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bacteria biofilm

Rasim Şahin, İlknur Kaleli
Staphylococcus aureus which is an important pathogen, is known to have several virulence factors. The pathogenicity of S.aureus isolates are related with features like adherence, various toxins, enzymes, structural and extracellular factors. Slime factor and biofilm formation are also the pathogenicity factors of the bacteria. Biofilm formation is usually associated with chronic infections and has become a subject of interest in a wide area of research. Biofilm is an adherent structure formed by bacteria encased within a matrix produced on natural body surfaces or medical devices...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Barbara Różalska, Beata Sadowska, Jerzy Żuchowski, Marzena Więckowska-Szakiel, Aleksandra Budzyńska, Urszula Wójcik, Anna Stochmal
Butanol extracts from leaves, twigs, and fruits of Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson (sea buckthorn, SBT) were fractionated into phenolic and nonpolar lipid components, the chemical composition of which was analyzed. Assuming that an effect on natural microbiota and host epithelial cells needs to be assessed, regardless of the purpose of using SBT formulations in vivo, the minimal inhibitory/biocidal/fungicidal concentrations (MICs/MBCs/MFCs) of the fractions and reference phytocompounds were screened, involving 17 species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species...
June 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cong-Cong Tang, Yu Tian, Zhang-Wei He, Wei Zuo, Jun Zhang
A novel algal-bacterial symbiosis system based on sequencing batch suspended biofilm reactor (A-SBSBR) was developed for simultaneously enhanced nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal from domestic wastewater. Results showed that the total N (TN) and P (TP) removal efficiencies in A-SBSBR increased to 69.91% and 94.78%, respectively. The mechanism analysis indicated that TN removal mainly occurred at non-aeration stage, and TP removal happened during the whole cycle in A-SBSBR. Compared to control SBSBR, TN removal by denitrification and anabolism and TP removal by anabolism in A-SBSBR increased by 12...
June 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Qingping Yang, Gregory S Schultz, Daniel J Gibson
Previous work has demonstrated that a surfactant-based dressing was capable of eliminating any evidence of pre-existing biofilms from an ex vivo porcine skin wound model. Herein, the authors test both the surfactant's ability to prevent biofilm formation and its ability to eliminate Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms. To test biofilm formation inhibition, porcine skin explants were inoculated and incubated for 4 hours before treatment. The explants were then dressed with test or control materials. To test biofilm elimination, mature 3-day biofilms were established and then treated and wiped daily...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Gemma Reguera
Geobacter bacteria are the only microorganisms known to produce conductive appendages or pili to electronically connect cells to extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxide minerals and uranium. The conductive pili also promote cell-cell aggregation and the formation of electroactive biofilms. The hallmark of these electroactive biofilms is electronic heterogeneity, mediated by coordinated interactions between the conductive pili and matrix-associated cytochromes. Collectively, the matrix-associated electron carriers discharge respiratory electrons from cells in multilayered biofilms to electron-accepting surfaces such as iron oxide coatings and electrodes poised at a metabolically oxidizable potential...
July 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jorge Barriuso, María J Martínez
Quorum sensing (QS) is a sophisticated cell to cell signaling mechanism mediated by small diffusible molecules called "autoinducers." This phenomenon is well studied in bacteria, where different QS systems are described that differ between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. However, a common system to these groups was discovered, the autoinducer 2. QS has implications in biofilm formation, where the application of metagenomic techniques to study these phenomena may be useful to understand the communication networks established by the different components of the community, and to discover new targets for microbial control...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mohammed Ashrafi, Lilyann Novak-Frazer, Matthew Bates, Mohamed Baguneid, Teresa Alonso-Rasgado, Guoqing Xia, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ardeshir Bayat
Biofilms are major contributors to delayed wound healing and there is a need for clinically relevant experimental models to assess theranostics. Microorganisms release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the ability to identify these in infected cutaneous wounds could lead to efficient non-invasive diagnosis. The aims here were to develop and assess bacterial biofilm formation and identify their VOC profiles in an in vitro model and validate in human ex vivo incisional and excisional cutaneous wound models...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pengcheng Peng, Hui Huang, Hongqiang Ren, Haijun Ma, Yuan Lin, Jinju Geng, Ke Xu, Yan Zhang, Lili Ding
Startup of biofilm process triggered by initial adhesion of bacteria is difficult in high ammonia nitrogen wastewater treatment. In this study, the influence of two commonly used N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), N-Hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-Octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), on the adhesion of soluble macromolecules and bacteria in four types of high ammonia nitrogen wastewater to surfaces of model biocarriers (i.e. polystyrene, polyamide and polyethylene terephthalate) was investigated by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technology...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Euna Oh, Katelyn J Andrews, Byeonghwa Jeon
Campylobacter is a leading foodborne pathogen worldwide. Biofilm formation is an important survival mechanism that sustains the viability of Campylobacter under harsh stress conditions. Iron affects biofilm formation in some other bacteria; however, the effect of iron on biofilm formation has not been investigated in Campylobacter . In this study, we discovered that ferrous (Fe2+ ) and ferric (Fe3+ ) iron stimulated biofilm formation in Campylobacter jejuni . The sequestration of iron with an iron chelator prevented the iron-mediated biofilm stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniel Pletzer, Sarah C Mansour, Robert E W Hancock
With the antibiotic development pipeline running dry, many fear that we might soon run out of treatment options. High-density infections are particularly difficult to treat due to their adaptive multidrug-resistance and currently there are no therapies that adequately address this important issue. Here, a large-scale in vivo study was performed to enhance the activity of antibiotics to treat high-density infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was shown that synthetic peptides can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin to improve the treatment outcome of murine cutaneous abscesses caused by clinical hard-to-treat pathogens including all ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae) pathogens and Escherichia coli...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Emilie Bédard, Céline Laferrière, Eric Déziel, Michèle Prévost
Microbial drinking water quality can be altered in large buildings, especially after stagnation. In this study, bacterial profiles were generated according to the stagnation time and the volume of water collected at the tap. Successive volumes of cold and hot water were sampled after controlled stagnation periods. Bacterial profiles revealed an important decline (> 2 log) in culturable cells in the first 500 mL sampled from the hot and cold water systems, with a steep decline in the first 15 mL. The strong exponential correlation (R2 ≥ 0...
