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Environmental enteric dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801442/bangladesh-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-beed-study-protocol-for-a-community-based-intervention-study-to-validate-non-invasive-biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#1
Mustafa Mahfuz, Subhasish Das, Ramendra Nath Mazumder, M Masudur Rahman, Rashidul Haque, Md Muzibur Rahman Bhuiyan, Hasina Akhter, Md Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Dinesh Mondal, Syed Shafi Ahmed Muaz, A S M Bazlul Karim, Stephen M Borowitz, Christopher A Moskaluk, Michael J Barratt, William A Petri, Jeffrey I Gordon, Tahmeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subacute inflammatory condition of the small intestinal mucosa with unclear aetiology that may account for more than 40% of all cases of stunting. Currently, there are no universally accepted protocols for the diagnosis, treatment and ultimately prevention of EED. The Bangladesh Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (BEED) study is designed to validate non-invasive biomarkers of EED with small intestinal biopsy, better understand disease pathogenesis and identify potential therapeutic targets for interventions designed to control EED and stunting...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648972/diallyl-trisulfide-a-garlic-polysulfide-protects-against-as-induced-renal-oxidative-nephrotoxicity-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-rats-by-activating-the-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#2
S Miltonprabu, N C Sumedha, P Senthilraja
BACKGROUND: Arsenic (As) contamination is an extremely dangerous global environmental problem as it can enter into the food chain and become bio-accumulated, endangering human health. Chronic As intoxication leads to undesirable toxic effects in various organ systems of the body, especially the kidney. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is an organosulfur compound which has been widely known for its uses as antibacterial, antitumorogenic, antioxidant agent and has been also reported to have anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties...
June 22, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644348/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-among-children-in-rural-bangladesh
#3
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Sucheta Mehra, Hasmot Ali, Lee Wu, Rubhana Raqib, Sarah Baker, Alain Labrique, Keith P West, Parul Christian
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) may inhibit growth and development in low- and middle-income countries, but available assessment methodologies limit its study. In rural Bangladesh, we measured EED using the widely used lactulose mannitol ratio (L:M) test and a panel of intestinal and systemic health biomarkers to evaluate convergence among biomarkers and describe risk factors for EED. METHODS: In 539 18-month-old children finishing participation in a randomized food supplementation trial, serum, stool, and urine collected after lactulose and mannitol dosing were analyzed for biomarkers of intestinal absorption, inflammation, permeability and repair, and systemic inflammation...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644342/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#4
Lissette Jimenez, Christopher P Duggan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551756/extracerebral-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Elisa L Hill-Yardin, Sonja J McKeown, Gaia Novarino, Andreas M Grabrucker
Genetic factors might be largely responsible for the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that alone or in combination with specific environmental risk factors trigger the pathology. Multiple mutations identified in ASD patients that impair synaptic function in the central nervous system are well studied in animal models. How these mutations might interact with other risk factors is not fully understood though. Additionally, how systems outside of the brain are altered in the context of ASD is an emerging area of research...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549806/chronic-consequences-on-human-health-induced-by-microbial-pathogens-growth-faltering-among-children-in-developing-countries
#6
James P Nataro, Richard L Guerrant
Enteric infections continue to cause approximately 500,000 childhood deaths annually worldwide. In addition to the burden of diarrhea, there is emerging evidence that exposure to enteric pathogens may induce physiologic abnormalities that lead to linear growth faltering. This enteric disease, known as environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) remains cryptic with regard to its causes and features. In this workshop, experts in the field addressed the contribution of enteric pathogens to growth faltering in the absence of clinical diarrhea...
May 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540669/tropical-enteropathies
#7
REVIEW
John Louis-Auguste, Paul Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'tropical enteropathy' originated in observations in the 1960s that small intestinal morphology and function differed in the tropics from the norms found in temperate climates. It was subsequently shown that this enteropathy is more closely related to environmental conditions than latitude, and it was re-labelled 'environmental enteropathy'. It is now recognised that environmental enteropathy (also now called environmental enteric dysfunction) has implications for the health and linear growth of children in low- and middle-income countries, and it may underlie poor responses to oral vaccination in these countries...
July 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515162/dietary-protein-and-the-health-nutrition-agriculture-connection-in-india
#8
REVIEW
Sumedha Minocha, Tinku Thomas, Anura V Kurpad
The connection between the production, availability, and consumption of high-quality food is becoming very important in developing countries. The requirement of protein is linked to its quality, or its digestibility and ability to meet human indispensable amino acid requirements. This requirement is particularly relevant in India, where commonly consumed cereal-based diets and cereal-based food subsidy programs offer low-quality protein and therefore pose a risk of quality protein deficiency. The production of and access to sustainable sources of high-quality protein will be important parts of mitigating risks to human health...
July 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499715/infant-nutritional-status-and-markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-are-associated-with-midchildhood-anthropometry-and-blood-pressure-in-tanzania
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lindsey M Locks, Ramadhani S Mwiru, Expeditho Mtisi, Karim P Manji, Christine M McDonald, Enju Liu, Roland Kupka, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Kerri Gosselin, Matthew Gillman, Andrew T Gewirtz, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether growth and biomarkers of environmental enteric dysfunction in infancy are related to health outcomes in midchildhood in Tanzania. STUDY DESIGN: Children who participated in 2 randomized trials of micronutrient supplements in infancy were followed up in midchildhood (4.6-9.8 years of age). Anthropometry was measured at age 6 and 52 weeks in both trials, and blood samples were available from children at 6 weeks and 6 months from 1 trial...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486222/biomarkers-to-stratify-risk-groups-among-children-with-malnutrition-in-resource-limited-settings-and-to-monitor-response-to-intervention
#10
Christine J McGrath, Michael B Arndt, Judd L Walson
Despite global efforts to reduce childhood undernutrition, current interventions have had little impact on stunting and wasting, and the mechanisms underlying growth faltering are poorly understood. There is a clear need to distinguish populations of children most likely to benefit from any given intervention and to develop tools to monitor response to therapy prior to the development of morbid sequelae. In resource-limited settings, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is common among children, contributing to malnutrition and increasing childhood morbidity and mortality risk...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466412/hyperinsulinemia-a-cause-of-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Karel A Erion, Barbara E Corkey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This perspective is motivated by the need to question dogma that does not work: that the problem is insulin resistance (IR). We highlight the need to investigate potential environmental obesogens and toxins. RECENT FINDINGS: The prequel to severe metabolic disease includes three interacting components that are abnormal: (a) IR, (b) elevated lipids and (c) elevated basal insulin (HI). HI is more common than IR and is a significant independent predictor of diabetes...
