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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102360/modification-of-distinct-ion-channels-differentially-modulates-ca-2-dynamics-in-primary-cultured-rat-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#1
Xichun Li, Liping Shen, Fang Zhao, Xiaohan Zou, Yuwei He, Fan Zhang, Chunlei Zhang, Boyang Yu, Zhengyu Cao
Primary cultured cardiomyocytes show spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations (SCOs) which not only govern contractile events, but undergo derangements that promote arrhythmogenesis through Ca(2+) -dependent mechanism. We systematically examined influence on SCOs of an array of ion channel modifiers by recording intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes using Ca(2+) specific fluorescence dye, Fluo-8/AM. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) activation elongates SCO duration and reduces SCO frequency while inhibition of VGSCs decreases SCO frequency without affecting amplitude and duration...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101651/eslicarbazepine-acetate-its-effectiveness-as-adjunctive-therapy-in-clinical-trials-and-open-studies
#2
REVIEW
S D Shorvon, E Trinka, B J Steinhoff, M Holtkamp, V Villanueva, J Peltola, E Ben-Menachem
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily antiepileptic drug that is approved as adjunctive therapy in adults with focal-onset seizures. Following oral administration, ESL is rapidly metabolized to its active metabolite, eslicarbazepine, which acts primarily by enhancing slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. The efficacy and safety/tolerability of ESL in the adjunctive setting were established in a comprehensive Phase III program (n = 1702 randomized patients) and this evidence has been supported by several open studies (n = 864)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100747/selective-deletion-of-sodium-salt-taste-during-development-leads-to-expanded-terminal-fields-of-gustatory-nerves-in-the-adult-mouse-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#3
Chengsan Sun, Edith Hummler, David L Hill
: Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099049/effects-of-hydrogen-sulfide-releasing-compounds-on-aqueous-humor-outflow-facility-in-porcine-ocular-anterior-segments-ex-vivo
#4
Jenaye Robinson, Esther Okoro, Chinoso Ezuedu, Leah Bush, Catherine A Opere, Sunny E Ohia, Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye
PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacological actions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing compounds l-cysteine and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on aqueous humor (AH) outflow facility in porcine ocular anterior segment. METHODS: Porcine ocular anterior segments were perfused with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium at a constant pressure of 7.35 mmHg. After stable outflow baseline, explants were exposed to NaHS or l-cysteine. The increase in outflow generated by the H2S-releasing compounds was measured in the absence and presence of inhibitor of H2S biosynthesis (aminooxyacetic acid; AOAA), blocker of KATP channels (glibenclamide), and inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase (SQ 22536)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098465/rejection-of-commonly-used-electrolyte-in-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-effects-of-membrane-molecular-weight-cut-off-size-fluid-dynamics-and-valence-of-electrolytes
#5
Thilak K Mudalige, Haiou Qu, Sean W Linder
Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) is an efficient size based separation technique for the characterization of submicron size particulates. In AF4, membranes having various molecular weight cut-off sizes are used as a barrier to retain particles while allowing carrier fluid containing electrolytes to permeate. Here, we hypothesized that electrolyte rejection by the barrier membrane lead to the accumulation of the electrolytes in the channel during operation. Electrolyte accumulation can cause various adverse effects which can lead to membrane fouling...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097837/food-and-beverage-advertising-on-children-s-tv-channels-in-argentina-frequency-duration-and-nutritional-quality
#6
Alicia Rovirosa, María E Zapata, Paula Gómez, Susana Gotthelf, Daniel Ferrante
: Food and beverage marketing has been identified as one of the determinants of unhealthy food and beverage consumption in the child population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and duration of food and beverage advertising in children's programming and the nutritional quality of advertised food and beverages. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Children's cable and broadcast channel programming was recorded in two periods: over the week and on the weekend...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094030/glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-protein-regulates-sodium-and-potassium-balance-in-the-distal-nephron
#7
Priyanka Rashmi, GianLuca Colussi, Michael Ng, Xinhao Wu, Atif Kidwai, David Pearce
Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) is an aldosterone-regulated protein that controls sodium transport in cultured kidney epithelial cells. Mice lacking GILZ have been reported previously to have electrolyte abnormalities. However, the mechanistic basis has not been explored. Here we provide evidence supporting a role for GILZ in modulating the balance of renal sodium and potassium excretion by regulating the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) activity in the distal nephron. Gilz(-/-) mice have a higher plasma potassium concentration and lower fractional excretion of potassium than wild type mice...
