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Environmental enteric dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139480/position-paper-the-potential-role-of-optical-biopsy-in-the-study-and-diagnosis-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Alex J Thompson, Michael Hughes, Salzitsa Anastasova, Laurie S Conklin, Tudor Thomas, Cadman Leggett, William A Faubion, Thomas J Miller, Peter Delaney, François Lacombe, Sacha Loiseau, Alexander Meining, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Guillermo J Tearney, Paul Kelly, Guang-Zhong Yang
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a disease of the small intestine affecting children and adults in low and middle income countries. Arising as a consequence of repeated infections, gut inflammation results in impaired intestinal absorptive and barrier function, leading to poor nutrient uptake and ultimately to stunting and other developmental limitations. Progress towards new biomarkers and interventions for EED is hampered by the practical and ethical difficulties of cross-validation with the gold standard of biopsy and histology...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110675/lactoferrin-and-lysozyme-to-reduce-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-stunting-in-malawian-children-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
William D Cheng, Karl J Wold, Nicole S Benzoni, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Indi Trehan
BACKGROUND: Chronic childhood malnutrition, as manifested by stunted linear growth, remains a persistent barrier to optimal child growth and societal development. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a significant underlying factor in the causal pathway to stunting, delayed cognitive development, and ultimately morbidity and mortality. Effective therapies against EED and stunting are lacking and further clinical trials are warranted to effectively identify and operationalize interventions...
November 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092882/complementary-feeding-with-cowpea-reduces-growth-faltering-in-rural-malawian-infants-a-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Kevin B Stephenson, Sophia E Agapova, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED).Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend.Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080445/on-place-and-time-microglia-in-embryonic-and-perinatal-brain-development
#4
REVIEW
Morgane Sonia Thion, Sonia Garel
Microglia, the brain-resident macrophages, play key roles in regulating synapse density and homeostasis in the postnatal and adult brain. However, microglia enter the brain during embryogenesis and recent studies have revealed additional early functions of these immune cells in prenatal and perinatal cerebral development. Such findings are of importance since prenatal inflammation and microglia dysfunction have been associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. This review provides a selective overview of the early roles of microglia, their link with a specific spatiotemporal distribution and how they can be modulated by intrinsic factors or environmental signals...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074197/mitochondrial-dysfunction-perturbations-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-biogenesis-involved-in-endothelial-injury-induced-by-silica-nanoparticles
#5
Caixia Guo, Ji Wang, Li Jing, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Lifang Gao, Lige Cao, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
As silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) pervade the global economy, however, the followed emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages inevitably bring an environmental release, potentially result in harmful impacts. Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease, and is often accompanied by mitochondrial impairment and dysfunction. We had reported endothelial dysfunction induced by SiNPs, however, the related mechanisms by which SiNPs interact with mitochondria are not well understood. In the present study, we examined SiNPs-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and further demonstrated their adverse effects on mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032617/emerging-issues-in-complementary-feeding-global-aspects
#6
Kim F Michaelsen, Laurence Grummer-Strawn, France Bégin
The complementary feeding period (6-24 months) is a window of opportunity for preventing stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity and for improving long-term development and health. Because WHO published its guiding principles for complementary feeding in 2003, new knowledge and evidence have been generated in the area of child feeding. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the emerging issues in complementary feeding and potential implications on the guidelines revision. Evidence on the effect of the quality and quantity of protein and fat intake on child growth during the complementary feeding period is summarized...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016294/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-a-case-definition-for-intervention-trials
#7
Donna M Denno, Phillip I Tarr, James P Nataro
Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) was first described as a malabsorption syndrome with small intestinal villous flattening among healthy adults in Thailand and other low-resource settings.(1-4) A similar entity was described in Peace Corps volunteers in South Asia.(5,6) Several years later, resolution of histopathology and malabsorption after repatriation or immigration to North America was demonstrated.(7,8).
