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rebalanced hemostasis

Songwen Ju, Yan Ge, Ping Li, Xinxin Tian, Haiyan Wang, Xiaocui Zheng, Songguang Ju
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a chronic intestinal inflammation and tissue destruction via an aberrant immune-driven inflammatory response towards an altered gut microbiota. Dietary intervention is becoming an attractive avenue for the therapy of colitis because diet is a key determinant of the mucosal immune response. Quercetin (QCN) is the most common in nature and the major representative of dietary antioxidant flavonoids, which has been demonstrated to influence the progression of colitis...
October 4, 2017: Cell Cycle
Nick S Nielsen, Sofie Jespersen, Julie C Gaardbo, Caroline J Arnbjerg, Mette R Clausen, Mette Kjær, Jan Gerstoft, Vibe Ballegaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Susanne D Nielsen
Increased risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and bleeding has been found in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, and a re-balanced hemostasis has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate functional whole blood coagulation and platelet function in CHC infection. The prospective study included 82 patients with CHC infection (39 with advanced liver fibrosis and 43 with no or mild liver fibrosis) and 39 healthy controls. A total of 33 patients were treated for CHC infection and achieved sustained virological response (SVR)...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Romy M W Kremers, Marie-Claire Kleinegris, Marisa Ninivaggi, Bas de Laat, Hugo Ten Cate, Ger H Koek, Rob J Wagenvoord, H Coenraad Hemker
Impaired coagulation factor synthesis in cirrhosis causes a reduction of most pro- and anticoagulant factors. Cirrhosis patients show no clear bleeding or thrombotic phenotype, although they are at risk for both types of hemostatic event. Thrombin generation (TG) is a global coagulation test and its outcome depends on underlying pro- and anticoagulant processes (prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation). We quantified the prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation during TG in 30 healthy subjects and 52 Child-Pugh (CP-) A, 15 CP-B and 6 CP-C cirrhosis patients to test the hypothesis that coagulation is rebalanced in liver cirrhosis patients...
2017: PloS One
Filippo Leonardi, Nicola De Maria, Erica Villa
The liver plays a crucial role in coagulation cascade. Global hemostatic process is profoundly influenced by the presence of liver disease and its complications. Patients with cirrhosis have impaired synthesis of most of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis process due to a reduced liver function and altered platelet count secondary to portal hypertension. Altered routine tests and thrombocytopenia were considered in the past as associated with increased risk of bleeding. These concepts explain both the routine use of plasma and/or platelets transfusion in patients with liver cirrhosis, especially before invasive procedures, and why these patients were considered "auto-anticoagulated"...
March 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Zachary Henry, Patrick G Northup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Anesthesiology Clinics
Armando Tripodi
Acute and chronic liver diseases have long been considered prototypes of acquired hemorrhagic diseases. Over the last decade, evidence stemming from the laboratory bench and clinical practice has indicated that hemostasis abnormalities, until recently considered as the cause of bleeding in these conditions, are rebalanced to normal despite the abnormal results of the hemostasis tests such as prothrombin time and platelet counts. Consequently, the commonly used therapeutic approach-the infusion of plasma, platelets, or other prohemostatic agents-are not biologically plausible and should be reconsidered...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Yao Lu, Guixiang Sun, Xiangfu Liu, Zhiguo Liu, Jianguo Tan, Yiwen Hao, Guiqiu Shan, Qun Luo, Deqing Wang, Yanchao Xing, Xianqing Zhang, Jiwu Gong, Simon J Stanworth, Jun Wang, Aiqing Wen
Patients with cirrhosis used to be associated with frequent use of blood components because of their complex disorder of hemostasis and bleeding complications. Recent findings have indicated that patients with cirrhosis have a state of "rebalanced" or even procoagulant hemostasis and have questioned the prophylactic use of plasma. To evaluate the current status of plasma use in patients with cirrhosis, we conducted a retrospective survey in 11 tertiary-care hospitals in China from September 1 to October 31, 2013...
April 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Melanie Deutsch, John Koskinas
The liver represents the site of synthesis of most procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, fibrinolytic proteins and thrombopoetin while being also involved in the clearance of hemostatic and fibrinolyic proteins. Therefore in patients with liver insufficiency a great variety of disturbances can be documented resulting however in a new "rebalanced" hemostatic system with a labile equilibrium between thromboses or bleeding. Interestingly patients with liver insufficiency may present with arterial or venous thrombotic episodes requiring antiplatelet and/or antithrombotic therapy despite low platelet count or prolonged INR...
December 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Moniba Nazeef, John P Sheehan
Hemophilia B is an X-linked genetic deficiency of coagulation factor IX (FIX) activity associated with recurrent deep tissue and joint bleeding that may lead to long-term disability. FIX replacement therapy using plasma-derived protein or recombinant protein has significantly reduced bleeding and disability from hemophilia B, particularly when used in a prophylactic fashion. Although modern factor replacement has excellent efficacy and safety, barriers to the broader use of prophylaxis remain, including the need for intravenous (IV) access, frequent dosing, variability in individual pharmacokinetics, and cost...
2016: Journal of Blood Medicine
A K Kopec, N Joshi, J P Luyendyk
Chronic liver damage is associated with unique changes in the hemostatic system. Patients with liver disease often show a precariously rebalanced hemostatic system, which is easily tipped towards bleeding or thrombotic complications by otherwise benign stimuli. In addition, some clinical studies have shown that hemostatic system components contribute to the progression of liver disease. There is a strong basic science foundation for clinical studies with this particular focus. Chronic and acute liver disease can be modeled in rodents and large animals with a variety of approaches, which span chronic exposure to toxic xenobiotics, diet-induced obesity, and surgical intervention...