2018: PloS One
Mariam Taha, Hesham Abdelbary, F Patrick Ross, Alberto V Carli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after total joint replacement. A main source for antibiotic tolerance and treatment failure is bacterial production of biofilm-a resilient barrier against antibiotics, immune system, and mechanical debridement. The purpose of this review is to explore some novel approaches to treat PJI and biofilm-related infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Innovative treatment strategies of bacterial and biofilm infections revolve around (a) augmenting current therapies, such as improving the delivery and efficiency of conventional antibiotics and enhancing the efficacy of antiseptics and (b) administrating completely new therapeutic modalities, such as using immunotherapy, nanoparticles, lytic bacteriophages, photodynamic therapy, novel antibiotics, and antimicrobial peptides...
June 20, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Maria Gullo, Salvatore La China, Pasquale Massimiliano Falcone, Paolo Giudici
Bacterial cellulose is an attractive biopolymer for a number of applications including food, biomedical, cosmetics, and engineering fields. In addition to renewability and biodegradability, its unique structure and properties such as chemical purity, nanoscale fibrous 3D network, high water-holding capacity, high degree of polymerization, high crystallinity index, light transparency, biocompatibility, and mechanical features offer several advantages when it is used as native polymer or in composite materials...
June 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ning Zhang, Ke Zhang, Michael D Weir, David J Xu, Mark A Reynolds, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
Biofilms at the tooth-restoration bonded interface can produce acids and cause recurrent caries. Recurrent caries is a primary reason for restoration failures. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel bioactive dental bonding agent containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) to inhibit biofilm formation at the tooth-restoration margin and to investigate the effects of water-aging for 6 months on the dentin bond strength and protein-repellent and antibacterial durability...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Agnieszka Maszewska, Marta Zygmunt, Iwona Grzejdziak, Antoni Różalski
AIMS: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are very difficult to treat due to the ability of biofilm formation and drug resistance of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-biofilm activity of phages and develop phage cocktail to combat biofilm of P. mirabilis strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Planktonic forms and biofilms of 50 tested uropathogenic P. mirabilis strains showed different sensitivity to 13 phages used...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
James P Moley, Mary S McGrath, Jeffrey F Granger, Paul Stoodley, Devendra H Dusane
Antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (CS-B) are used to treat biofilm-related periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). A previous study has shown that such beads are effective in reducing lawns biofilms grown on agar plates; however, the ability of CS-B to eradicate biofilms grown on solid orthopaedic material surfaces has not been investigated. We grew biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41 and a USA300 MRSA Staphylococcus aureus SAP231 on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE), hydroxyapatite (HA), and 316L stainless steel (SS) coupons for three days under static growth conditions, with daily nutrient exchange...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Leo Huan-Hsuan Hsu, Pu Deng, Yixin Zhang, Xiaocheng Jiang
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) from electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) plays a critical role in renewable bioelectricity harvesting through microbial fuel cells (MFC). Comprehensive interpretation and interrogation of EET mechanisms can provide valuable information to enhance MFC performance, which, however, are still restricted by the intrinsic complexity of natural biofilm. Here, we design core/shell EAB-encapsulating cables as a one-dimensional model system to facilitate EET studies, where the local microenvironments can be rationally controlled to establish structure-function correlations with full biological relevance...
June 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Milada Dvořáčková, Filip Růžička, Martin Benešík, Roman Pantůček, Monika Dvořáková-Heroldová
Staphylococcus aureus may be a highly virulent human pathogen, especially when it is able to form a biofilm, and it is resistant to antibiotic. Infections caused by these bacteria significantly affect morbidity and mortality, primarily in hospitalized patients. Treatment becomes more expensive, more toxic, and prolonged. This is the reason why research on alternative therapies should be one of the main priorities of medicine and biotechnology. A promising alternative treatment approach is bacteriophage therapy...
June 20, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Emma Reece, Sean Doyle, Peter Greally, Julie Renwick, Siobhán McClean
Many cystic fibrosis (CF) airway infections are considered to be polymicrobial and microbe-microbe interactions may play an important role in disease pathology. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the most prevalent bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. We have previously shown that patients co-colonized with these pathogens had comparable outcomes to those chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa . Our objective was to examine the interactions between A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Danielle Duanis-Assaf, Tal Duanis-Assaf, Guanghong Zeng, Rikke Louise Meyer, Meital Reches, Doron Steinberg, Moshe Shemesh
Many bacteria in biofilm surround themselves by an extracellular matrix composed mainly of extracellular polysaccharide (EP), proteins such as amyloid-like fibers (ALF) and nucleic acids. While the importance of EP in attachment and acceleration of biofilm by a number of different bacterial species is well established, the contribution of ALF to attachment in multispecies biofilm remains unknown. The study presented here aimed to investigate the role of TasA, a precursor for ALF, in cell-cell interactions in dual-species biofilms of Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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