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H3K27me3

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634045/egfr-egfrviii-remodels-the-cytoskeleton-via-epigenetic-silencing-of-ajap1-in-glioma-cells
#1
Chao Yang, Yan-Sheng Li, Qi-Xue Wang, Kai Huang, Jian-Wei Wei, Yun-Fei Wang, Jun-Hu Zhou, Kai-Kai Yi, Kai-Liang Zhang, Bing-Cong Zhou, Cong Liu, Liang Zeng, Chun-Sheng Kang
EGFR amplification and mutations are the most common oncogenic events in GBM. EGFR overexpression correlates with GBM invasion, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In a previous study, we showed that AJAP1 is involved in regulating F-actin to inhibit the invasive ability of GBM. In addition, in a GBM cell line, the AJAP1 promoter was highly bound by H3K27me3 and, through bioinformatics analysis, we found that AJAP1 expression was negatively correlated with EGFR. In this study, we found that the pathway downstream of EGFR had a higher activation level in GBM cell lines, which led to excessive tumor suppressor silencing...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630280/ki-67-contributes-to-normal-cell-cycle-progression-and-inactive-x-heterochromatin-in-p21-checkpoint-proficient-human-cells
#2
Xiaoming Sun, Aizhan Bizhanova, Timothy D Matheson, Jun Yu, Julie L Zhu, Paul D Kaufman
Ki-67 protein is widely used as a tumor proliferation marker. However, whether Ki-67 affects cell cycle progression has been controversial. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of Ki-67 in human hTERT-RPE1, WI-38, IMR90, hTERT-BJ cell lines and primary fibroblast cells slowed entry into S phase and coordinately downregulated genes related to DNA replication. Some gene expression changes were partially relieved in Ki-67-depleted hTERT-RPE1 cells by co-depletion of the Rb checkpoint protein, but more thorough suppression of the transcriptional and cell cycle defects was observed upon depletion of cell cycle inhibitor p21...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628228/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model-for-schizophrenia
#3
Yelena Gulchina, Song-Jun Xu, Melissa A Snyder, Felice Elefant, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized not only by psychosis, but also by working memory and executive functioning deficiencies, processes that rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Because these cognitive impairments emerge prior to psychosis onset, we investigated synaptic function during development in the neurodevelopmental methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model for SCZ. Specifically, we hypothesize that NMDAR hypofunction is attributable to reductions in the NR2B subunit through aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression, resulting in deficient synaptic physiology and PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction, a hallmark of SCZ...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620234/ezh2-mediated-epigenetic-silencing-of-timp2-promotes-ovarian-cancer-migration-and-invasion
#4
Xiaoqing Yi, Jianfeng Guo, Jing Guo, Si Sun, Ping Yang, Junjie Wang, Yuan Li, Lisha Xie, Jing Cai, Zehua Wang
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is often increased in malignant tumors and is involved in metastasis. EZH2 silences gene expression by tri-methylating the lysine 27 residue of histone H3 (H3K27me3). However, the mechanism underlying EZH2 promotion of ovarian cancer metastasis remains elusive. Here, we showed that EZH2 is up-regulated in ovarian cancer and is associated with tumor metastasis and poor survival by mRNA sequencing and microarray results from databases. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry results revealed that EZH2 was negatively correlated with the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2)...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620206/analysis-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-specific-genes-and-their-histone-modification-using-hes1-promoter-driven-egfp-expressing-mouse
#5
Kazuko Ueno, Toshiro Iwagawa, Genki Ochiai, Hideto Koso, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masao Nagasaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumiko Watanabe
Retinal neurons and Müller glia are generated from a common population of multipotent retinal progenitor cells. We purposed to identify Müller glia-specific molecular signatures during retinal development. Using transgenic mice carrying the Hes1 promoter (pHes1) followed by EGFP, we purified EGFP-positive Müller glia and other EGFP-negative retinal cells from developing retinas and subjected them to RNA sequencing analysis. Gene expression pattern of EGFP-positive cell was similar to genes expressed in retinal progenitors, and they were downregulated in other cell lineages...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612962/amygdalar-expression-of-the-microrna-mir-101a-and-its-target-ezh2-contribute-to-rodent-anxiety-like-behavior
#6
Joshua L Cohen, Nateka L Jackson, Mary E Ballestas, William M Webb, Farah D Lubin, Sarah M Clinton
A greater understanding of neural mechanisms contributing to anxiety is needed in order to develop better therapeutic interventions. The current study interrogates a novel molecular mechanism that shapes anxiety-like behavior, demonstrating that the microRNA miR-101a-3p and its target, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) in the amygdala, contribute to rodent anxiety-like behavior. We utilized rats that were selectively-bred for differences in emotionality and stress reactivity, showing that high novelty responding (HR) rats, which display low trait anxiety, have lower miR-101a-3p levels in the amygdala compared to low novelty responding (LR) rats that characteristically display high trait anxiety...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611454/integrated-analysis-and-transcript-abundance-modelling-of-h3k4me3-and-h3k27me3-in-developing-secondary-xylem
#7
Steven G Hussey, Mattheus T Loots, Karen van der Merwe, Eshchar Mizrachi, Alexander A Myburg
Despite the considerable contribution of xylem development (xylogenesis) to plant biomass accumulation, its epigenetic regulation is poorly understood. Furthermore, the relative contributions of histone modifications to transcriptional regulation is not well studied in plants. We investigated the biological relevance of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in secondary xylem development using ChIP-seq and their association with transcript levels among other histone modifications in woody and herbaceous models. In developing secondary xylem of the woody model Eucalyptus grandis, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 genomic spans were distinctly associated with xylogenesis-related processes, with (late) lignification pathways enriched for putative bivalent domains, but not early secondary cell wall polysaccharide deposition...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607149/polycomb-repressive-complex-2-in-an-autoinhibited-state