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980039/cell-membrane-transport-mechanisms-ion-channels-and-electrical-properties-of-cell-membranes
#8
Julita Kulbacka, Anna Choromańska, Joanna Rossowska, Joanna Weżgowiec, Jolanta Saczko, Marie-Pierre Rols
Cellular life strongly depends on the membrane ability to precisely control exchange of solutes between the internal and external (environmental) compartments. This barrier regulates which types of solutes can enter and leave the cell. Transmembrane transport involves complex mechanisms responsible for passive and active carriage of ions and small- and medium-size molecules. Transport mechanisms existing in the biological membranes highly determine proper cellular functions and contribute to drug transport...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926696/exposure-to-animal-feces-and-human-health-a-systematic-review-and-proposed-research-priorities
#9
Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Miranda J Delahoy, Lydia McAliley, Breanna Wodnik, Karen Levy, Matthew C Freeman
Humans can be exposed to pathogens from poorly managed animal feces, particularly in communities where animals live in close proximity to humans. This systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature examines the human health impacts of exposure to poorly managed animal feces transmitted via water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related pathways in low- and middle-income countries, where household livestock, small-scale animal operations, and free-roaming animals are common. We identify routes of contamination by animal feces, control measures to reduce human exposure, and propose research priorities for further inquiry...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801442/bangladesh-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-beed-study-protocol-for-a-community-based-intervention-study-to-validate-non-invasive-biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#10
Mustafa Mahfuz, Subhasish Das, Ramendra Nath Mazumder, M Masudur Rahman, Rashidul Haque, Md Muzibur Rahman Bhuiyan, Hasina Akhter, Md Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Dinesh Mondal, Syed Shafi Ahmed Muaz, A S M Bazlul Karim, Stephen M Borowitz, Christopher A Moskaluk, Michael J Barratt, William A Petri, Jeffrey I Gordon, Tahmeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subacute inflammatory condition of the small intestinal mucosa with unclear aetiology that may account for more than 40% of all cases of stunting. Currently, there are no universally accepted protocols for the diagnosis, treatment and ultimately prevention of EED. The Bangladesh Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (BEED) study is designed to validate non-invasive biomarkers of EED with small intestinal biopsy, better understand disease pathogenesis and identify potential therapeutic targets for interventions designed to control EED and stunting...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648972/diallyl-trisulfide-a-garlic-polysulfide-protects-against-as-induced-renal-oxidative-nephrotoxicity-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-rats-by-activating-the-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#11
S Miltonprabu, N C Sumedha, P Senthilraja
BACKGROUND: Arsenic (As) contamination is an extremely dangerous global environmental problem as it can enter into the food chain and become bio-accumulated, endangering human health. Chronic As intoxication leads to undesirable toxic effects in various organ systems of the body, especially the kidney. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is an organosulfur compound which has been widely known for its uses as antibacterial, antitumorogenic, antioxidant agent and has been also reported to have anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties...
June 22, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644348/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-among-children-in-rural-bangladesh
#12
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Sucheta Mehra, Hasmot Ali, Lee Wu, Rubhana Raqib, Sarah Baker, Alain Labrique, Keith P West, Parul Christian
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) may inhibit growth and development in low- and middle-income countries, but available assessment methodologies limit its study. In rural Bangladesh, we measured EED using the widely used lactulose mannitol ratio (L:M) test and a panel of intestinal and systemic health biomarkers to evaluate convergence among biomarkers and describe risk factors for EED. METHODS: In 539 18-month-old children finishing participation in a randomized food supplementation trial, serum, stool, and urine collected after lactulose and mannitol dosing were analyzed for biomarkers of intestinal absorption, inflammation, permeability and repair, and systemic inflammation...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644342/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#13
Lissette Jimenez, Christopher P Duggan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551756/extracerebral-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Elisa L Hill-Yardin, Sonja J McKeown, Gaia Novarino, Andreas M Grabrucker
Genetic factors might be largely responsible for the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that alone or in combination with specific environmental risk factors trigger the pathology. Multiple mutations identified in ASD patients that impair synaptic function in the central nervous system are well studied in animal models. How these mutations might interact with other risk factors is not fully understood though. Additionally, how systems outside of the brain are altered in the context of ASD is an emerging area of research...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549806/chronic-consequences-on-human-health-induced-by-microbial-pathogens-growth-faltering-among-children-in-developing-countries
#15
James P Nataro, Richard L Guerrant
Enteric infections continue to cause approximately 500,000 childhood deaths annually worldwide. In addition to the burden of diarrhea, there is emerging evidence that exposure to enteric pathogens may induce physiologic abnormalities that lead to linear growth faltering. This enteric disease, known as environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) remains cryptic with regard to its causes and features. In this workshop, experts in the field addressed the contribution of enteric pathogens to growth faltering in the absence of clinical diarrhea...
