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Environmental enteric dysfunction

Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, David T Bolick, Joy Leng, Greg L Medlock, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy, which is linked to undernutrition and chronic infections, affects the physical and mental growth of children in developing areas worldwide. Key to understanding how these factors combine to shape developmental outcomes is to first understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the mammalian system including the effect on the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: We dissected the nutritional components of environmental enteropathy by analyzing the specific metabolic and gut-microbiota changes that occur in weaned-mouse models of zinc or protein deficiency compared with well-nourished controls...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Carlos R Cámara-Lemarroy, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Roberto Monreal-Robles, Alejandro Marfil-Rivera
Migraine is a recurrent and commonly disabling primary headache disorder that affects over 17% of women and 5%-8% of men. Migraine susceptibility is multifactorial with genetic, hormonal and environmental factors all playing an important role. The physiopathology of migraine is complex and still not fully understood. Many different neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and brain pathways have been implicated. In connection with the myriad mechanisms and pathways implicated in migraine, a variety of multisystemic comorbidities (e...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
E G Severance, D Tveiten, L H Lindström, R H Yolken, K L Reichelt
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune phenotypes are prevalent in major psychiatric disorders. Disequilibria of cellular processes occurring in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract likely contribute to immune dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. As the venue of a complex community of resident microbes, the gut in a homeostatic state equates with a functional digestive system, cellular barrier stability and properly regulated recognition of self and non-self antigens. When gut processes become disrupted as a result of environmental or genetic factors, autoimmunity may ensue...
September 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ross N Butler, Margaret Kosek, Nancy F Krebs, Cornelia U Loechl, Alexander Loy, Victor O Owino, Michael B Zimmermann, Douglas J Morrison
The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical meeting on environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in Vienna (28-30 October 2015; to bring together international experts in the fields of EED, nutrition and stable isotope technologies. Advances in stable isotope labelling techniques open up new possibilities to improve our understanding of gastrointestinal dysfunction and the role of the microbiota in host health. In the context of EED, little is known about the role gut dysfunction may play in macro- and micronutrient bioavailability and requirements and what the consequences may be for nutritional status and linear growth...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Sana Syed, Christopher P Duggan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Aruna Sharma, Preeti Menon, Dafin F Muresanu, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, José V Lafuente, Hari Sharma
The BBB is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within the narrow limit. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the fluid microenvironment of the CNS healthy. However, following any noxious insult to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins the function of the BBB is altered to small as well as to large molecules e...
August 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Koji Watanabe, William A Petri
Environmental enteropathy/Environmental enteric dysfunction (EE/EED) is a chronic disease of small intestine characterized by gut inflammation and barrier disruption, malabsorption and systemic inflammation in the absence of diarrhea. It is predominantly diseases of children in low income countries and is hypothesized to be caused by continuous exposure to fecally contaminated food, water and fomites. It had not been recognized as a priority health issue because it does not cause overt symptoms and was seen in apparently healthy individuals...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
Anders Bergström, Sanne S Kaalund, Kerstin Skovgaard, Anders D Andersen, Bente Pakkenberg, Ann Rosenørn, Ruurd M van Elburg, Thomas Thymann, Gorm O Greisen, Per T Sanglid
Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway)...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
Maria Isabel Ordiz, Nurmohammad Shaikh, Indi Trehan, Ken Maleta, Jennifer Stauber, Robert Shulman, Sridevi Devaraj, Phillip I Tarr, Mark J Manary
OBJECTIVE: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) can be assessed by the lactulose:mannitol (L:M) test. Our objective was to determine if selected host fecal transcripts were correlated with EED, and whether transcripts and clinical characteristics could be used to predict EED in rural African children. METHODS: Demographic and sanitation characteristics, along with L:M testing and host fecal transcript analyses from 798 asymptomatic Malawian children aged 12 to 61 months were compared with linear growth over the subsequent 3 months...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Richard D Semba, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Ruin Moaddel, Indi Trehan, Kenneth M Maleta, Mohammed Khadeer, M Isabel Ordiz, Luigi Ferrucci, Mark J Manary
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a clinically asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, and increased gut permeability, is common among children in developing countries. Because of abnormal gut mucosa and altered gut microbiome, EED could potentially affect the metabolism and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. METHODS: In 313 children, aged 12-59 months, EED was assessed by the dual sugar absorption test...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Richard D Semba, Michelle Shardell, Indi Trehan, Ruin Moaddel, Kenneth M Maleta, M Isabel Ordiz, Klaus Kraemer, Mohammed Khadeer, Luigi Ferrucci, Mark J Manary
Environmental enteric dysfunction, an asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, malabsorption, and increased intestinal permeability, is a major contributor to childhood stunting in low-income countries. Here we report the relationship of increased intestinal permeability with serum metabolites in 315 children without acute malnutrition, aged 12-59 months, in rural Malawi. Increased gut permeability was associated with significant differences in circulating metabolites that included lower serum phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, tryptophan, ornithine, and citrulline, and elevated serum glutamate, taurine, and serotonin...
