, Lise Gauvin, Keri J Heilman, Stephen W Porges, W Jack Rejeski
BACKGROUND: Alcohol craving, a known correlate of vulnerability to Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), has been found to be inversely related to cardiac vagal tone (CVT). Here we examine how resting CVT, CVT reactivity to a postural challenge, and their interaction influence craving during imposed alcohol abstinence and their usual drinking among moderate to heavy drinkers. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the local community (final n = 29) and assessed for CVT functioning via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at rest (RSA-rest) and during a postural challenge (RSA-react)...
2018: PloS One
Patrick Ollivier, Hélène Pauwels, Guillaume Wille, Nicolas Devau, Gilles Braibant, Lise Cary, Géraldine Picot-Colbeaux, Jérôme Labille
Successive transport experiments of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) suspension through fractured hard-rock column were done in laboratory. A low ionic strength (IS) water (0.8-1.3 10-3 M) at pH ∼4.5 was used, corresponding to the chemical composition of groundwater where the rock was collected (Naizin, France). The surface charge of TiO2 NP was positive while that of rock was negative favoring NP deposition. SEM/EDX reveals that NP were retained on a broad distribution of mineral collectors along the preferential flow pathways (i...
July 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Selina Våge, Gunnar Bratbak, Jorun Egge, Mikal Heldal, Aud Larsen, Svein Norland, Maria Lund Paulsen, Bernadette Pree, Ruth-Anne Sandaa, Evy Foss Skjoldal, Tatiana M Tsagaraki, Lise Øvreås, T Frede Thingstad
In food webs, interactions between competition and defence control the partitioning of limiting resources. As a result, simple models of these interactions contain links between biogeochemistry, diversity, food web structure and ecosystem function. Working at hierarchical levels, these mechanisms also produce self-similarity and therefore suggest how complexity can be generated from repeated application of simple underlying principles. Reviewing theoretical and experimental literature relevant to the marine photic zone, we argue that there is a wide spectrum of phenomena, including single cell activity of prokaryotes, microbial biodiversity at different levels of resolution, ecosystem functioning, regional biogeochemical features and evolution at different timescales; that all can be understood as variations over a common principle, summarised in what has been termed the 'Killing-the-Winner' (KtW) motif...
July 17, 2018: Ecology Letters
Bogdan Procopet, Álvaro Giráldez, Lucio Amitrano, Candid Villanueva, Dominique Thabut, Luis Ibañez-Samaniego, Gilberto Silva-Junior, Javier Martinez, Joan Genescà, Christophe Bureau, Jonel Trebicka, Elba Llop, Wim Laleman, J M Palazon, Jose Castellote, Susana Rodrigues, Lise L Gluud, Carlos Noronha Ferreira, Rafael Barcelo, Nuria Cañete, Manuel Rodríguez, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Jose Luis Mundi, Henning Gronbaek, Manuel Hernández-Guerra, Romano Sassatelli, Alessandra Dell'Era, Marco Senzolo, Juan G Abraldes, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Alexander Zipprich, Meritxell Casas, Helena Masnou, Massimo Primignani, Aleksander Krag, Frederik Nevens, Jose Luis Calleja, Christian Jansen, Marie Angèle Robic, Irene Conejo, Maria-Vega Catalina, Agustin Albillos, Marika Rudler, Edilmar Alvarado, Maria Anna Guardascione, Marcel Tantau, Jaime Bosch, Ferran Torres, Juan Carlos Garcia-Pagán
OBJECTIVE: Patients admitted with acute variceal bleeding (AVB) and Child Pugh C score (CP-C) or Child Pugh B plus active bleeding at endoscopy (CP-B+AB) are at high risk for treatment failure, rebleeding and mortality. Preemptive TIPS (p-TIPS) has been shown to improve survival in these patients but its use in clinical practice has been challenged and not routinely incorporated. The present study aimed to further validate the role of preemptive TIPS in a large number of high-risk patients...
July 16, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Anders Kindberg Boysen, Martin Jensen, Dennis Tønner Nielsen, Frank Viborg Mortensen, Brita Singers Sørensen, Anni Ravnsbæk Jensen, Karen-Lise Spindler
Transarterial chemoembolization with irinotecan loaded beads (DEBIRI-TACE) represents an investigative treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The present study examined DEBIRI-TACE with concomitant mFOLOFX6-bevacizumab as a first-line treatment for mCRC and explored the clinical value of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Patients with limited mCRC of the liver who had not been treated with chemotherapy received up to 4 biweekly DEBIRI-TACE treatments. The endpoints examined included the response rate, survival, toxicity and translational analysis...
August 2018: Oncology Letters
Lise M Verhoef, Ellen M H Selten, Johanna E Vriezekolk, Alphons J L de Jong, Frank H J van den Hoogen, Alfons A den Broeder, Marlies E Hulscher
Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the factors that play a role for patients with RA when considering dose reduction (i.e. gradual tapering until discontinuation) of biological DMARDs (bDMARDs), and to determine their relative importance. Methods: A mixed methods design was used in which we identified influencing factors by performing semi-structured interviews and ranked these factors using a Maximum Difference Scaling questionnaire. Also, we looked at the influence of several patient characteristics on this ranking...