May 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540669/tropical-enteropathies
#16
REVIEW
John Louis-Auguste, Paul Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'tropical enteropathy' originated in observations in the 1960s that small intestinal morphology and function differed in the tropics from the norms found in temperate climates. It was subsequently shown that this enteropathy is more closely related to environmental conditions than latitude, and it was re-labelled 'environmental enteropathy'. It is now recognised that environmental enteropathy (also now called environmental enteric dysfunction) has implications for the health and linear growth of children in low- and middle-income countries, and it may underlie poor responses to oral vaccination in these countries...
July 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515162/dietary-protein-and-the-health-nutrition-agriculture-connection-in-india
#17
REVIEW
Sumedha Minocha, Tinku Thomas, Anura V Kurpad
The connection between the production, availability, and consumption of high-quality food is becoming very important in developing countries. The requirement of protein is linked to its quality, or its digestibility and ability to meet human indispensable amino acid requirements. This requirement is particularly relevant in India, where commonly consumed cereal-based diets and cereal-based food subsidy programs offer low-quality protein and therefore pose a risk of quality protein deficiency. The production of and access to sustainable sources of high-quality protein will be important parts of mitigating risks to human health...
July 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499715/infant-nutritional-status-and-markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-are-associated-with-midchildhood-anthropometry-and-blood-pressure-in-tanzania
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lindsey M Locks, Ramadhani S Mwiru, Expeditho Mtisi, Karim P Manji, Christine M McDonald, Enju Liu, Roland Kupka, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Kerri Gosselin, Matthew Gillman, Andrew T Gewirtz, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether growth and biomarkers of environmental enteric dysfunction in infancy are related to health outcomes in midchildhood in Tanzania. STUDY DESIGN: Children who participated in 2 randomized trials of micronutrient supplements in infancy were followed up in midchildhood (4.6-9.8 years of age). Anthropometry was measured at age 6 and 52 weeks in both trials, and blood samples were available from children at 6 weeks and 6 months from 1 trial...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486222/biomarkers-to-stratify-risk-groups-among-children-with-malnutrition-in-resource-limited-settings-and-to-monitor-response-to-intervention
#19
Christine J McGrath, Michael B Arndt, Judd L Walson
Despite global efforts to reduce childhood undernutrition, current interventions have had little impact on stunting and wasting, and the mechanisms underlying growth faltering are poorly understood. There is a clear need to distinguish populations of children most likely to benefit from any given intervention and to develop tools to monitor response to therapy prior to the development of morbid sequelae. In resource-limited settings, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is common among children, contributing to malnutrition and increasing childhood morbidity and mortality risk...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466412/hyperinsulinemia-a-cause-of-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Karel A Erion, Barbara E Corkey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This perspective is motivated by the need to question dogma that does not work: that the problem is insulin resistance (IR). We highlight the need to investigate potential environmental obesogens and toxins. RECENT FINDINGS: The prequel to severe metabolic disease includes three interacting components that are abnormal: (a) IR, (b) elevated lipids and (c) elevated basal insulin (HI). HI is more common than IR and is a significant independent predictor of diabetes...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
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