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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679779/biomimetic-3d-in-vitro-model-of-biofilm-triggered-osteomyelitis-for-investigating-hematopoiesis-during-bone-marrow-infections
#1
Annamarija Raic, Sophie Riedel, Elena Kemmling, Karen Bieback, Joerg Overhage, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck
In this work, we define the requirements for a human-based osteomyelitis model which overcomes the limitations of state of the art animal models. Osteomyelitis is a severe and difficult to treat infection of the bone that develops rapidly, making it difficult to study in humans. We have developed a 3D in vitro model of the bone marrow, comprising a macroporous material, human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Inclusion of biofilms grown on an implant into the model system allowed us to study the effects of postoperative osteomyelitis-inducing bacteria on the bone marrow...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679527/effects-of-a-new-chlorhexidine-varnish-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-vitro
#2
Ali Hayati, Farhud Najafi, Fahimeh Sadat Tabatabaei
BACKGROUND: Local sustained-release drug delivery systems increase the substantivity of drugs in the oral environment and subsequently enhance their therapeutic effects. This study sought to compare the effects of two commercially available varnishes and one experimental chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish on formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The solubility rates of the varnishes were evaluated as well. METHODS: Standard acrylic discs were fabricated and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surfaces, namely, V-varnish, Pascal, and experimental CHX varnish...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679511/light-availability-impacts-structure-and-function-of-phototrophic-stream-biofilms-across-domains-and-trophic-levels
#3
Mia M Bengtsson, Karoline Wagner, Clarissa Schwab, Tim Urich, Tom J Battin
Phototrophic biofilms are ubiquitous in freshwater and marine environments where they are critical for biogeochemical cycling, food webs and in industrial applications. In streams, phototrophic biofilms dominate benthic microbial life and harbor an immense prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial biodiversity with biotic interactions across domains and trophic levels. Here, we examine how community structure and function of these biofilms respond to varying light availability, as the crucial energy source for phototrophic biofilms...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678329/antibacterial-photocatalytic-activity-of-different-crystalline-tio-2-phases-in-oral-multispecies-biofilm
#4
Heloisa N Pantaroto, Antonio P Ricomini-Filho, Martinna M Bertolini, José H D Silva, Nilton F Azevedo Neto, Cortino Sukotjo, Elidiane C Rangel, Valentim A R Barão
OBJECTIVE: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) incorporation in biomaterials is a promising technology due to its photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. However, the antibacterial potential of different TiO2 crystalline structures on a multispecies oral biofilm remains unknown. We hypothesized that the different crystalline TiO2 phases present different photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. METHODS: Three crystalline TiO2 films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on commercially pure titanium (cpTi), in order to obtain four groups: (1) machined cpTi (control); (2) A-TiO2 (anatase); (3) M-TiO2 (mixture of anatase and rutile); (4) R-TiO2 (rutile)...
April 17, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676958/can-subminimal-inhibitory-concentrations-of-antibiotics-induce-the-formation-of-biofilm-in-leptospira
#5
Kirubakaran Vinod Kumar, Chandan Lall, Ratchagadasse Vimal Raj, Kumaresan Vedhagiri, Ittoop Pulikkottil Sunish, Paluru Vijayachari
Antibiotics at subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) are known to induce biofilm formation in numerous bacteria in vitro. In this report, the effect of sub-MIC levels of antibiotics (doxycycline and tetracycline) on biofilm formation by leptospiral reference strains and isolates was investigated. The sub-MIC levels of both tetracycline and doxycycline were able to induce biofilm in some of the leptospiral strains. This is the first report demonstrating the effect of sub-MIC level of antibiotics in inducing biofilm formation in Leptospira...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676891/the-pyroelectric-effect-enables-simple-and-rapid-evaluation-of-biofilm-formation
#6
Oriella Gennari, Valentina Marchesano, Romina Rega, Laura Mecozzi, Filomena Nazzaro, Florinda Fratianni, Raffaele Coppola, Luca Masucci, Emanuela Mazzon, Alessia Bramanti, Pietro Ferraro, Simonetta Grilli
Biofilms are detrimental to human life and industrial processes due to potential infections, contaminations and deterioration. Therefore, the evaluation of microbial capability to form biofilms is of fundamental importance for assessing how different environmental factors may affect their vitality. Nowadays, the approaches used for biofilm evaluation are still poor in reliability and rapidity and often provide contradictory results. Here we present what we call Biofilm Electrostatic Test (BET) as a simple, rapid and high reproducible tool for evaluating in vitro the ability of bacteria to form biofilms through the electrostatic interaction with a pyro-electrified carrier...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676752/model-based-analysis-of-microbial-consortia-and-microbial-products-in-an-anammox-biofilm-reactor
#7
M Azari, A V Le, M Lübken, M Denecke
A mathematical model for a granular biofilm reactor for leachate treatment was validated by long-term measured data to investigate the mechanisms and drivers influencing biological nitrogen removal and microbial consortia dynamics. The proposed model, based on Activated Sludge Model (ASM1), included anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), nitrifying and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria which can attach and grow on granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Two kinetic descriptions for the model were proposed: with and without soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675336/bacterial-aggregates-establish-at-the-edges-of-acute-epidermal-wounds
#8
Lene Bay, Kasper N Kragh, Steffen R Eickhardt, Steen S Poulsen, Lise Mette R Gjerdrum, Khaled Ghathian, Henrik Calum, Magnus S Ågren, Thomas Bjarnsholt
Objective: The bacterial composition and distribution were evaluated in acute standardized epidermal wounds and uninjured skin by a molecular in situ technology benchmarked to conventional culturing. This was done to reveal whether bacterial biofilm is present in acute wounds. Approach: On the buttock of 26 healthy volunteers, 28 suction blisters were made and de-roofed. Four wounds were biopsied immediately after wounding, whereas the remaining 24 wounds were treated daily with sterile deionized water and covered with a moisture-retaining dressing...
