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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722318/porous-carbon-nanofibers-encapsulated-with-peapod-like-hematite-nanoparticles-for-high-rate-and-long-life-battery-anodes
#1
Guanglin Xia, Qili Gao, Dalin Sun, Xuebin Yu
Fe2 O3 is regarded as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its high specific capacity. The large volume change during discharge and charge processes, however, induces significant cracking of the Fe2 O3 anodes, leading to rapid fading of the capacity. Herein, a novel peapod-like nanostructured material, consisting of Fe2 O3 nanoparticles homogeneously encapsulated in the hollow interior of N-doped porous carbon nanofibers, as a high-performance anode material is reported...
July 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720792/optical-read-out-of-neural-activity-in-mammalian-peripheral-axons-calcium-signaling-at-nodes-of-ranvier
#2
Arjun K Fontaine, Emily A Gibson, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Current neural interface technologies have serious limitations for advanced prosthetic and therapeutic applications due primarily to their lack of specificity in neural communication. An optogenetic approach has the potential to provide single cell/axon resolution in a minimally invasive manner by optical interrogation of light-sensitive reporters and actuators. Given the aim of reading neural activity in the peripheral nervous system, this work has investigated an activity-dependent signaling mechanism in the peripheral nerve...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718687/do-sodium-channel-proteolytic-fragments-regulate-sodium-channel-expression
#3
Donatus O Onwuli, Laia Yañez-Bisbe, Mellina Pinsach-Abuin, Anna Tarradas, Ramon Brugada, John Greenman, Sara Pagans, Pedro Beltran-Alvarez
The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (gene: SCN5A, protein: NaV1.5) is responsible for the sodium current that initiates the cardiomyocyte action potential. Research into the mechanisms of SCN5A gene expression has gained momentum over the last few years. We have recently described the transcriptional regulation of SCN5A by GATA4 transcription factor. In this addendum to our study, we report our observations that 1) the linker between domains I and II (LDI-DII) of NaV1.5 contains a nuclear localisation signal (residues 474-481) that is necessary to localise LDI-DII into the nucleus, and 2) nuclear LDI-DII activates the SCN5A promoter in gene reporter assays using cardiac-like H9c2 cells...
July 18, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717838/the-triterpenoid-alpha-beta-amyrin-prevents-the-impaired-aortic-vascular-reactivity-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#4
Flávia Almeida Santos, Karine Maria Martins Bezerra Carvalho, Francisco José Batista-Lima, Paulo Iury Gomes Nunes, Ana Flávia Seraine Custódio Viana, Armenio André de Carvalho Almeida da Silva, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Mariana Helena Chaves, Vietla Satyanarayana Rao, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Teresinha Silva de Brito
To characterize the protective effects of the triterpenoid mixture alpha, beta-amyrin (AMY, 20 mg/kg, during 15 days) on the reactivity of isolated aorta of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male Swiss mice were fed with HFD or normal diet (ND) for 15 weeks. Contractions of thoracic aorta in response to KCl or phenylephrine (PHE) and relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were analyzed. HFD-fed mice developed hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and significant body weight gain, parameters prevented by AMY treatment...
July 17, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713285/amiloride-improves-endothelial-function-and-reduces-vascular-stiffness-in-female-mice-fed-a-western-diet
#5
Luis A Martinez-Lemus, Annayya R Aroor, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Guanghong Jia, Javad Habibi, Vincent G DeMarco, Brady Barron, Adam Whaley-Connell, Ravi Nistala, James R Sowers
Obese premenopausal women lose their sex related cardiovascular disease protection and develop greater arterial stiffening than age matched men. In female mice, we have shown that consumption of a Western diet (WD), high in fat and refined sugars, is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffening, which occur via activation of mineralocorticoid receptors and associated increases in epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity on endothelial cells (EnNaC). Herein our aim was to determine the effect that reducing EnNaC activity with a very-low-dose of amiloride would have on decreasing endothelial and arterial stiffness in young female mice consuming a WD...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712915/comparative-analyses-and-implications-for-antivenom-serotherapy-of-four-moroccan-scorpion-buthus-occitanus-venoms-subspecies-tunetanus-paris-malhommei-and-mardochei
#6
Bruna Luiza Emerich, Maria Elena De Lima, Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire, Pierre E Bougis
Temporary passive immunity such as serotherapy against venoms requires the full knowledge of all venom's components. Here, four venoms from Moroccan common yellow scorpions belonging to Buthus occitanus, subspecies tunetanus, paris, malhommei, and mardochei, all collected in four different restricted areas, were analysed in deep. They were fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and their molecular masse profile determined by off-line MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Characterisation of their main components was achieved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific antisera against the major lethal scorpion toxins identified so far, i...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711494/development-of-membrane-ion-channels-during-neural-differentiation-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#7
