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Environmental enteric dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991036/causes-of-stunting-and-preventive-dietary-interventions-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood
#1
Robert E Black, Rebecca Heidkamp
Stunting of linear growth, a highly prevalent problem in children of low- and middle-income countries, is the result of the exposure of the fetus and/or young child to nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases. Maternal undernutrition results in fetal growth restriction, and infectious diseases in pregnancy can result in preterm delivery. Both of these conditions are important contributors to stunting in early childhood, albeit their relative contribution varies by world region. After birth, growth faltering may begin at 3-5 months of life and becomes more prominent from 6 to 18 months...
2018: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988114/pathophysiology-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-its-impact-on-oral-vaccine-efficacy
#2
REVIEW
Chelsea Marie, Asad Ali, Kanta Chandwe, William A Petri, Paul Kelly
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to a subclinical disorder of intestinal function common in tropical countries and in settings of poverty and economic disadvantage. The enteropathy that underlies this syndrome is characterized by mucosal inflammation and villus blunting mediated by T cell activation. Epithelial cell disruption and microbial translocation drive systemic inflammation. EED in young children is associated geographically with growth failure, malnutrition, and greatly impaired responses to oral vaccines, notably rotavirus and poliovirus vaccines...
July 9, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955682/the-nutrient-and-metabolite-profile-of-3-complementary-legume-foods-with-potential-to-improve-gut-health-in-rural-malawian-children
#3
Erica C Borresen, Lei Zhang, Indi Trehan, Nora Jean Nealon, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Elizabeth P Ryan
Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), frequently seen in rural Malawian children, causes chronic inflammation and increases the risk of stunting. Legumes may be beneficial for improving nutrition and reducing the risk of developing EED in weaning children. Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the nutritional value, verify the food safety, and identify metabolite profiles of 3 legume-based complementary foods: common bean (CB), cowpea (CP), and traditional corn-soy blend (CSB)...
October 2017: Current developments in nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926747/exploring-the-relationship-between-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-oral-vaccine-responses
#4
James A Church, Edward Pk Parker, Margaret N Kosek, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly, Paul Kelly, Andrew J Prendergast
Oral vaccines significantly underperform in low-income countries. One possible contributory factor is environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical disorder of small intestinal structure and function among children living in poverty. Here, we review studies describing oral vaccine responses and EED. We identified eight studies evaluating EED and oral vaccine responses. There was substantial heterogeneity in study design and few consistent trends emerged. Four studies reported a negative association between EED and oral vaccine responses; two showed no significant association; and two described a positive correlation...
June 21, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893201/association-of-fecal-markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-with-zinc-and-iron-status-among-children-at-first-two-years-of-life-in-bangladesh
#5
Shah Mohammad Fahim, Subhasish Das, Kazi Istiaque Sanin, Md Amran Gazi, Mustafa Mahfuz, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) causes gut inflammation and increased intestinal permeability leading to deficiencies in micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) can predict EED. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fecal markers of EED with zinc and iron status among children at first 2 years of life. Malnutrition and Enteric Disease Study Bangladeshi birth cohort data were used to conduct this analysis...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869596/a-community-designed-play-yard-intervention-to-prevent-microbial-ingestion-a-baby-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-pilot-study-in-rural-zambia
#6
Brie Reid, Rie Seu, Jennifer Orgle, Khrist Roy, Catherine Pongolani, Modesta Chileshe, Dadirai Fundira, Rebecca Stoltzfus
Malnourished children in low-income contexts usually suffer from environmental enteric dysfunction, which is damage to the intestines caused by chronic exposure to bacterial pathogens from feces hypothesized to contribute to stunting. Many intervention studies are piloting "Baby water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)" to help rural farming families reduce infant and young children's (IYC's) exposure to human and free-range livestock feces. One proposed Baby WASH intervention is a play-yard, which consists of a baby-proofed structure (i...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740382/circadian-rhythm-dysfunction-accelerates-disease-progression-in-a-mouse-model-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Zhilin Huang, Qiang Liu, Yu Peng, Jiaying Dai, Youna Xie, Weineng Chen, Simei Long, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by interactions between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. Circadian rhythm dysfunction (CRD) is a significant contributor to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, whether CRD contributes to the progression of ALS remains little known. We performed behavioral and physiological tests on SOD1G93A ALS model mice with and without artificially induced CRD, and on wild-type controls; we also analyzed spinal cord samples histologically for differences between groups...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706087/association-of-aflatoxin-exposure-and-height-for-age-among-young-children-in-guatemala