2016: Scientific Reports
Christine M McDonald, Karim P Manji, Kerri Gosselin, Hao Tran, Enju Liu, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Wafaie W Fawzi, Andrew T Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan
BACKGROUND: Antibodies to LPS and flagellin have been described as indirect measures of increased gastrointestinal permeability and may be markers of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), which is a condition associated with poor child growth. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether LPS- and flagellin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were associated with poor growth in young Tanzanian children at risk of EED. DESIGN: Blood samples were obtained from 590 children at 6 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo of age...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
S W Tsang, K K W Auyeung, Z X Bian, J K S Ko
BACKGROUND: Although the precise pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains unknown, it is generally considered to be a disorder of the brain-gut axis, representing the disruption of communication between the brain and the digestive system. The present review describes advances in understanding the pathophysiology and experimental approaches in studying IBS, as well as providing an update of the therapies targeting brain-gut axis in the treatment of the disease. METHODS: Causal factors of IBS are reviewed...
March 24, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Sana Syed, Asad Ali, Christopher Duggan
Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood death in resource-poor countries, killing approximately 760,000 children younger than 5 years each year. Although deaths due to diarrhea have declined dramatically, high rates of stunting and malnutrition have persisted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination with resultant intestinal inflammation and villous blunting. These histological changes were first described in the 1960s, but the clinical effect of EED is only just being recognized in the context of failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in resource-poor countries...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jinsheng Yu, M Isabel Ordiz, Jennifer Stauber, Nurmohammad Shaikh, Indi Trehan, Erica Barnell, Richard D Head, Ken Maleta, Phillip I Tarr, Mark J Manary
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a chronic diffuse inflammation of the small intestine, is associated with stunting in children in the developing world. The pathobiology of EED is poorly understood because of the lack of a method to elucidate the host response. This study tested a novel microarray method to overcome limitation of RNA sequencing to interrogate the host transcriptome in feces in Malawian children with EED. METHODS: In 259 children, EED was measured by lactulose permeability (%L)...
February 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Andrew J Prendergast, Paul Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on recent data highlighting the interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries, which drive morbidity and mortality and hinder the long-term developmental potential of children. RECENT FINDINGS: Diarrhoea remains the second commonest cause of death in children below 5 years, and malnutrition underlies 45% of all child deaths. Even in the absence of diarrhoea, subclinical pathogen carriage and enteropathy are almost universal in developing countries...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Indi Trehan, Paul Kelly, Nurmohammad Shaikh, Mark J Manary
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has been recognised as an important contributing factor to physical and cognitive stunting, poor response to oral vaccines, limited resilience to acute infections and ultimately global childhood mortality. The aetiology of EED remains poorly defined but the epidemiology suggests a multifactorial combination of prenatal and early-life undernutrition and repeated infectious and/or toxic environmental insults due to unsanitary and unhygienic environments. Previous attempts at medical interventions to ameliorate EED have been unsatisfying...
August 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Caitlin Naylor, Miao Lu, Rashidul Haque, Dinesh Mondal, Erica Buonomo, Uma Nayak, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Beth Kirkpatrick, Ross Colgate, Marya Carmolli, Dorothy Dickson, Fiona van der Klis, William Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Jennie Z Ma, William A Petri
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical enteric condition found in low-income countries that is characterized by intestinal inflammation, reduced intestinal absorption, and gut barrier dysfunction. We aimed to assess if EE impairs the success of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in infants in Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 700 infants from an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh from May 2011 to November 2014...
November 2015: EBioMedicine
Job O Mapesa, Amy L Maxwell, Elizabeth P Ryan
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures to chemicals have been shown to influence gastrointestinal function, yet little is known regarding whether chemical mixtures may be involved in the development of a subclinical enteric dysfunction found in infants and children born into poor hygiene and sanitation. Advances in gastrointestinal and immunotoxicology fields merit inclusion in complex discussions of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) that severely affects children in developing countries...
August 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Ethan K Gough, Andrew J Prendergast, Kuda E Mutasa, Rebecca J Stoltzfus, Amee R Manges
Advances in DNA sequencing technology now allow us to explore the dynamics and functions of the microbes that inhabit the human body, the microbiota. Recent studies involving experimental animal models suggest a role of the gut microbiota in growth. However, the specific changes in the human gut microbiota that contribute to growth remain unclear, and studies investigating the gut microbiota as a determinant of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and child stunting are lacking. In this article, we review the evidence for a link between the developing infant gut microbiota, infant feeding, EED, and stunting, and discuss the potential causal pathways relating these variables...
December 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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