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Environmental enteric dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134532/modulation-of-intestinal-immune-and-barrier-functions-by-vitamin-a-implications-for-current-understanding-of-malnutrition-and-enteric-infections-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Pedro Henrique Q S de Medeiros, Daniel V Pinto, Juliana Zani de Almeida, Juliana M C Rêgo, Francisco A P Rodrigues, Aldo Ângelo M Lima, David T Bolick, Richard L Guerrant, Reinaldo B Oriá
The micronutrient vitamin A refers to a group of compounds with pleiotropic effects on human health. These molecules can modulate biological functions, including development, vision, and regulation of the intestinal barrier. The consequences of vitamin A deficiency and supplementation in children from developing countries have been explored for several years. These children live in an environment that is highly contaminated by enteropathogens, which can, in turn, influence vitamin A status. Vitamin A has been described to modulate gene expression, differentiation and function of diverse immune cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated...
August 21, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133067/association-of-intestinal-pathogens-with-faecal-markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-among-slum-dwelling-children-in-the-first-2-years-of-life-in-bangladesh
#2
Shah Mohammad Fahim, Subhasish Das, Md Amran Gazi, Mustafa Mahfuz, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) can be assessed by faecal biomarkers such as Myeloperoxidase (MPO), Neopterin (NEO) and Alpha-1 anti-trypsin (AAT). We aimed to test the association of intestinal pathogens with faecal markers of EED among slum-dwelling children in first 2 years of life. METHODS: The MAL-ED birth cohort data of Bangladesh site were used to conduct this analysis. Multivariable analyses using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were performed to test the association between intestinal pathogens and faecal markers of EED...
August 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099958/detection-and-interpretation-of-fecal-host-mrna-in-rural-malawian-infants-aged-6-12-months-at-risk-for-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#3
M Isabel Ordiz, Karl Wold, Yankho Kaimila, Oscar Divala, Madeline Gilstrap, Henry Z Lu, Mark J Manary
Recent studies have suggested that environmental enteric dysfunction can be assessed in rural African children by measuring levels of fecal mRNA transcripts. The field collection of fecal samples is less invasive and cumbersome than administration of the lactulose:mannitol test, which is typically used to assess environmental enteric dysfunction. This study sought to determine if, as in children aged 12-60 months, an array of seven fecal host transcripts (CD53, CDX1, HLA-DRA, TNF, S100A8, MUC12, and REG1A) could predict environmental enteric dysfunction in rural African infants...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079818/persistent-diarrhoea-current-knowledge-and-novel-concepts
#4
Robert H J Bandsma, Kamran Sadiq, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Persistent diarrhoea (PD), defined as diarrhoeal symptoms for longer than 2 weeks, still forms a substantial disease burden in children under 5 years of age. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of PD and discusses novel concepts. METHODS: A literature search on PD was performed which focused on evidence on epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of the disease. RESULTS: The prevalence of PD has potentially decreased over the last decades...
August 6, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030503/nutrient-intake-and-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-among-nepalese-children-9-24-months-old-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#5
Marianne S Morseth, Tor A Strand, Liv Elin Torheim, Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Binob Shrestha, Sigrun Henjum
BACKGROUND: Nutrient deficiencies limit the growth and turnover of intestinal mucosa, but studies assessing whether specific nutrients protect against or improve environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) are scarce. We aimed to investigate associations between nutrient intake and EED assessed by lactulose:mannitol (L:M) ratio, anti-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and neopterin (NEO) among children 9-24 months in Bhaktapur, Nepal. METHODS: Among 231 included children, nutrient intake was assessed monthly by 24 h recalls, and 3-month usual intake was estimated using Multiple Source Method...
July 20, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991036/causes-of-stunting-and-preventive-dietary-interventions-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood
#6
Robert E Black, Rebecca Heidkamp
Stunting of linear growth, a highly prevalent problem in children of low- and middle-income countries, is the result of the exposure of the fetus and/or young child to nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases. Maternal undernutrition results in fetal growth restriction, and infectious diseases in pregnancy can result in preterm delivery. Both of these conditions are important contributors to stunting in early childhood, albeit their relative contribution varies by world region. After birth, growth faltering may begin at 3-5 months of life and becomes more prominent from 6 to 18 months...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988114/pathophysiology-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-its-impact-on-oral-vaccine-efficacy
#7
REVIEW
Chelsea Marie, Asad Ali, Kanta Chandwe, William A Petri, Paul Kelly
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to a subclinical disorder of intestinal function common in tropical countries and in settings of poverty and economic disadvantage. The enteropathy that underlies this syndrome is characterized by mucosal inflammation and villus blunting mediated by T cell activation. Epithelial cell disruption and microbial translocation drive systemic inflammation. EED in young children is associated geographically with growth failure, malnutrition, and greatly impaired responses to oral vaccines, notably rotavirus and poliovirus vaccines...