January 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091345/propofol-as-a-risk-factor-for-icu-acquired-weakness-in-septic-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#8
Peter A Abdelmalik, Goran Rakocevic
BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIN) and critical illness myopathy (CIM), together "ICU-Acquired weakness (ICUAW)," occur frequently in septic patients. One of the proposed mechanisms for ICUAW includes prolonged inactivation of sodium channels. Propofol, used commonly in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), primarily acts via enhancement of GABAergic transmission but may also increase sodium channel inactivation, suggesting a potential interaction. METHODS: Electronic medical records and EMG reports of patients with ICUAW and a diagnosis of either sepsis, septicaemia, severe sepsis, or septic shock, concurrent with a diagnosis of acute respiratory failure (ARF), were retrospectively analyzed in a single center university hospital...
January 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090678/the-epileptic-and-nonepileptic-spectrum-of-paroxysmal-dyskinesias-channelopathies-synaptopathies-and-transportopathies
#9
REVIEW
Roberto Erro, Kailash P Bhatia, Alberto J Espay, Pasquale Striano
Historically, the syndrome of primary paroxysmal dyskinesias was considered a group of disorders as a result of ion channel dysfunction. This proposition was primarily based on the discovery of mutations in ion channels, which caused other episodic neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine and also supported by the frequent association between paroxysmal dyskinesias and epilepsy. However, the discovery of the genes responsible for the 3 classic forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias disproved this ion channel theory...
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088107/gaas-laser-therapy-reestablishes-the-morphology-of-the-nmj-and-nachrs-after-injury-due-to-bupivacaine
#10
Cristiane Neves Alessi Pissulin, Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Flávio Codina, Carina Guidi Pinto, Ivan Jose Vechetti-Junior, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics are used to relieve pre- and postoperative pain, acting on both sodium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Bupivacaine acts as a non-competitive antagonist and has limitations, such as myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and analgesic effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a gallium arsenide laser (GaAs) on the morphology of the NMJ and nAChRs after application of bupivacaine in the sternomastoid muscle...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087250/pharmacology-of-cannabinoids-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Tyler E Gaston, Daniel Friedman
The use of cannabis products in the treatment of epilepsy has long been of interest to researchers and clinicians alike; however, until recently very little published data were available to support its use. This article summarizes the available scientific data of pharmacology from human and animal studies on the major cannabinoids which have been of interest in the treatment of epilepsy, including ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (∆9-THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA)...
January 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086951/sodium-glucose-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-with-empagliflozin-improves-cardiac-diastolic-function-in-a-female-rodent-model-of-diabetes
#12
Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, James R Sowers, Guanghong Jia, Melvin R Hayden, Mona Garro, Brady Barron, Eric Mayoux, R Scott Rector, Adam Whaley-Connell, Vincent G DeMarco
Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for impairments in diastolic relaxation and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The impairments in diastolic relaxation are especially pronounced in obese and diabetic women and predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in this population. Recent clinical data suggest sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduces CVD events in diabetic individuals, but the mechanisms of this CVD protection are unknown. To determine whether targeting SGLT2 improves diastolic relaxation, we utilized empagliflozin (EMPA) in female db/db mice...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084627/carvacrol-after-status-epilepticus-se-prevents-recurrent-se-early-seizures-cell-death-and-cognitive-decline
#13
Aytakin Khalil, Stjepana Kovac, Gareth Morris, Matthew C Walker
OBJECTIVE: Carvacrol is a naturally occurring monoterpenic phenol that has been suggested to have an action at transient receptor potential cation subfamily M7 (TRPM7) channels, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptors, and sodium channels, and has been shown to be antiinflammatory. Carvacrol is neuroprotective in models of cerebral ischemia in vivo and in vitro, probably through its action at TRPM7 channels. We therefore aimed to determine the effect of carvacrol on status epilepticus (SE), chronic epilepsy, cell death, and post-SE cognitive decline...
