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Environmental enteric dysfunction

Sana Syed, Najeeha T Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Jennie Z Ma, Tauseef Akhund, Wenjun Xin, Sean R Moore, Enju Liu, Shahida Qureshi, Kerri Gosselin, Andrew Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan, S Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) in children from low-income countries has been linked to linear growth declines. There is a critical need to identify sensitive and early EED biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether levels of antibodies against bacterial components flagellin (flic) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) predict poor growth. DESIGN/METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 380 children in rural Pakistan blood and stool samples were obtained at ages 6 and 9 months...
2018: PloS One
Marta Farràs, Kanta Chandwe, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Beatrice Amadi, John Louis-Auguste, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, Richard Guerrant, Paul Kelly, Jonathan Richard Swann
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is widespread throughout the tropics and in children is associated with stunting and other adverse health outcomes. One of the hallmarks of EED is villus damage. In children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) the severity of enteropathy is greater and short term mortality is high, but the metabolic consequences of enteropathy are unknown. Here, we characterize the urinary metabolic alterations associated with villus health, classic enteropathy biomarkers and anthropometric measurements in severely malnourished children in Zambia...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Sophia E Agapova, Kevin B Stephenson, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Sana Syed, Tauseefullah Akhund, Fayyaz Umrani, Sheraz Ahmed, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Najeeb Rahman, Shahida Qureshi, Wenjun Xin, Jennie Z Ma, Molly Hughes, Syed Asad Ali
Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED), a syndrome characterized by chronic gut inflammation, contributes towards stunting and poor response to enteric vaccines in children in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated major putative biomarkers of EED using growth faltering as its clinical proxy. Newborns (n = 380) were enrolled and followed till 18 months with monthly anthropometry. Biomarkers associated with gut and systemic inflammation were assessed at 6 and 9 months. Linear mixed effects model was used to determine the associations of these biomarkers with growth faltering between birth and 18 months...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kaitlyn M Harper, Maxine Mutasa, Andrew J Prendergast, Jean Humphrey, Amee R Manges
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is commonly defined as an acquired subclinical disorder of the small intestine, characterized by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. EED has been proposed to underlie stunted growth among children in developing countries. A collection of biomarkers, organized into distinct domains, has been used to measure different aspects of EED. Here, we examine whether these hypothesized relationships, among EED domains and between each domain and stunting, are supported by data from recent studies...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lee E Voth-Gaeddert, Matthew Stoker, Devin Cornell, Daniel B Oerther
Guatemala has the sixth worst stunting rate with 48% of children under five years of age classified as stunted according to World Health Organization standards. This study utilizes two different yet complimentary system-analysis approaches to analyze correlations among environmental and demographic variables, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), and child height-for-age (stunting metric) in Guatemala. Two descriptive models constructed around applicable environmental and demographic factors on child height-for-age and EED were analyzed using Network Analysis (NA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Innocent Mwape, Samuel Bosomprah, John Mwaba, Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya, Natasha Makabilo Laban, Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Gibson Sijumbila, Michelo Simuyandi, Roma Chilengi
INTRODUCTION: Deployment of rotavirus vaccines has contributed to significant declines in diarrheal morbidity and mortality globally. Unfortunately, vaccine performance in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is generally lower than in developed countries. The cause for this has been associated with several host and maternal factors including poor water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) status, which are predominant in LMICs. More recently, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has specifically been hypothesized to contribute to poor vaccine uptake and response...
2017: PloS One
Babak Baban, Olga Golubnitschaja
Flammer syndrome (FS) is a term to blanket a cluster of vascular and nonvascular signs and symptoms linked to primary vascular dysregulation (PVD), increased sensitivity to various stimuli (stress, drugs, etc.) and altered sense regulation such as pain, smell and thirst perception. On one hand, disruption of blood barrier and homeostasis of the body are the main targets of vascular irregularity. Inflammation and immune disorders including autoimmunity are considered as a consequence of the abnormal vascular regulation processes...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
Alex J Thompson, Michael Hughes, Salzitsa Anastasova, Laurie S Conklin, Tudor Thomas, Cadman Leggett, William A Faubion, Thomas J Miller, Peter Delaney, François Lacombe, Sacha Loiseau, Alexander Meining, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Guillermo J Tearney, Paul Kelly, Guang-Zhong Yang
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a disease of the small intestine affecting children and adults in low and middle income countries. Arising as a consequence of repeated infections, gut inflammation results in impaired intestinal absorptive and barrier function, leading to poor nutrient uptake and ultimately to stunting and other developmental limitations. Progress towards new biomarkers and interventions for EED is hampered by the practical and ethical difficulties of cross-validation with the gold standard of biopsy and histology...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
William D Cheng, Karl J Wold, Nicole S Benzoni, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Indi Trehan
BACKGROUND: Chronic childhood malnutrition, as manifested by stunted linear growth, remains a persistent barrier to optimal child growth and societal development. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a significant underlying factor in the causal pathway to stunting, delayed cognitive development, and ultimately morbidity and mortality. Effective therapies against EED and stunting are lacking and further clinical trials are warranted to effectively identify and operationalize interventions...