July 9, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955682/the-nutrient-and-metabolite-profile-of-3-complementary-legume-foods-with-potential-to-improve-gut-health-in-rural-malawian-children
#8
Erica C Borresen, Lei Zhang, Indi Trehan, Nora Jean Nealon, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Elizabeth P Ryan
Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), frequently seen in rural Malawian children, causes chronic inflammation and increases the risk of stunting. Legumes may be beneficial for improving nutrition and reducing the risk of developing EED in weaning children. Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the nutritional value, verify the food safety, and identify metabolite profiles of 3 legume-based complementary foods: common bean (CB), cowpea (CP), and traditional corn-soy blend (CSB)...
October 2017: Current developments in nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926747/exploring-the-relationship-between-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-oral-vaccine-responses
#9
James A Church, Edward Pk Parker, Margaret N Kosek, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly, Paul Kelly, Andrew J Prendergast
Oral vaccines significantly underperform in low-income countries. One possible contributory factor is environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical disorder of small intestinal structure and function among children living in poverty. Here, we review studies describing oral vaccine responses and EED. We identified eight studies evaluating EED and oral vaccine responses. There was substantial heterogeneity in study design and few consistent trends emerged. Four studies reported a negative association between EED and oral vaccine responses; two showed no significant association; and two described a positive correlation...
July 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893201/association-of-fecal-markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-with-zinc-and-iron-status-among-children-at-first-two-years-of-life-in-bangladesh
#10
Shah Mohammad Fahim, Subhasish Das, Kazi Istiaque Sanin, Md Amran Gazi, Mustafa Mahfuz, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) causes gut inflammation and increased intestinal permeability leading to deficiencies in micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) can predict EED. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fecal markers of EED with zinc and iron status among children at first 2 years of life. Malnutrition and Enteric Disease Study Bangladeshi birth cohort data were used to conduct this analysis...
August 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869596/a-community-designed-play-yard-intervention-to-prevent-microbial-ingestion-a-baby-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-pilot-study-in-rural-zambia
#11
Brie Reid, Rie Seu, Jennifer Orgle, Khrist Roy, Catherine Pongolani, Modesta Chileshe, Dadirai Fundira, Rebecca Stoltzfus
Malnourished children in low-income contexts usually suffer from environmental enteric dysfunction, which is damage to the intestines caused by chronic exposure to bacterial pathogens from feces hypothesized to contribute to stunting. Many intervention studies are piloting "Baby water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)" to help rural farming families reduce infant and young children's (IYC's) exposure to human and free-range livestock feces. One proposed Baby WASH intervention is a play-yard, which consists of a baby-proofed structure (i...
August 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740382/circadian-rhythm-dysfunction-accelerates-disease-progression-in-a-mouse-model-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Zhilin Huang, Qiang Liu, Yu Peng, Jiaying Dai, Youna Xie, Weineng Chen, Simei Long, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by interactions between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. Circadian rhythm dysfunction (CRD) is a significant contributor to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, whether CRD contributes to the progression of ALS remains little known. We performed behavioral and physiological tests on SOD1G93A ALS model mice with and without artificially induced CRD, and on wild-type controls; we also analyzed spinal cord samples histologically for differences between groups...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706087/association-of-aflatoxin-exposure-and-height-for-age-among-young-children-in-guatemala
#13
Lee E Voth-Gaeddert, Matthew Stoker, Olga Torres, Daniel B Oerther
Aflatoxin exposure has been proposed to affect child height-for-age. The following hypothesized associations were tested in Guatemala: (1) aflatoxin (B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 ) exposure and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and child height-for-age z-score; and (2) aflatoxin exposures and subsequent symptoms of aflatoxins. Maize consumption data, health data, and samples of maize from households were collected from mothers and their children - under five - in October 2016 (n = 320) and February 2017 (n = 120)...