#8
Lee E Voth-Gaeddert, Matthew Stoker, Olga Torres, Daniel B Oerther
Aflatoxin exposure has been proposed to affect child height-for-age. The following hypothesized associations were tested in Guatemala: (1) aflatoxin (B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 ) exposure and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and child height-for-age z-score; and (2) aflatoxin exposures and subsequent symptoms of aflatoxins. Maize consumption data, health data, and samples of maize from households were collected from mothers and their children - under five - in October 2016 (n = 320) and February 2017 (n = 120)...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613921/markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-are-associated-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-tanzanian-children
#9
Analee J Etheredge, Karim Manji, Mark Kellogg, Hao Tran, Enju Liu, Christine M McDonald, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Wafaie Fawzi, David Bellinger, Andrew T Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to enteropathogens may result in environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical condition associated with poor child growth. Growth faltering is strongly associated with poor neurodevelopment, and occurs during sensitive periods of postnatal brain development. We investigated the role of novel EED biomarkers, systemic inflammation, and micronutrient status on neurodevelopment in Tanzanian children. METHODS: Non-stunted subjects with 6-week and 6-month blood samples and neurodevelopmental measures (n = 107) were included in this study...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605442/intranasal-administration-of-sodium-dimethyldithiocarbamate-induces-motor-deficits-and-dopaminergic-dysfunction-in-mice
#10
Josiel M Mack, Tainara M Moura, Débora Lanznaster, Franciane Bobinski, Caio M Massari, Tuane B Sampaio, Ariana E Schmitz, Luiz F Souza, Roger Walz, Carla I Tasca, Anicleto Poli, Richard L Doty, Alcir L Dafre, Rui D Prediger
The primary etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear, but likely reflects a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Exposure to some pesticides, including ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate), is a relevant risk factor for PD. Like some other environmental neurotoxicants, we hypothesized that ziram can enter the central nervous system from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerves. To address this issue, we evaluated the effects of 1, 2 or 4 days of intranasal (i.n., 1 mg/nostril/day) infusions of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDMDC), a dimethyldithiocarbamate more soluble than ziram, on locomotor activity in the open field, neurological severity score and rotarod performance...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509790/serum-anti-flagellin-and-anti-lipopolysaccharide-immunoglobulins-as-predictors-of-linear-growth-faltering-in-pakistani-infants-at-risk-for-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#11
Sana Syed, Najeeha T Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Jennie Z Ma, Tauseef Akhund, Wenjun Xin, Sean R Moore, Enju Liu, Shahida Qureshi, Kerri Gosselin, Andrew Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan, S Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) in children from low-income countries has been linked to linear growth declines. There is a critical need to identify sensitive and early EED biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether levels of antibodies against bacterial components flagellin (flic) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) predict poor growth. DESIGN/METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 380 children in rural Pakistan blood and stool samples were obtained at ages 6 and 9 months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499047/characterizing-the-metabolic-phenotype-of-intestinal-villus-blunting-in-zambian-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-and-persistent-diarrhea
#12
Marta Farràs, Kanta Chandwe, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Beatrice Amadi, John Louis-Auguste, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, Richard Guerrant, Paul Kelly, Jonathan Richard Swann
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is widespread throughout the tropics and in children is associated with stunting and other adverse health outcomes. One of the hallmarks of EED is villus damage. In children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) the severity of enteropathy is greater and short term mortality is high, but the metabolic consequences of enteropathy are unknown. Here, we characterize the urinary metabolic alterations associated with villus health, classic enteropathy biomarkers and anthropometric measurements in severely malnourished children in Zambia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498344/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-systemic-inflammation-predict-reduced-weight-but-not-length-gain-in-rural-bangladeshi-children
