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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814234/biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-haemodialysis-patients
#1
Beata Franczyk, Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Jacek Rysz
BACKGROUND: All stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with increased risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. According to studies, levels of copeptin, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and heart fatty-acid binding protein (h-FABP) are increased in dialysis patients. MATERIALS: This study included 50 patients (19 women, 31 men) chronically undergoing haemodialysis. The concentration of markers: copeptin, GDF-15, h-FABP, troponin and serum creatine kinase MB (CKMB) were measured with the use of ELISA tests...
August 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807612/the-role-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-mediator-of-cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
James A P Tomlinson, David C Wheeler
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an enhanced risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality when compared with age- and gender-matched individuals with normal kidney function. Trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut-derived amine oxide that has been implicated in the causation of CV diseases. Plasma TMAO is cleared by the kidney, and TMAO levels are elevated in CKD. Experimental studies have identified pathogenic mechanisms by which TMAO may contribute to CV disease through dysregulation of lipid metabolism, enhanced macrophage foam cell formation, and platelet dysfunction...
August 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782823/drugs-and-the-kidneys-clinical-pharmacology-perspectives
#3
EDITORIAL
John Vincent
The focus of this edition of Clinical Pharmacolgoy & Therapeutics (CPT) is on drugs and renal function and will not include a detailed discussion of kidney disease and its treatment. It is well recognized that drugs affect the kidneys in different ways, while kidney disease impacts drug metabolism and response. It is impossible to underestimate the value of the kidneys to man in health and disease, from regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance to participating in drug metabolism and transport. Additionally, the kidneys serve as targets for drugs used to treat cardiovascular (CV) diseases including hypertension and heart failure, metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as playing a role in the regulation of several hormones...
September 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777303/novel-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-the-prediction-of-its-outcome
#4
REVIEW
Jacek Rysz, Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Beata Franczyk, Zbigniew Jabłonowski, Aleksandra Ciałkowska-Rysz
In its early stages, symptoms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are usually not apparent. Significant reduction of the kidney function is the first obvious sign of disease. If diagnosed early (stages 1 to 3), the progression of CKD can be altered and complications reduced. In stages 4 and 5 extensive kidney damage is observed, which usually results in end-stage renal failure. Currently, the diagnosis of CKD is made usually on the levels of blood urea and serum creatinine (sCr), however, sCr has been shown to be lacking high predictive value...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775000/bpi-fold-containing-family-a-member-2-parotid-secretory-protein-is-an-early-biomarker-of-aki
#5
Satya K Kota, Elizabeth Pernicone, David E Leaf, Isaac E Stillman, Sushrut S Waikar, Savithri Balasubramanian Kota
AKI is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and an important contributor to the development and progression of CKD. Molecular biomarkers that improve the detection and prognostication of AKI are therefore required. We assessed the utility as such of BPI fold-containing family A member 2 (BPIFA2), also known as parotid secretory protein, which we identified via a multiplex quantitative proteomics screen of acutely injured murine kidneys. In physiologic conditions, BPIFA2 is expressed specifically in the parotid glands and is abundant in salivary secretions...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758975/elevated-soluble-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-and-proenkephalin-serum-levels-predict-the-development-of-acute-kidney-injury-after-cardiac-surgery
#6
Jana C Mossanen, Jessica Pracht, Tobias U Jansen, Lukas Buendgens, Christian Stoppe, Andreas Goetzenich, Joachim Struck, Rüdiger Autschbach, Gernot Marx, Frank Tacke
Acute kidney injury (AKI) develops in up to 40% of patients after cardiac surgery. The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been identified as a biomarker for incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proenkephalin (proENK) also has been shown to be a biomarker for renal dysfunction. We hypothesized that pre-surgery suPAR and proENK levels might predict AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Consecutive patients (n = 107) undergoing elective cardiac surgery were studied prospectively...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756545/single-emergency-room-measurement-of-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-for-early-detection-of-acute-kidney-injury-aki
#7
Mohsen Abu Alfeilat, Itzchak Slotki, Linda Shavit
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is considered a readily available biomarker of systemic inflammation. An association between elevated NLR and adverse outcomes in a variety of medical and surgical conditions including CKD has been demonstrated in several studies. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of single Emergency Department (ED) measurement of NLR for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). We prospectively studied 294 patients aged 71.6 ± 17. We measured NLR at presentation to the ED...