Sara Mirsadeghi, Ebrahim Shahbazi, Katayoun Hemmesi, Shiva Nemati, Hossein Baharvand, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Sahar Kiani
OBJECTIVE: For human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into neurons, enormous changes has to occur leading to trigger action potential and neurotransmitter release. We attempt to determine the changes in expression of voltage gated channels (VGCs) and their electrophysiological properties during neural differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative expressions of α-subunit of voltage gated potassium, sodium and calcium channels were characterized by qRT-PCR technique...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710444/ergodicity-breaking-on-the-neuronal-surface-emerges-from-random-switching-between-diffusive-states
#8
Aleksander Weron, Krzysztof Burnecki, Elizabeth J Akin, Laura Solé, Michał Balcerek, Michael M Tamkun, Diego Krapf
Stochastic motion on the surface of living cells is critical to promote molecular encounters that are necessary for multiple cellular processes. Often the complexity of the cell membranes leads to anomalous diffusion, which under certain conditions it is accompanied by non-ergodic dynamics. Here, we unravel two manifestations of ergodicity breaking in the dynamics of membrane proteins in the somatic surface of hippocampal neurons. Three different tagged molecules are studied on the surface of the soma: the voltage-gated potassium and sodium channels Kv1...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710092/a-missense-mutation-in-the-extracellular-domain-of-%C3%AE-enac-causes-liddle-syndrome
#9
Mahdi Salih, Ivan Gautschi, Miguel X van Bemmelen, Michael Di Benedetto, Alice S Brooks, Dorien Lugtenberg, Laurent Schild, Ewout J Hoorn
Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of hypokalemic hypertension due to mutations in the β- or γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Here, we describe a family with Liddle syndrome due to a mutation in αENaC. The proband was referred because of resistant hypokalemic hypertension, suppressed renin and aldosterone, and no mutations in the genes encoding β- or γENaC. Exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous, nonconservative T>C single-nucleotide mutation in αENaC that substituted Cys479 with Arg (C479R)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709698/revisiting-the-sensitivity-of-sodium-channel-blocker-testing-in-brugada-syndrome-using-obligate-transmittance
#10
EDITORIAL
Rafik Tadros, Arthur A M Wilde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708422/epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-is-a-modifier-of-the-long-term-non-progressive-phenotype-associated-with-f508del-cftr-mutations
#11
Pankaj B Agrawal, Ruobing Wang, Hongmei Lisa Li, Klaus Schmitz-Abe, Chantelle Simone-Roach, Jingxin Chen, Jiahai Shi, Tin Louie, Shaohu Sheng, Meghan C Towne, Christine F Brainson, Michael A Matthay, Carla F Kim, Michael Bamshad, Mary J Emond, Norma P Gerard, Thomas R Kleyman, Craig Gerard
BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) remains the most lethal genetic disease in the Caucasian population. However, there is great variability of clinical phenotype and survival, even among patients harboring the same genotype. We identified five CF patients with a homozygous F508del mutation in the CFTR gene living in their 5th or 6th decade of life, all with minimal change in lung function over longitudinal period of more than 20 years. Because of the rarity of this long-term non-progressive phenotype, we hypothesized those individuals may carry rare genetic variants in modifier genes that ameliorate disease severity...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706450/reactive-oxygen-species-increase-neuronal-excitability-via-activation-of-nonspecific-cation-channel-in-rat-medullary-dorsal-horn-neurons
#12
Hae In Lee, Byung Rim Park, Sang Woo Chun
The caudal subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (medullary dorsal horn; MDH) receives direct inputs from small diameter primary afferent fibers that predominantly transmit nociceptive information in the orofacial region. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in persistent pain, primarily through spinal mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system, a known generator of superoxide anion (O2(·-)), on membrane excitability in the rat MDH neurons...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704450/a-consensus-layer-v-pyramidal-neuron-can-sustain-interpulse-interval-coding
#13
Chandan Singh, William B Levy
In terms of a single neuron's long-distance communication, interpulse intervals (IPIs) are an attractive alternative to rate and binary codes. As a proxy for an IPI, a neuron's time-to-spike can be found in the biophysical and experimental intracellular literature. Using the current, consensus layer V pyramidal neuron, the present study examines the feasibility of IPI-coding and examines the noise sources that limit the information rate of such an encoding. In descending order of importance, the noise sources are (i) synaptic variability, (ii) sodium channel shot-noise, followed by (iii) thermal noise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703223/unmasking-the-molecular-link-between-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-and-brugada-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Javier Moncayo-Arlandi, Ramon Brugada
The intercalated discs that connect cardiomyocytes control cell-to-cell adhesion and communication. Several macromolecular structures (desmosomes, fascia adherens junctions, gap junctions, and sodium-channel complexes) coexist in, and confer their mechanical and electrical properties to, the intercalated disc. Traditionally, each structure was assumed to have a unique function in the intercalated disc. However, growing evidence suggests that these complexes act together in intercellular communication and adhesion, forming a single structural and functional entity - the connexome...