#13
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490090/additional-common-bean-in-the-diet-of-malawian-children-does-not-affect-linear-growth-but-reduces-intestinal-permeability
#14
Sophia E Agapova, Kevin B Stephenson, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445110/promising-biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-pakistani-children
#15
Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Sana Syed, Tauseefullah Akhund, Fayyaz Umrani, Sheraz Ahmed, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Najeeb Rahman, Shahida Qureshi, Wenjun Xin, Jennie Z Ma, Molly Hughes, Syed Asad Ali
Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED), a syndrome characterized by chronic gut inflammation, contributes towards stunting and poor response to enteric vaccines in children in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated major putative biomarkers of EED using growth faltering as its clinical proxy. Newborns (n = 380) were enrolled and followed till 18 months with monthly anthropometry. Biomarkers associated with gut and systemic inflammation were assessed at 6 and 9 months. Linear mixed effects model was used to determine the associations of these biomarkers with growth faltering between birth and 18 months...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351288/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-pathways-and-child-stunting-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Kaitlyn M Harper, Maxine Mutasa, Andrew J Prendergast, Jean Humphrey, Amee R Manges
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is commonly defined as an acquired subclinical disorder of the small intestine, characterized by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. EED has been proposed to underlie stunted growth among children in developing countries. A collection of biomarkers, organized into distinct domains, has been used to measure different aspects of EED. Here, we examine whether these hypothesized relationships, among EED domains and between each domain and stunting, are supported by data from recent studies...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325698/what-causes-childhood-stunting-among-children-of-san-vicente-guatemala-employing-complimentary-system-analysis-approaches
#17
Lee E Voth-Gaeddert, Matthew Stoker, Devin Cornell, Daniel B Oerther
Guatemala has the sixth worst stunting rate with 48% of children under five years of age classified as stunted according to World Health Organization standards. This study utilizes two different yet complimentary system-analysis approaches to analyze correlations among environmental and demographic variables, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), and child height-for-age (stunting metric) in Guatemala. Two descriptive models constructed around applicable environmental and demographic factors on child height-for-age and EED were analyzed using Network Analysis (NA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)...
April 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281659/immunogenicity-of-rotavirus-vaccine-rotarixtm-in-infants-with-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#18
Innocent Mwape, Samuel Bosomprah, John Mwaba, Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya, Natasha Makabilo Laban, Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Gibson Sijumbila, Michelo Simuyandi, Roma Chilengi
INTRODUCTION: Deployment of rotavirus vaccines has contributed to significant declines in diarrheal morbidity and mortality globally. Unfortunately, vaccine performance in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is generally lower than in developed countries. The cause for this has been associated with several host and maternal factors including poor water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) status, which are predominant in LMICs. More recently, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has specifically been hypothesized to contribute to poor vaccine uptake and response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225942/correction-improving-the-detection-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-a-lactulose-rhamnose-assay-of-intestinal-permeability-in-children-aged-under-5-years-exposed-to-poor-sanitation-and-hygiene
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209436/the-potential-relationship-between-flammer-and-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndromes-the-chime-of-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Babak Baban, Olga Golubnitschaja
Flammer syndrome (FS) is a term to blanket a cluster of vascular and nonvascular signs and symptoms linked to primary vascular dysregulation (PVD), increased sensitivity to various stimuli (stress, drugs, etc.) and altered sense regulation such as pain, smell and thirst perception. On one hand, disruption of blood barrier and homeostasis of the body are the main targets of vascular irregularity. Inflammation and immune disorders including autoimmunity are considered as a consequence of the abnormal vascular regulation processes...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
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