April 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675263/micro-ct-x-ray-imaging-exposes-structured-diffusion-barriers-within-biofilms
#9
Alona Keren-Paz, Vlad Brumfeld, Yaara Oppenheimer-Shaanan, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
In nature, bacteria predominantly exist as highly structured biofilms, which are held together by extracellular polymeric substance and protect their residents from environmental insults, such as antibiotics. The mechanisms supporting this phenotypic resistance are poorly understood. Recently, we identified a new mechanism maintaining biofilms - an active production of calcite minerals. In this work, a high-resolution and robust µCT technique is used to study the mineralized areas within intact bacterial biofilms...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675016/genetic-and-physiological-adaptations-of-marine-bacterium-pseudomonas-stutzeri-273-to-mercury-stress
#10
Rikuan Zheng, Shimei Wu, Ning Ma, Chaomin Sun
Mercury-mediated toxicity remains one of the greatest barriers against microbial survival, even though bacterial resistance to mercury compounds can occur. However, the genetic and physiological adaptations of bacteria to mercury stress still remains unclear. Here, we show that the marine bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri 273 is resistant to 50 μM Hg2+ and removes up to 94% Hg2+ from culture. Using gene homologous recombination and complementation, we show that genes encoding Hg2+ -transport proteins MerT, MerP, the mercuric reductase MerA and the regulatory protein MerD are essential for bacterial mercuric resistance when challenged with Hg2+ ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674848/biofilm-infections-between-scylla-and-charybdis-interplay-of-host-antimicrobial-peptides-and-antibiotics
#11
Sergey Chernysh, Natalia Gordya, Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev
Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) complex of the host's immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673978/enhanced-antibacterial-nanocomposite-mats-by-coaxial-electrospinning-of-polycaprolactone-fibers-loaded-with-zn-based-nanoparticles
#12
Gina Prado-Prone, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Argelia Almaguer-Flores, Jorge A García-Macedo, Victor I García, Sandra E Rodil, Clemente Ibarra, Cristina Velasquillo
ZnO and Zn acetate nanoparticles were embedded in polycaprolactone coaxial-fibers and uniaxial-fibers matrices to develop potential antibacterial nanocomposite wound dressings. Morphology, composition, wettability, crystallinity and fiber structure of mats were characterized. Antibacterial properties of mats were tested against E. coli and S. aureus by turbidity and MTT assays. The effect of UVA illumination (prior to bacteria inoculation) on mats' antibacterial activity was also studied. Results showed that a coaxial-fibers design maintained nanoparticles distributed in the outer shell of fibers and, in general, enhanced the antibacterial effect of the mats, in comparison to conventional uniaxial-fibers mats...