June 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613921/markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-are-associated-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-tanzanian-children
#14
Analee J Etheredge, Karim Manji, Mark Kellogg, Hao Tran, Enju Liu, Christine M McDonald, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Wafaie Fawzi, David Bellinger, Andrew T Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to enteropathogens may result in environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical condition associated with poor child growth. Growth faltering is strongly associated with poor neurodevelopment, and occurs during sensitive periods of postnatal brain development. We investigated the role of novel EED biomarkers, systemic inflammation, and micronutrient status on neurodevelopment in Tanzanian children. METHODS: Non-stunted subjects with 6-week and 6-month blood samples and neurodevelopmental measures (n = 107) were included in this study...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605442/intranasal-administration-of-sodium-dimethyldithiocarbamate-induces-motor-deficits-and-dopaminergic-dysfunction-in-mice
#15
Josiel M Mack, Tainara M Moura, Débora Lanznaster, Franciane Bobinski, Caio M Massari, Tuane B Sampaio, Ariana E Schmitz, Luiz F Souza, Roger Walz, Carla I Tasca, Anicleto Poli, Richard L Doty, Alcir L Dafre, Rui D Prediger
The primary etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear, but likely reflects a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Exposure to some pesticides, including ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate), is a relevant risk factor for PD. Like some other environmental neurotoxicants, we hypothesized that ziram can enter the central nervous system from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerves. To address this issue, we evaluated the effects of 1, 2 or 4 days of intranasal (i.n., 1 mg/nostril/day) infusions of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDMDC), a dimethyldithiocarbamate more soluble than ziram, on locomotor activity in the open field, neurological severity score and rotarod performance...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509790/serum-anti-flagellin-and-anti-lipopolysaccharide-immunoglobulins-as-predictors-of-linear-growth-faltering-in-pakistani-infants-at-risk-for-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#16
Sana Syed, Najeeha T Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Jennie Z Ma, Tauseef Akhund, Wenjun Xin, Sean R Moore, Enju Liu, Shahida Qureshi, Kerri Gosselin, Andrew Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan, S Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) in children from low-income countries has been linked to linear growth declines. There is a critical need to identify sensitive and early EED biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether levels of antibodies against bacterial components flagellin (flic) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) predict poor growth. DESIGN/METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 380 children in rural Pakistan blood and stool samples were obtained at ages 6 and 9 months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499047/characterizing-the-metabolic-phenotype-of-intestinal-villus-blunting-in-zambian-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-and-persistent-diarrhea
#17
Marta Farràs, Kanta Chandwe, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Beatrice Amadi, John Louis-Auguste, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, Richard Guerrant, Paul Kelly, Jonathan Richard Swann
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is widespread throughout the tropics and in children is associated with stunting and other adverse health outcomes. One of the hallmarks of EED is villus damage. In children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) the severity of enteropathy is greater and short term mortality is high, but the metabolic consequences of enteropathy are unknown. Here, we characterize the urinary metabolic alterations associated with villus health, classic enteropathy biomarkers and anthropometric measurements in severely malnourished children in Zambia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498344/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-systemic-inflammation-predict-reduced-weight-but-not-length-gain-in-rural-bangladeshi-children
#18
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490090/additional-common-bean-in-the-diet-of-malawian-children-does-not-affect-linear-growth-but-reduces-intestinal-permeability
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sophia E Agapova, Kevin B Stephenson, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445110/promising-biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-pakistani-children
#20
Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Sana Syed, Tauseefullah Akhund, Fayyaz Umrani, Sheraz Ahmed, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Najeeb Rahman, Shahida Qureshi, Wenjun Xin, Jennie Z Ma, Molly Hughes, Syed Asad Ali
Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED), a syndrome characterized by chronic gut inflammation, contributes towards stunting and poor response to enteric vaccines in children in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated major putative biomarkers of EED using growth faltering as its clinical proxy. Newborns (n = 380) were enrolled and followed till 18 months with monthly anthropometry. Biomarkers associated with gut and systemic inflammation were assessed at 6 and 9 months. Linear mixed effects model was used to determine the associations of these biomarkers with growth faltering between birth and 18 months...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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