July 29, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755902/low-triiodothyronine-is-associated-with-elevation-of-n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-nt-probnp-and-mortality-in-dialysis-patients
#8
María Del Carmen Prado-Uribe, María-de-Jesús Ventura, Marcela Ávila-Díaz, Carmen J Mora, Antonio Méndez-Durán, Diana Villanueva-Noches, Alejandra Cisneros, Begoña Ilabaca, Alfonso Cueto-Manzano, Fernando García-Contreras, Bengt Lindholm, Elvia García-López, Ramón Paniagua
BACKGROUND: Low thyroid hormone (TH) levels and myocardial damage are common in dialysis patients and are associated with mortality. However, little is known about the role of THs on myocardial damage as has been described in primary thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the potential relationship between low total triiodothyronine (total T3) and biomarkers of myocardial damage and the effect of their interaction on mortality, to ascertain if cardiovascular damage is the link between low THs and the risk of death in dialysis patients with CKD...
July 26, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751576/analytic-considerations-for-repeated-measures-of-egfr-in-cohort-studies-of-ckd
#9
Haochang Shou, Jesse Y Hsu, Dawei Xie, Wei Yang, Jason Roy, Amanda H Anderson, J Richard Landis, Harold I Feldman, Afshin Parsa, Christopher Jepson
Repeated measures of various biomarkers provide opportunities for us to enhance understanding of many important clinical aspects of CKD, including patterns of disease progression, rates of kidney function decline under different risk factors, and the degree of heterogeneity in disease manifestations across patients. However, because of unique features, such as correlations across visits and time dependency, these data must be appropriately handled using longitudinal data analysis methods. We provide a general overview of the characteristics of data collected in cohort studies and compare appropriate statistical methods for the analysis of longitudinal exposures and outcomes...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745927/urine-liver-fatty-acid-binding-protein-and-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#10
Dinah S Khatir, Mette D Bendtsen, Henrik Birn, Rikke Nørregaard, Per Ivarsen, Bente Jespersen, Niels H Buus
Excretion of the tubular protein liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is a potential novel biomarker of renal dysfunction. We examined whether urine L-FABP excretion adds prognostic information to the well-established risk markers, blood pressure (BP), albumin excretion and baseline GFR, regarding progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a prospective study design a cohort of 74 stage 3-4 CKD patients (age 61 ± 13 years) were included. Glomerular filtration ratio (GFR, (51)Cr-EDTA-clearance), 24-hour ambulatory BP, 24-hour urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UAC) and urinary L-FABP/creatinine ratio (U-L-FABP/C) were determined at baseline and after 18 months of follow-up...
July 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743129/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-predicts-mortality-and-end-stage-renal-disease-in-a-canadian-asian-population-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Ishwarlal Jialal, Fernando Camacho, Bharat Nathoo, Paul Tam, Roma Pahwa, George G Wu
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers that predict end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and/or mortality could usher in new therapeutics to halt this onslaught. While fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 can predict both ESRD and mortality, it has not been studied in North American CKD patients of Asian ethnicity. METHOD: This is a prospective investigation about the role of FGF23 in 998 Canadian patients of Asian descent with CKD defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/m2 and followed up for 3 years...
July 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721153/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-iron-and-inflammation-are-they-related-in-early-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Ewelina Lukaszyk, Mateusz Lukaszyk, Ewa Koc-Zorawska, Anna Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Jolanta Malyszko
INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels are elevated in impaired renal function. Inflammation and iron are potential regulators of FGF-23. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between FGF-23 concentration, novel iron status biomarkers and inflammatory parameters among patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included 84 patients with CKD in the early stage. Serum hemoglobin, fibrinogen, creatinine, iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels were measured using standard laboratory methods...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720296/urinary-heat-shock-protein-72-as-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-dogs
#13
Yaron Bruchim, Yochai Avital, Michal Horowitz, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Itamar Aroch, Gilad Segev
Early recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) is important, as therapy is potentially more efficacious if instituted early in the course of disease. Urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio (uHSP72/uCr) was assessed as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in AKI in dogs. Fifty-three dogs were enrolled in five groups: healthy controls (n=11), urinary tract infection (n=10), chronic kidney disease (CKD; n=11), AKI (n=13), and acute decompensating CKD (n=8). Urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio was highest in the AKI group (P<0...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716974/heart-failure-in-patients-with-kidney-disease
#14
REVIEW
Courtney Tuegel, Nisha Bansal
Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the population of CKD patients with concurrent HF continues to grow. The accurate diagnosis of HF is challenging in patients with CKD in part due to a lack of validated imaging and biomarkers specifically in this population. The pathophysiology between the heart and the kidneys is complex and bidirectional. Patients with CKD have greater prevalence of traditional HF risk factors as well as unique kidney-specific risk factors including malnutrition, acid-base alterations, uraemic toxins, bone mineral changes, anemia and myocardial stunning...
