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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332933/epigenetics-h3k27me3-in-glomerular-disease
#1
Susan J Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331887/idh1r132h-promotes-malignant-transformation-of-benign-prostatic-epithelium-by-dysregulating-micrornas-involvement-of-igf1r-akt-stat3-signaling-pathway
#2
Lili Zhang, Mei Qi, Tingting Feng, Jing Hu, Lin Wang, Xinjun Li, Wei Gao, Hui Liu, Meng Jiao, Zhen Wu, Xinnuo Bai, Yifan Bie, Long Liu, Bo Han
Risk stratification using molecular features could potentially help distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) acquire an abnormal enzymatic activity, resulting in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate and alterations in cellular metabolism, histone modification, and DNA methylation. Mutant IDH1 has been identified in various human malignancies, and IDH1R132H constituted the vast majority of mutational events of IDH1. Most recent studies suggested that IDH1 mutations define a methylator subtype in PCa...
January 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330200/pwwp-domain-interactor-of-polycombs11-interacts-with-polycomb-group-proteins-and-histones-and-regulates-arabidopsis-flowering-and-development
#3
Mareike L Hohenstatt, Pawel Mikulski, Olga Komarynets, Constanze Klose, Ina Kycia, Albert Jeltsch, Sara Farrona, Daniel Schubert
Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins mediate epigenetic gene regulation by setting H3K27me3 via Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). In plants, it is largely unclear how PcG proteins are recruited to their target genes. Here, we identified the PWWP-DOMAIN INTERACTOR OF POLYCOMBS1 (PWO1) protein, which interacts with all three Arabidopsis thaliana PRC2 histone methyltransferases and is required for maintaining full H3 occupancy at several Arabidopsis genes. PWO1 localizes and recruits CURLY LEAF to nuclear speckles in Nicotiana benthamiana nuclei, suggesting a role in spatial organization of PcG regulation...
January 12, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326042/keratin-13-gene-is-epigenetically-suppressed-during-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-a-human-keratinocyte-cell-line
#4
Mitsutoki Hatta, Yuki Miyake, Kunitoshi Uchida, Jun Yamazaki
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological event in which epithelial cells lose their polarity and cell-cell adhesions and concomitantly acquire mesenchymal traits, and is thought to play an important role in pathological processes such as wound healing and cancer progression. In this study, we evaluated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-treated human keratinocyte HaCaT cells as an in vitro model of EMT. HaCaT cells were changed into an elongated fibroblast-like morphology, which is indicative of EMT in response to TGF-β1...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323282/mll2-conveys-transcription-independent-h3k4-trimethylation-in-oocytes
#5
Courtney W Hanna, Aaron Taudt, Jiahao Huang, Lenka Gahurova, Andrea Kranz, Simon Andrews, Wendy Dean, A Francis Stewart, Maria Colomé-Tatché, Gavin Kelsey
Histone 3 K4 trimethylation (depositing H3K4me3 marks) is typically associated with active promoters yet paradoxically occurs at untranscribed domains. Research to delineate the mechanisms of targeting H3K4 methyltransferases is ongoing. The oocyte provides an attractive system to investigate these mechanisms, because extensive H3K4me3 acquisition occurs in nondividing cells. We developed low-input chromatin immunoprecipitation to interrogate H3K4me3, H3K27ac and H3K27me3 marks throughout oogenesis. In nongrowing oocytes, H3K4me3 was restricted to active promoters, but as oogenesis progressed, H3K4me3 accumulated in a transcription-independent manner and was targeted to intergenic regions, putative enhancers and silent H3K27me3-marked promoters...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321178/transcription-factor-dependent-anti-repressive-mammalian-enhancers-exclude-h3k27me3-from-extended-genomic-domains
#6
Madhurima Saxena, Adrianna K San Roman, Nicholas K O'Neill, Rita Sulahian, Unmesh Jadhav, Ramesh A Shivdasani
Compacted chromatin and nucleosomes are known barriers to gene expression; the nature and relative importance of other transcriptional constraints remain unclear, especially at distant enhancers. Polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) places the histone mark H3K27me3 predominantly at promoters, where its silencing activity is well documented. In adult tissues, enhancers lack H3K27me3, and it is unknown whether intergenic H3K27me3 deposits affect nearby genes. In primary intestinal villus cells, we identified hundreds of tissue-restricted enhancers that require the transcription factor (TF) CDX2 to prevent the incursion of H3K27me3 from adjoining areas of elevated basal marking into large well-demarcated genome domains...
January 10, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321036/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-inhalation-during-gestation-alters-the-fetal-transcriptome
#7
P A Stapleton, Q A Hathaway, C E Nichols, A B Abukabda, M V Pinti, D L Shepherd, C R McBride, J Yi, V C Castranova, J M Hollander, T R Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation...