July 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702509/loss-of-function-variants-of-scn8a-in-intellectual-disability-without-seizures
#15
Jacy L Wagnon, Bryan S Barker, Matteo Ottolini, Young Park, Alicia Volkheimer, Purnima Valdez, Marielle E M Swinkels, Manoj K Patel, Miriam H Meisler
OBJECTIVE: To determine the functional effect of SCN8A missense mutations in 2 children with intellectual disability and developmental delay but no seizures. METHODS: Genomic DNA was analyzed by next-generation sequencing. SCN8A variants were introduced into the Nav1.6 complementary DNA by site-directed mutagenesis. Channel activity was measured electrophysiologically in transfected ND7/23 cells. The stability of the mutant channels was assessed by Western blot...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701749/calcium-activated-sk-channels-control-firing-regularity-by-modulating-sodium-channel-availability-in-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#16
Rajeshwari Iyer, Mark A Ungless, Aldo A Faisal
Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area regulate behaviours such as reward-related learning, and motor control. Dysfunction of these neurons is implicated in Schizophrenia, addiction to drugs, and Parkinson's disease. While some dopamine neurons fire single spikes at regular intervals, others fire irregular single spikes interspersed with bursts. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels increases the variability in their firing pattern, sometimes also increasing the number of spikes fired in bursts, indicating that SK channels play an important role in maintaining dopamine neuron firing regularity and burst firing...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700368/regional-anesthesia-and-analgesia-in-cancer-care-is-it-time-to-break-the-bad-news
#17
Mir W Sekandarzad, André A J van Zundert, Chris W Doornebal, Markus W Hollmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is ongoing controversy regarding the tumor-protective effects of regional anesthesia in patients undergoing cancer surgery. Evidence of up-to-date systematic reviews will be presented alongside recent updates on the effects of opioids and local anesthetics. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the literature regarding the effects of regional anesthesia techniques on cancer recurrence has raised many unanswered questions. Ongoing randomized controlled trials may not be able to shed light on the controversial discussion regarding the tumor protective effects of regional anesthesia because the expected effect size and event rate in those studies may be overstated...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698102/neonatal-nav1-5-protein-expression-in-normal-adult-human-tissues-and-breast-cancer
#18
Rezan Fahrioglu Yamaci, Scott P Fraser, Esra Battaloglu, Handan Kaya, Kamil Erguler, Christopher S Foster, Mustafa B A Djamgoz
Expression of the neonatal splice variant of the voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit (VGSC) subtype Nav1.5 (nNav1.5), encoded by the gene SCN5A, was shown earlier to be upregulated in human breast cancer (BCa), both in vitro and in vivo. Channel activity promoted BCa invasion of Matrigel(®)in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Consequently, expression of nNav1.5 has been proposed as a functional biomarker of BCa cells with metastatic potential. Here, we have determined immunohistochemically both nNav1.5 and total VGSC (tVGSC) protein expression in a range of adult human tissues...
June 6, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696924/the-sek-1-p38-map-kinase-pathway-modulates-gq-signaling-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Jill M Hoyt, Samuel K Wilson, Madhuri Kasa, Jeremy S Rise, Irini Topalidou, Michael Ailion
Gq is a heterotrimeric G protein that is widely expressed in neurons and regulates neuronal activity. To identify pathways regulating neuronal Gq signaling we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for suppressors of activated Gq. One of the suppressors is an allele of sek-1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) in the p38 MAPK pathway. Here we show that sek-1 mutants have a slow locomotion rate and that sek-1 acts in acetylcholine neurons to modulate both locomotion rate and Gq signaling...
July 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695248/divergent-effects-of-anesthetics-on-lipid-bilayer-properties-and-sodium-channel-function
#20
REVIEW
Karl F Herold, Olaf S Andersen, Hugh C Hemmings
General anesthetics revolutionized medicine by allowing surgeons to perform more complex and much longer procedures. This widely used class of drugs is essential to patient care, yet their exact molecular mechanism(s) are incompletely understood. One early hypothesis over a century ago proposed that nonspecific interactions of anesthetics with the lipid bilayer lead to changes in neuronal function via effects on membrane properties. This model was supported by the Meyer-Overton correlation between anesthetic potency and lipid solubility and despite more recent evidence for specific protein targets, in particular ion-channels, lipid bilayer-mediated effects of anesthetics is still under debate...
July 10, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
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