July 17, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702365/abnormal-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-expression-and-increased-oxidative-stress-in-plasma-of-ckd-patients-with-cognitive-dysfunction-a-small-scale-case-control-study-comparison-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
G Vinothkumar, C Kedharnath, S Krishnakumar, S Sreedhar, K Preethikrishnan, S Dinesh, A Sundaram, D Balakrishnan, G Shivashekar, Sureshkumar, P Venkataraman
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction has been increasingly recognized in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Senile plaques are important pathophysiological characteristic of cognitive dysfunction. The major component of plaques is the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide released from proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Plasma Aβ has been a focus of the growing literature on blood based biomarkers for cognitive dysfunction. Oxidative stress is prevalent in CKD and it plays an important role in cognitive dysfunction...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701593/neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-as-a-biomarker-for-predicting-acute-kidney-injury-during-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#16
Muralidhar Kanchi, R Manjunath, Jos Massen, Lloyd Vincent, Kumar Belani
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery is a major complication resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of estimating serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a biomarker in predicting AKI in patients with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) and undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OP-CABG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied sixty nondialysis-dependent CKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700653/plasma-bradykinin-and-early-diabetic-nephropathy-lesions-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Kevin M Wheelock, Jian Cai, Helen C Looker, Michael L Merchant, Robert G Nelson, Gudeta D Fufaa, E Jennifer Weil, Harold I Feldman, Ramachandran S Vasan, Paul L Kimmel, Brad H Rovin, Michael Mauer, Jon B Klein
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of bradykinin and related peptides with the development of diabetic nephropathy lesions in 243 participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from the Renin-Angiotensin System Study who, at baseline, were normoalbuminuric, normotensive and had normal or increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). DESIGN: Plasma concentrations of bradykinin and related peptides were measured at baseline by quantitative mass spectrometry. All participants were randomly assigned at baseline to receive placebo, enalapril or losartan during the 5 years between kidney biopsies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680359/screening-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-adult-males-in-vojvodina-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Velibor Čabarkapa, Branislava Ilinčić, Mirjana Đerić, Isidora Radosavkić, Mirko Šipovac, Jan Sudji, Veljko Petrović
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most significant global health problems accompanied by numerous complicatons, with constant increase in the number of affected people. This number is much higher in early phases of disease and patients are mostly asymptomatic, so early detection of CKD is crucial. The aim was examination of the prevalence of CKD in the general population of males in Vojvodina, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and exploring the determinants and awareness of CKD...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679558/effect-modification-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-the-association-of-circulating-and-imaging-cardiac-biomarkers-with-outcomes
#19
L Parker Gregg, Beverley Adams-Huet, Xilong Li, Gates Colbert, Nishank Jain, James A de Lemos, S Susan Hedayati
BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin T and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are elevated in >50% of dialysis patients and are associated with poor outcomes. Few data investigated these associations in earlier chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied whether CKD modified associations of elevated BNP, N-terminal-pro-BNP, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, coronary artery calcification, and left ventricular hypertrophy with all-cause death and cardiovascular death/events in 3218 multiethnic individuals followed for 12...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675584/does-secretory-clearance-follow-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-chronic-kidney-diseases-reconsidering-the-intact-nephron-hypothesis
#20
A Chapron, D D Shen, B R Kestenbaum, C Robinson-Cohen, J Himmelfarb, C K Yeung
Drug-dose modification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) utilizes glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with the implicit assumption that multiple renal excretory processes decline in parallel as CKD progresses. We compiled published pharmacokinetic data to evaluate if GFR predicts renal clearance changes as a function of CKD severity. For each drug, we calculated ratio of renal clearance to filtration clearance (Rnf). Of 21 drugs with Rnf >0.74 in subjects with GFR >90 mL/min (implying filtration and secretion), 13 displayed significant change in Rnf vs...
July 4, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
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