January 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316949/ezh2-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-through-modulating-mir-22-galectin-9-axis
#8
Shaofei Chen, Jiarui Pu, Jie Bai, Yuping Yin, Ke Wu, Jiliang Wang, Xiaoming Shuai, Jinbo Gao, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang, Hang Li
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced galectin-9 expression in Kupffer cells plays an essential role in modulatingthe microenvironment of hepatitis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether or not IFN-γ induces galectin-9 expression in HCC cells, its biological role and regulatory mechanism in HCC development and progression are poorly defined. METHODS: Quantitative PCR and western blotting analysis were used to detect galectin-9 and EZH2 levels in HCC cell lines stimulated with IFN-γ...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314414/an-ortholog-of-curly-leaf-enhancer-of-zeste-like-1-is-required-for-proper-flowering-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#9
Aaron Lomax, Daniel P Woods, Yinxin Dong, Frédéric Bouché, Ying Rong, Kevin S Mayer, Xuehua Zhong, Richard M Amasino
Many plants require prolonged cold exposure to acquire the competence to flower. The process by which cold exposure results in competence is known as vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, vernalization leads to the stable repression of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C via chromatin modification including an increase of trimethylation on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). Vernalization in pooids is associated with the stable induction of a floral promoter, VERNALIZATION 1...
January 4, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310022/loss-of-eed-leads-to-lineage-instability-and-increased-cd8-expression-of-mouse-cd4-t-cells-upon-tgf%C3%AE-signaling
#10
Taku Naito, Sawako Muroi, Ichiro Taniuchi, Motonari Kondo
Tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) is a repressive epigenetic modification catalyzed by polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that is required for proper cell fate determination as well as cellular function. Numerous studies have been performed to elucidate the role of PRC2 in T-cell differentiation and function; however, its role in the regulation of T-helper (Th) subset differentiation and identity has not been fully explored. Here, we report that Eed, an essential subunit of PRC2, is crucial to maintain the identity of CD4+ T cells under TGFβ-induced regulatory T cell (Treg)-polarizing conditions...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309298/clarifying-the-distinction-between-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-and-dedifferentiated-liposarcoma-a-critical-reappraisal-of-the-diagnostic-utility-of-mdm2-and-h3k27me3-status
#11
Naohiro Makise, Masaya Sekimizu, Takashi Kubo, Susumu Wakai, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Motokiyo Komiyama, Masashi Fukayama, Akira Kawai, Hitoshi Ichikawa, Akihiko Yoshida
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) are 2 major types of pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma. The differentiation of MPNST and DDLPS by histomorphology alone can be problematic. Although MDM2 amplification and PRC2 alteration leading to H3K27me3 deficiency are genetic hallmarks of DDLPS and MPNST, respectively, a small number of MDM2-amplified MPNSTs and H3K27me3-deficient DDLPSs have been reported in the literature. We systematically compared MDM2 and H3K27me3 status in 68 MPNSTs and 47 DDLPSs...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303998/linking-dna-damage-and-age-related-promoter-dna-hyper-methylation-in-the-intestine
#12
Torsten Thalheim, Maria Herberg, Joerg Galle
Aberrant DNA methylation in stem cells is a hallmark of aging and tumor development. Here, we explore whether and how DNA damage repair might impact on these time-dependent changes, in particular in proliferative intestinal stem cells. We introduce a 3D multiscale computer model of intestinal crypts enabling simulation of aberrant DNA and histone methylation of gene promoters during aging. We assume histone state-dependent activity of de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylation-dependent binding of maintenance DNMTs to CpGs...
January 5, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301935/-inhibition-of-histone-h3k27-demethylase-selectively-modulates-inflammatory-phenotypes-of-natural-killer-cells
#13
Adam Cribbs, Edward S Hookway, Graham Wells, Morten Lindow, Susanna Obad, Henrik Oerum, Rab K Prinjha, Nick Athanasou, Aneka Sowman, Martin Philpott, Henry Penn, Kalle Soderstrom, Marc Feldmann, Udo Oppermann
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes, important in immune surveillance and elimination of stressed, transformed, or virus-infected cells. They critically shape the inflammatory cytokine environment to orchestrate interactions of cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Some studies have reported that NK cell activation and cytokine secretion are controlled epigenetically, but have yielded only limited insight into the mechanisms. Using chemical screening with small-molecule inhibitors of chromatin methylation and acetylation, further validated by knockdown approaches, we here identified Jumonji-type histone H3K27 demethylases as key regulators of cytokine production in human NK cell subsets...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301062/regulatory-roles-of-histone-deacetylases-1-and-2-in-pb-induced-neurotoxicity
#14
Yulan Wu, Yi Xu, Xiyao Huang, Danlei Ye, Miaomiao Han, Hui-Li Wang
Lead (Pb) prevails among the environmental hazards against human health. Although increasing evidence highlights the epigenetic roles underlying the Pb-induced neurotoxicity, the exact mechanisms concerning histone acetylation and its causative agents are still at its infancy. In the present study, the roles of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), as well as histone H3 Lys9 acetylation (Ac-H3K9), in Pb-induced neurotoxicity were investigated. Pb was administered to PC12 cells at 10 μM for 24 hours. And Sprague- Dawley rats were chronically exposed to Pb through drinking water containing 250 ppm Pb for 2 months...