June 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379926/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#12
Lissette Jimenez, Christopher P Duggan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363920/design-and-rationale-of-a-matched-cohort-study-to-assess-the-effectiveness-of-a-combined-household-level-piped-water-and-sanitation-intervention-in-rural-odisha-india
#13
Heather Reese, Parimita Routray, Belen Torondel, Gloria Sclar, Maryann G Delea, Sheela S Sinharoy, Laura Zambrano, Bethany Caruso, Samir R Mishra, Howard H Chang, Thomas Clasen
INTRODUCTION: Government efforts to address massive shortfalls in rural water and sanitation in India have centred on construction of community water sources and toilets for selected households. However, deficiencies with water quality and quantity at the household level and community coverage and actual use of toilets have led Gram Vikas, a local non-governmental organization in Odisha, India, to develop an approach that provides household-level piped water connections contingent on full community-level toilet coverage...
March 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277337/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-among-children-in-rural-bangladesh
#14
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Sucheta Mehra, Hasmot Ali, Lee Wu, Rubhana Raqib, Sarah Baker, Alain Labrique, Keith P West, Parul Christian
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) may inhibit growth and development in low- and middle-income countries, but available assessment methodologies limit its study. In rural Bangladesh, we measured EED using the widely-used lactulose mannitol ratio (L:M) test and a panel of intestinal and systemic health biomarkers to evaluate convergence among biomarkers and describe risk factors for EED. METHODS: In 539 18-month-old children finishing participation in a randomized food supplementation trial, serum, stool and urine collected after lactulose and mannitol dosing were analyzed for biomarkers of intestinal absorption, inflammation, permeability and repair, and systemic inflammation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254256/secondary-carnitine-deficiency-in-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#15
Girija Ramakrishnan, William A Petri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157786/campylobacter-jejuni-and-associated-immune-mechanisms-short-term-effects-and-long-term-implications-for-infants-in-low-income-countries
#16
Amanda E Schnee, William A Petri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as one of the most common causes of food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide, resulting in a self-limiting dysentery in developed countries. However, it is increasingly gaining attention due to its association with postinfectious complications such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and recently recognized importance in early childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We hypothesize that the inflammation mediated by C. jejuni infection causes environmental enteric dysfunction, and with contribution from diet and the host, microbiome may be responsible for growth faltering in children and developmental disability...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122695/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-is-associated-with-carnitine-deficiency-and-altered-fatty-acid-oxidation
#17
Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ximin Li, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Kenneth M Maleta, Klaus Kraemer, Michelle Shardell, Luigi Ferrucci, Mark Manary
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a condition characterized by small intestine inflammation and abnormal gut permeability, is widespread in children in developing countries and a major cause of growth failure. The pathophysiology of EED remains poorly understood. METHODS: We measured serum metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 400 children, aged 12-59months, from rural Malawi. Gut permeability was assessed by the dual-sugar absorption test...
March 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112064/nutrition-infection-and-stunting-the-roles-of-deficiencies-of-individual-nutrients-and-foods-and-of-inflammation-as-determinants-of-reduced-linear-growth-of-children
#18
D Joe Millward
The regulation of linear growth by nutritional and inflammatory influences is examined in terms of growth-plate endochondral ossification, in order to better understand stunted growth in children. Linear growth is controlled by complex genetic, physiological, and nutrient-sensitive endocrine/paracrine/autocrine mediated molecular signalling mechanisms, possibly including sleep adequacy through its influence on growth hormone secretion. Inflammation, which accompanies most infections and environmental enteric dysfunction, inhibits endochondral ossification through the action of mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, the activin A-follistatin system, glucocorticoids and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
June 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100604/sufficient-protein-quality-of-food-aid-varies-with-the-physiologic-status-of-recipients
#19
Meghan Callaghan, Momo Oyama, Mark Manary
Protein quality scores use the amino acid (AA) requirements of a healthy North American child. AA requirements vary with physiologic status. We estimated AA requirements for healthy North American children, children with environmental enteric dysfunction, children recovering from wasting, and children with an acute infection. The protein quality of food aid products was then calculated to determine whether it was sufficient in all these groups, and we found that it may not be adequate for all of them. Physiologic status is important when assessing the protein quality of food aid...
March 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956653/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-the-fecal-microbiota-in-malawian-children
#20
M Isabel Ordiz, Kevin Stephenson, Sophia Agapova, Kristine M Wylie, Ken Maleta, John Martin, Indi Trehan, Phillip I Tarr, Mark J Manary
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is often measured with a dual sugar absorption test and implicated as a causative factor in childhood stunting. Disturbances in the gut microbiota are hypothesized to be a mechanism by which EED is exacerbated, although this supposition lacks support. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples from 81 rural Malawian children with varying degrees of EED to determine which bacterial taxa were associated with EED. At the phyla level, Proteobacteria abundance is reduced with severe EED...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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