July 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Rupesh Rajani, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Patients with acute and chronic liver disease have a rebalanced hemostasis, i.e. these patients have an increased tendency for both bleeding and thrombosis.Bleeding is primarily related to portal hypertension, rather than a defective hemostasis. There are well-established clinical guidelines for the management of patients with liver cirrhosis and variceal bleeding.Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with liver cirrhosis. The treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis and venous thrombosis is not well documented...
March 15, 2016: Läkartidningen
Mirco Nacoti, Davide Corbella, Francesco Fazzi, Francesca Rapido, Ezio Bonanomi
Bleeding and coagulopathy are critical issues complicating pediatric liver transplantation and contributing to morbidity and mortality in the cirrhotic child. The complexity of coagulopathy in the pediatric patient is illustrated by the interaction between three basic models. The first model, "developmental hemostasis", demonstrates how a different balance between pro- and anticoagulation factors leads to a normal hemostatic capacity in the pediatric patient at various ages. The second, the "cell based model of coagulation", takes into account the interaction between plasma proteins and cells...
February 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Matthias Hartmann, Cynthia Szalai, Fuat H Saner
Recent findings in the pathophysiology and monitoring of hemostasis in patients with end stage liver disease have major impact on coagulation management during liver transplantation. There is increasing evidence, that the changes in both coagulation factors and platelet count regularly observed in patients with liver cirrhosis cannot be interpreted as a reliable indicator of diffuse bleeding risk. Instead, a differentiated view on hemostasis has led to the concept of a rebalanced coagulation system: While it is important to recognize that procoagulant factors are reduced in liver cirrhosis, it is also evident that synthesis of anticoagulant factors and fibrinolytic proteins produced in the liver is also diminished...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Massimo Primignani, Giulia Tosetti, Vincenzo La Mura
Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a frequent complication in cirrhosis, particularly in advanced stages of the disease. As for general venous thromboembolism, risk factors for PVT are slow blood flow, vessel wall damage and hypercoagulability, all features of advanced cirrhosis. Actually, the old dogma of a hemorrhagic tendency in cirrhosis has been challenged by new laboratory tools and the clinical evidence that venous thrombosis also occurs in cirrhosis. The impaired hepatic synthesis of both pro- and anticoagulants leads to a rebalanced hemostasis, more liable to be tipped towards thrombosis or even bleeding...
December 18, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
Jody L Kujovich
Liver disease results in complex alterations of all 3 phases of hemostasis. It is now recognized that hemostasis is rebalanced in chronic liver disease. The fall in clotting factor levels is accompanied by a parallel fall in anticoagulant proteins. High von Willebrand factor levels counteract defects in primary hemostasis. Conventional coagulation tests do not fully reflect the derangement in hemostasis and do not accurately predict the risk of bleeding. Global coagulation assays (thrombin generation, thromboelastography) reflect the interaction between procoagulant factors, anticoagulant factors, platelets, and the fibrinolytic system and show promise for assessing bleeding risk and guiding therapy...
2015: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Manoj Lakhotia, Hans Raj Pahadiya, Ronak Gandhi, Shashank Bhansali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Annals of Hematology
Kryssia Isabel Rodríguez-Castro, Alessandro Antonello, Alberto Ferrarese
The more modern and accurate concept of a rebalanced hemostatic status in cirrhosis is slowly replacing the traditional belief of patients with cirrhosis being "auto-anticoagulated", prone only to bleeding complications, and protected from thrombotic events. With greater attention to clinical thrombotic events, their impact on the natural history of cirrhosis, and with the emergence and increased use of point-of-care and global assays, it is now understood that cirrhosis results in profound hemostatic alterations that can lead to thrombosis as well as to bleeding complications...
July 18, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
Armando Tripodi
Cirrhosis presents with decreased procoagulant factors as a consequence of the impaired synthetic capacity of the liver. This was taken as evidence to explain the abnormalities of the coagulation tests prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and the bleeding events that occur in these patients. It was for long time (and probably is still) common practice to test patients with the PT and to treat those with predefined (but arbitrary) cutoff values with plasma or prohemostatic agents to prevent or stop bleeding...
July 2015: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Lara N Roberts, William Bernal
Bleeding frequently complicates end-stage chronic liver disease, and may follow procedures which are required for effective care of patients with liver failure. Thrombosis is increasingly recognized as common, important, and potentially preventable. Standard laboratory tests may not be useful in predicting bleeding or thrombotic risk or guiding therapy, and functional testing serves a more useful role. A state of rebalanced hemostasis exists in many patients, with hypocoagulability present only in a minority...
July 2015: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Susan V Mallett
The concept that patients with stable liver disease are at an increased risk of bleeding, based solely on abnormalities of conventional coagulation tests such as prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR), is now recognized to be an overly simplistic interpretation of an extremely complex situation. These tests are in fact very poor predictors of bleeding in patients with liver disease who undergo invasive or surgical procedures. Commercially available whole blood viscoelastic tests (thromboelastography [TEG] and thromboelastometry [ROTEM]) evaluate the kinetics of coagulation from initial clot formation to final clot strength...
July 2015: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
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