April 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673972/microalgae-as-multi-functional-options-in-modern-agriculture-current-trends-prospects-and-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Nirmal Renuka, Abhishek Guldhe, Radha Prasanna, Poonam Singh, Faizal Bux
Algae are a group of ubiquitous photosynthetic organisms comprising eukaryotic green algae and Gram-negative prokaryotic cyanobacteria, which have immense potential as a bioresource for various industries related to biofuels, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and feed. This fascinating group of organisms also has applications in modern agriculture through facilitating increased nutrient availability, maintaining the organic carbon and fertility of soil, and enhancing plant growth and crop yields, as a result of stimulation of soil microbial activity...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670380/emerging-treatment-options-for-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-focus-on-intravenous-delafloxacin
#14
REVIEW
Elda Righi, Alessia Carnelutti, Antonio Vena, Matteo Bassetti
The increase in hospitalization due to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by resistant pathogens supports the need for new treatment options. Antimicrobial options for ABSSSI that provide broad-spectrum coverage, including gram-negative pathogens and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are limited. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone available as intravenous and oral formulations and is characterized by an increased efficacy in acidic environments and activity on bacterial biofilm...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670216/micro-scale-intermixing-a-requisite-for-stable-and-synergistic-co-establishment-in-a-four-species-biofilm
#15
Wenzheng Liu, Jakob Russel, Mette Burmølle, Søren J Sørensen, Jonas S Madsen
Microorganisms frequently coexist in complex multispecies communities, where they distribute non-randomly, reflective of the social interactions that occur. It is therefore important to understand how social interactions and local spatial organization influences multispecies biofilm succession. Here the localization of species pairs was analyzed in three dimensions in a reproducible four-species biofilm model, to study the impact of spatial positioning of individual species on the temporal development of the community...
April 18, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669203/two-types-of-threonine-tagged-lipopeptides-synergize-in-host-colonization-by-pathogenic-burkholderia-species
#16
Tawatchai Thongkongkaew, Wei Ding, Evgeni Bratovanov, Emilia Oueis, Maria Garcia-Altares, Nestor Zaburannyi, Kirsten Harmrolfs, Youming Zhang, Kirstin Scherlach, Rolf Müller, Christian Hertweck
Bacterial infections of agriculturally important plants and mushrooms pose a major threat to human food sources worldwide. However, structures of chemical mediators required by the pathogen for host colonization and infection remain elusive in most cases. Here, we report two types of threonine-tagged lipopeptides conserved among mushroom and rice pathogenic Burkholderia species that facilitate bacterial infection of hosts. Genome mining, metabolic profiling of infected mushrooms and heterologous expression of orphan gene clusters allowed the discovery of these unprecedented metabolites in the mushroom pathogen Burkholderia gladioli (haereogladin, burriogladin), and the plant pathogen Burkholderia glumae (haereoglumin, and burrioglumin)...
April 18, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668945/the-activity-of-bacterial-peptidylarginine-deiminase-is-important-during-formation-of-dual-species-biofilm-by-periodontal-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-opportunistic-fungus-candida-albicans
#17
Karkowska-Kuleta Justyna, Dominika Bartnicka, Marcin Zawrotniak, Gabriela Zielinska, Anna Kieronska, Oliwia Bochenska, Izabela Ciaston, Joanna Koziel, Jan Potempa, Zbigniew Baster, Zenon Rajfur, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium critically involved in the development of human periodontitis, belongs to the late colonizers of the oral cavity. The success of this pathogen in the host colonization and infection results from the presence of several virulence factors, including extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), an enzyme that converts protein arginine residues to citrullines. A common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, is also frequently identified among microorganisms that reside at subgingival sites...
April 12, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668034/response-of-formed-biofilm-of-enterobacter-cloacae-klebsiella-oxytoca-and-citrobacter-freundii-to-chlorite-based-disinfectants
#18
Linlin Cai, Huawei Wang, Lijiao Liang, Guangyu Wang, Xinglian Xu, Huhu Wang
Bacterial biofilms formed on equipment surfaces are potential sources of cross-contamination and can be responsible for the spread of bacteria involved in food spoilage, such as some Enterobacteriaceae family members. In this study, the effect of chlorite-based disinfectants, including sodium hypochlorite (SH), chlorine dioxide (CD), strongly acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW), and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), on inactivation of mono-biofilms of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter freundii was evaluated separately...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666613/novel-biocontrol-methods-for-listeria-monocytogenes-biofilms-in-food-production-facilities
#19
REVIEW
Jessica A Gray, P Scott Chandry, Mandeep Kaur, Chawalit Kocharunchitt, John P Bowman, Edward M Fox
High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666543/spoilage-of-refrigerated-litopenaeus-vannamei-eavesdropping-on-acinetobacter-acyl-homoserine-lactones-promotes-the-spoilage-potential-of-shewanella-baltica
#20
Suqin Zhu, Haohao Wu, Caili Zhang, Jinxin Jie, Zunying Liu, Mingyong Zeng, Changyun Wang
Shewanella baltica and Acinetobacter are among the predominant spoilage bacteria in refrigerated shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ). S. baltica are incapable of producing acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signals, but can respond to environmental AHLs. In this paper, Acinetobacter was found to produce three AHLs, i.e. N -butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N -(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (O-C6-HSL) and N -(3-oxooctanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (O-C8-HSL), according to thin-layer chromatography using the bioreporter Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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