July 13, 2018: Rheumatology
Sherri Rose, Sharon-Lise Normand
Postmarket comparative effectiveness and safety analyses of therapeutic treatments typically involve large observational cohorts. We propose double robust machine learning estimation techniques for implantable medical device evaluations where there are more than two unordered treatments and patients are clustered in hospitals. This flexible approach also accommodates high-dimensional covariates drawn from clinical databases. The Massachusetts Data Analysis Center percutaneous coronary intervention cohort is used to assess the composite outcome of 10 drug-eluting stents among adults implanted with at least one drug-eluting stent in Massachusetts...
July 13, 2018: Biometrics
Scherazad Kootar, Marie-Lise Frandemiche, Gihen Dhib, Xavier Mouska, Thomas Lorivel, Gwenola Poupon-Silvestre, Hazel Hunt, François Tronche, Ingrid Bethus, Jacques Barik, Hélène Marie
Amyloid-β is a peptide released by synapses in physiological conditions and its pathological accumulation in brain structures necessary for memory processing represents a key toxic hallmark underlying Alzheimer's disease. The oligomeric form of Amyloid-β (Aβο) is now believed to represent the main Amyloid-β species affecting synapse function. Yet, the exact molecular mechanism by which Aβο modifies synapse function remains to be fully elucidated. There is accumulating evidence that glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) might participate in Aβο generation and activity in the brain...
July 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Lise Eilin Stene, Jon-Håkon Schultz, Grete Dyb
Terrorist attacks and mass shootings often involve youth. Knowledge is needed on how this may impact their health and functioning. This study investigates perceived academic performance and school wellbeing in 237 terror-exposed survivors of the Utøya youth camp attack according to their sociodemographic characteristics, health and mental health service (MHS) utilization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted after 4-5 and 14-15 months. The year following the attack, 143 (61%) survivors reported impaired academic performance and 66 (29%) impaired school wellbeing...
July 12, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Jennifer Lising Roxas, Ross Calvin Monasky, Bryan Angelo P Roxas, Al B Agellon, Asad Mansoor, James B Kaper, Gayatri Vedantam, V K Viswanathan
Background & Aims: The diarrheagenic pathogen, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), uses a type III secretion system to deliver effector molecules into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). While exploring the basis for the lateral membrane separation of EPEC-infected IECs, we observed infection-induced loss of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-2 (DSG2). We sought to identify the molecule(s) involved in, and delineate the mechanisms and consequences of, EPEC-induced DSG2 loss...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ray El Boustany, Irina Tasevska, Esther Meijer, Lyanne M Kieneker, Sofia Enhörning, Guillaume Lefèvre, Kamel Mohammedi, Michel Marre, Frédéric Fumeron, Beverley Balkau, Nadine Bouby, Lise Bankir, Stephan Jl Bakker, Ronan Roussel, Olle Melander, Ron T Gansevoort, Gilberto Velho
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. The identification of factors contributing to its progression is important for designing preventive measures. Previous studies have suggested that chronically high vasopressin is deleterious to renal function. Here, we evaluated the association of plasma copeptin, a surrogate of vasopressin, with the incidence of CKD in the general population. METHODS: We studied 3 European cohorts: DESIR (n = 5,047; France), MDCS-CC (n = 3,643; Sweden), and PREVEND (n = 7,684; the Netherlands)...
July 12, 2018: JCI Insight
Anne-Lise Brisse, Philippe Stevens, Gwenaëlle Toussaint, Olivier Crosnier, Thierry Brousse
Nanocomposites of Ni(OH)₂ or NiO have successfully been used in electrodes in the last five years, but they have been falsely presented as pseudocapacitive electrodes for electrochemical capacitors and hybrid devices. Indeed, these nickel oxide or hydroxide electrodes are pure battery-type electrodes which store charges through faradaic processes as can be shown by cyclic voltammograms or constant current galvanostatic charge/discharge plots. Despite this misunderstanding, such electrodes can be of interest as positive electrodes in hybrid supercapacitors operating under KOH electrolyte, together with an activated carbon-negative electrode...
July 10, 2018: Materials
Maxime Lussier, Monica Lavoie, Sylvain Giroux, Charles Consel, Manon Guay, Joel Macoir, Carol Hudon, Dominique Lorrain, Lise Talbot, Francis Langlois, Helene Pigot, Nathalie Bier
INTRODUCTION: The aging of the world population is accompanied by a substantial increase in neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia. Early detection of dementia, i.e. at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage, could be an essential condition for slowing down the loss of autonomy and quality of life caused by the disease, as it would provide a critical window for the implementation of early pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. However, the current assessments for MCI have several limitations...
May 7, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Tatiana M Tsagaraki, Bernadette Pree, Øystein Leiknes, Aud Larsen, Gunnar Bratbak, Lise Øvreås, Jorun K Egge, Roman Spanek, Maria L Paulsen, Yngvar Olsen, Olav Vadstein, T F Thingstad
Combining a minimum food web model with Arctic microbial community dynamics, we have suggested that top-down control by copepods can affect the food web down to bacterial consumption of organic carbon. Pursuing this hypothesis further, we used the minimum model to design and analyse a mesocosm experiment, studying the effect of high (+Z) and low (-Z) copepod density on resource allocation, along an organic-C addition gradient. In the Arctic, both effects are plausible due to changes in advection patterns (affecting copepods) and meltwater inputs (affecting carbon)...
July 10, 2018: ISME Journal
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