January 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083943/insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-ulcerative-colitis-interleukin-13-modulates-stat6-and-p38-mapk-activity-in-the-colon-epithelial-sodium-channel
#14
Ian A Sroufe, ToniRae Gardner, Katharine A Bresnahan, Shelby M Quarnberg, Peter R Wiedmeier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083647/phenytoin-80%C3%A2-years-young-from-epilepsy-to-breast-cancer-a-remarkable-molecule-with-multiple-modes-of-action
#15
REVIEW
Jan M Keppel Hesselink, David J Kopsky
In 1908 phenytoin (5,5-diphenylhydantoin) was first synthesized as a barbiturate derivative in Germany by professor Heinrich Biltz (1865-1943) and subsequently resynthesized by an American chemist of the pharmaceutical company Parke-Davis in 1923 in Detroit. Screening phenytoin did not reveal comparable sedative side effects as barbiturates and, thus, Parke-Davis discarded this compound as a useful drug. In 1936, phenytoin's anticonvulsive properties were identified via a new animal model for convulsive disorders, developed by Putnam and Merritt, who also evaluated its clinical value in a number of patients in the period 1937-1940...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082350/secretin-is-involved-in-sodium-conservation-through-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system
#16
Juan Bai, Billy K C Chow
Secretin (SCT) and its receptor (SCTR) are important in fluid regulation at multiple levels via the modulation of expression and translocation of renal aquaporin 2 and functions of central angiotensin II (ANGII). The functional interaction of SCT with peripheral ANGII, however, remains unknown. As the ANGII-aldosterone axis dominates the regulation of renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function, we therefore tested whether SCT/SCTR can regulate sodium homeostasis via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...
January 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081856/an-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-binding-molecule-has-a-critical-role-in-hypertension-in-a-chronic-kidney-disease-model
#17
Ryu Kobayashi, Hiromichi Wakui, Kengo Azushima, Kazushi Uneda, Sona Haku, Kohji Ohki, Kotaro Haruhara, Sho Kinguchi, Miyuki Matsuda, Masato Ohsawa, Yoshiyuki Toya, Akira Nishiyama, Akio Yamashita, Katsuyuki Tanabe, Yohei Maeshima, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) promotes AT1R internalization along with suppression of hyperactivation of tissue AT1R signaling. Here, we provide evidence that renal ATRAP plays a critical role in suppressing hypertension in a mouse remnant kidney model of chronic kidney disease. The effect of 5/6 nephrectomy on endogenous ATRAP expression was examined in the kidney of C57BL/6 and 129/Sv mice. While 129/Sv mice with a remnant kidney showed decreased renal ATRAP expression and developed hypertension, C57BL/6 mice exhibited increased renal ATRAP expression and resistance to progressive hypertension...
January 4, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078312/biallelic-scn10a-mutations-in-neuromuscular-disease-and-epileptic-encephalopathy
#18
Marios Kambouris, Julien Thevenon, Ariane Soldatos, Allison Cox, Joshi Stephen, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Yasser Al-Sarraj, Hala Boulos, William Bone, James C Mullikin, Alice Masurel-Paulet, Judith St-Onge, Yannis Dufford, Corrine Chantegret, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Jamil Al-Alami, Laurence Faivre, Jean Baptiste Riviere, William A Gahl, Alexander G Bassuk, May Christine V Malicdan, Hatem El-Shanti
OBJECTIVES: Two consanguineous families, one of Sudanese ethnicity presenting progressive neuromuscular disease, severe cognitive impairment, muscle weakness, upper motor neuron lesion, anhydrosis, facial dysmorphism, and recurrent seizures and the other of Egyptian ethnicity presenting with neonatal hypotonia, bradycardia, and recurrent seizures, were evaluated for the causative gene mutation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing (WES) identified damaging homozygous variants in SCN10A, namely c...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076964/trigeminal-neuralgia-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
Stine Maarbjerg, Giulia Di Stefano, Lars Bendtsen, Giorgio Cruccu
Introduction Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by touch-evoked unilateral brief shock-like paroxysmal pain in one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve. In addition to the paroxysmal pain, some patients also have continuous pain. TN is divided into classical TN (CTN) and secondary TN (STN). Etiology and pathophysiology Demyelination of primary sensory trigeminal afferents in the root entry zone is the predominant pathophysiological mechanism. Most likely, demyelination paves the way for generation of ectopic impulses and ephaptic crosstalk...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076808/spatiotemporal-modeling-of-triggering-and-amplifying-pathways-in-glp-1-secreting-intestinal-l-cells
#20
Alessia Tagliavini, Morten Gram Pedersen
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted by intestinal L-cells, and augments glucose-induced insulin secretion, thus playing an important role in glucose control. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still incompletely understood and a topic of debate. It is known that GLP-1 secreting cells can sense glucose to promote electrical activity either by the electrogenic sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT1, or by closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels after glucose metabolism. Glucose also has an effect on GLP-1 secretion downstream of electrical activity...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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