January 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290968/inhibition-of-ezh2-triggers-the-tumor-suppressive-mir-29b-network-in-multiple-myeloma
#15
Maria Angelica Stamato, Giada Juli, Enrica Romeo, Domenica Ronchetti, Mariamena Arbitrio, Daniele Caracciolo, Antonino Neri, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Nicola Amodio
Downregulation of tumor suppressor (TS) microRNAs (miRNAs) commonly occurs in human cancer, including multiple myeloma (MM). We previously demonstrated that miR-29b is a relevant TS miRNA, whose expression in MM cells is inhibited by HDAC4-dependent deacetylation. Here, we provide novel insights into epigenetic mechanisms suppressing miR-29b in MM. In MM patient-derived plasma cells, we found inverse correlation between miR-29b and EZH2 mRNA expression. Both siRNAs and pharmacologic inhibitors of EZH2 led to miR-29b upregulation, and this effect was ascribed to reduced H3K27-trimethylation (H3K27me3) of miR-29a/b-1 promoter regions...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289837/double-sword-role-of-ezh2-in-leukemia
#16
REVIEW
Sahar Safaei, Behzad Baradaran, Majid Farshdousti Hagh, Mohammad Reza Alivand, Mehdi Talebi, Tohid Gharibi, Saeed Solali
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the core component of the polycomb group complex, plays a major role in normal hematopoiesis. The molecular function of EZH2 is to establish H3K27me3 mark on specific genes by which promotes transcriptional repression of target genes. The activity of EZH2 affects the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, EZH2 contributes to the cell cycle regulation in mature lymphocytes. A large number of studies have been performed to identify the implication of EZH2 in tumor development of leukemia...
December 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289671/melatonin-protects-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells-against-hexavalent-chromium-induced-apoptosis-and-epigenetic-histone-modification
#17
Yinghua Lv, Pengfei Zhang, Jiayin Guo, Zhendong Zhu, Xueliang Li, Dazhong Xu, Wenxian Zeng
Given the potential biological functions of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in spermatogenesis and in delivering parental genetic information to the next generation, how these cells respond to environmental toxins and carcinogens should be investigated. We examined the toxic effect of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) on global histone modifications and apoptotic signaling pathways in SSCs. We determined the effect of melatonin, one of the most powerful endogenous free radical scavengers and wide-spectrum antioxidants, in protecting SSCs from Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis and global histone modification by Western blot analysis...
December 28, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288153/l1-retrotransposon-antisense-rna-within-asar-lncrnas-controls-chromosome-wide-replication-timing
#18
Emily J Platt, Leslie Smith, Mathew J Thayer
Mammalian cells replicate their chromosomes via a temporal replication program. The ASAR6 and ASAR15 genes were identified as loci that when disrupted result in delayed replication and condensation of entire human chromosomes. ASAR6 and ASAR15 are monoallelically expressed long noncoding RNAs that remain associated with the chromosome from which they are transcribed. The chromosome-wide effects of ASAR6 map to the antisense strand of an L1 retrotransposon within ASAR6 RNA, deletion or inversion of which delayed replication of human chromosome 6...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280310/osteogenic-stimulation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-a-fungal-metabolite-that-suppresses-the-polycomb-group-protein-ezh2
#19
Rebekah M Samsonraj, Amel Dudakovic, Bushra Manzar, Buer Sen, Allan B Dietz, Simon M Cool, Janet Rubin, Andre J van Wijnen
Strategies for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration apply adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that can be sourced from bone marrow- and lipo-aspirates. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs are more easily harvested in the large quantities required for skeletal tissue-engineering approaches, but are generally considered to be less osteogenic than bone marrow MSCs. Therefore, we tested a new molecular strategy to improve their osteogenic lineage-differentiation potential using the fungal metabolite cytochalasin D (CytoD)...
December 27, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261844/crosstalk-between-histone-and-dna-methylation-in-regulation-of-retinal-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-diabetes
#20
Arul J Duraisamy, Manish Mishra, Renu A Kowluru
Purpose: Diabetes activates matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and MMP-9 via damaging retinal mitochondria, activates capillary cell apoptosis. MMP-9 promoter has binding sites for many transcription factors, and in diabetes its promoter undergoes epigenetic modifications, including histone modifications and DNA methylation. Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), which catalyzes dimethylation/trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2 and me3), is also associated with DNA methylation...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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