November 6, 2017: Trials
Kevin B Stephenson, Sophia E Agapova, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend. Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old)...
December 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Morgane Sonia Thion, Sonia Garel
Microglia, the brain-resident macrophages, play key roles in regulating synapse density and homeostasis in the postnatal and adult brain. However, microglia enter the brain during embryogenesis and recent studies have revealed additional early functions of these immune cells in prenatal and perinatal cerebral development. Such findings are of importance since prenatal inflammation and microglia dysfunction have been associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. This review provides a selective overview of the early roles of microglia, their link with a specific spatiotemporal distribution and how they can be modulated by intrinsic factors or environmental signals...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Caixia Guo, Ji Wang, Li Jing, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Lifang Gao, Lige Cao, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
As silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) pervade the global economy, however, the followed emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages inevitably bring an environmental release, potentially result in harmful impacts. Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease, and is often accompanied by mitochondrial impairment and dysfunction. We had reported endothelial dysfunction induced by SiNPs, however, the related mechanisms by which SiNPs interact with mitochondria are not well understood. In the present study, we examined SiNPs-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and further demonstrated their adverse effects on mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Kim F Michaelsen, Laurence Grummer-Strawn, France Bégin
The complementary feeding period (6-24 months) is a window of opportunity for preventing stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity and for improving long-term development and health. Because WHO published its guiding principles for complementary feeding in 2003, new knowledge and evidence have been generated in the area of child feeding. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the emerging issues in complementary feeding and potential implications on the guidelines revision. Evidence on the effect of the quality and quantity of protein and fat intake on child growth during the complementary feeding period is summarized...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Donna M Denno, Phillip I Tarr, James P Nataro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Julita Kulbacka, Anna Choromańska, Joanna Rossowska, Joanna Weżgowiec, Jolanta Saczko, Marie-Pierre Rols
Cellular life strongly depends on the membrane ability to precisely control exchange of solutes between the internal and external (environmental) compartments. This barrier regulates which types of solutes can enter and leave the cell. Transmembrane transport involves complex mechanisms responsible for passive and active carriage of ions and small- and medium-size molecules. Transport mechanisms existing in the biological membranes highly determine proper cellular functions and contribute to drug transport...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Miranda J Delahoy, Lydia McAliley, Breanna Wodnik, Karen Levy, Matthew C Freeman
Humans can be exposed to pathogens from poorly managed animal feces, particularly in communities where animals live in close proximity to humans. This systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature examines the human health impacts of exposure to poorly managed animal feces transmitted via water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related pathways in low- and middle-income countries, where household livestock, small-scale animal operations, and free-roaming animals are common. We identify routes of contamination by animal feces, control measures to reduce human exposure, and propose research priorities for further inquiry...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mustafa Mahfuz, Subhasish Das, Ramendra Nath Mazumder, M Masudur Rahman, Rashidul Haque, Md Muzibur Rahman Bhuiyan, Hasina Akhter, Md Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Dinesh Mondal, Syed Shafi Ahmed Muaz, A S M Bazlul Karim, Stephen M Borowitz, Christopher A Moskaluk, Michael J Barratt, William A Petri, Jeffrey I Gordon, Tahmeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subacute inflammatory condition of the small intestinal mucosa with unclear aetiology that may account for more than 40% of all cases of stunting. Currently, there are no universally accepted protocols for the diagnosis, treatment and ultimately prevention of EED. The Bangladesh Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (BEED) study is designed to validate non-invasive biomarkers of EED with small intestinal biopsy, better understand disease pathogenesis and identify potential therapeutic targets for interventions designed to control EED and stunting...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
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