#8
Matthew Bratkowski, Xin Yang, Xin Liu
Polycomb-group proteins control many fundamental biological processes, such as anatomical development in mammals and vernalization in plants. Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is responsible for methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), and trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) is implicated in epigenetic gene silencing. Recent genomic, biochemical, and structural data indicate that PRC2 is broadly conserved from yeast to human in many aspects. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an apo PRC2 from the fungus Chaetomium thermophilum captured in a bona fide autoinhibited state, which represents a novel conformation of PRC2 associated with enzyme regulation in light of the basal and stimulated states that we reported previously...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604718/the-transcription-factor-runx3-guards-cytotoxic-cd8-effector-t-cells-against-deviation-towards-follicular-helper-t-cell-lineage
#9
Qiang Shan, Zhouhao Zeng, Shaojun Xing, Fengyin Li, Stacey M Hartwig, Jodi A Gullicksrud, Samarchith P Kurup, Natalija Van Braeckel-Budimir, Yao Su, Matthew D Martin, Steven M Varga, Ichiro Taniuchi, John T Harty, Weiqun Peng, Vladimir P Badovinac, Hai-Hui Xue
Activated CD8(+) T cells differentiate into cytotoxic effector (TEFF) cells that eliminate target cells. How TEFF cell identity is established and maintained is not fully understood. We found that Runx3 deficiency limited clonal expansion and impaired upregulation of cytotoxic molecules in TEFF cells. Runx3-deficient CD8(+) TEFF cells aberrantly upregulated genes characteristic of follicular helper T (TFH) cell lineage, including Bcl6, Tcf7 and Cxcr5. Mechanistically, the Runx3-CBFβ transcription factor complex deployed H3K27me3 to Bcl6 and Tcf7 genes to suppress the TFH program...
June 12, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595999/p63-transcription-factor-regulates-nuclear-shape-and-expression-of-nuclear-envelope-associated-genes-in-epidermal-keratinocytes
#10
Valentina Rapisarda, Igor Malashchuk, Inemo E Asamaowei, Krzysztof Poterlowicz, Michael Y Fessing, Andrey A Sharov, Iakowos Karakesisoglou, Vladimir A Botchkarev, Andrei Mardaryev
The maintenance of a proper nuclear architecture and 3D organization of the genes, enhancer elements and transcription machinery plays an essential role in tissue development and regeneration. Here we show that in the developing skin, epidermal progenitor cells of mice lacking p63 transcription factor display alterations in the nuclear shape accompanied by marked decrease in expression of several nuclear envelop-associated components (Lamin B1, Lamin A/C, SUN1, Nesprin-3, Plectin) compared to controls. Furthermore, ChIP-qPCR assay showed enrichment of p63 on Sun1, Syne3 and Plec promoters, suggesting them as p63 targets...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592995/the-quest-for-epigenetic-regulation-underlying-unisexual-flower-development-in-cucumis-melo
#11
David Latrasse, Natalia Y Rodriguez-Granados, Alaguraj Veluchamy, Kiruthiga Gayathri Mariappan, Claudia Bevilacqua, Nicolas Crapart, Celine Camps, Vivien Sommard, Cécile Raynaud, Catherine Dogimont, Adnane Boualem, Moussa Benhamed, Abdelhafid Bendahmane
BACKGROUND: Melon (Cucumis melo) is an important vegetable crop from the Cucurbitaceae family and a reference model specie for sex determination, fruit ripening and vascular fluxes studies. Nevertheless, the nature and role of its epigenome in gene expression regulation and more specifically in sex determination remains largely unknown. RESULTS: We have investigated genome wide H3K27me3 and H3K9ac histone modifications and gene expression dynamics, in five melon organs...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588584/protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-inhibition-upregulates-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-frequency-and-function-during-the-ulcerative-colitis
#12
Yingxia Zheng, Liya Huang, Wensong Ge, Ming Yang, Yanhui Ma, Guohua Xie, Weiwei Wang, Bingxian Bian, Li Li, Hong Nie, Lisong Shen
Ulcerative colitis (UC) pathogenesis is related to imbalance of immune responses, and the equilibrium between inflammatory T cells and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plays an important role in the intestinal homeostasis. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) regulate chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of PRMTs affects colitis pathogenesis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease patients and further explored the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we found that protein arginine N-methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1) treatments increased Tregs frequency, function, and reduced colitis incidence...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584114/establishment-of-a-vernalization-requirement-in-brachypodium-distachyon-requires-repressor-of-vernalization1
#13
Daniel P Woods, Thomas S Ream, Frédéric Bouché, Joohyun Lee, Nicholas Thrower, Curtis Wilkerson, Richard M Amasino
A requirement for vernalization, the process by which prolonged cold exposure provides competence to flower, is an important adaptation to temperate climates that ensures flowering does not occur before the onset of winter. In temperate grasses, vernalization results in the up-regulation of VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) to establish competence to flower; however, little is known about the mechanism underlying repression of VRN1 in the fall season, which is necessary to establish a vernalization requirement. Here, we report that a plant-specific gene containing a bromo-adjacent homology and transcriptional elongation factor S-II domain, which we named REPRESSOR OF VERNALIZATION1 (RVR1), represses VRN1 before vernalization in Brachypodium distachyon That RVR1 is upstream of VRN1 is supported by the observations that VRN1 is precociously elevated in an rvr1 mutant, resulting in rapid flowering without cold exposure, and the rapid-flowering rvr1 phenotype is dependent on VRN1 The precocious VRN1 expression in rvr1 is associated with reduced levels of the repressive chromatin modification H3K27me3 at VRN1, which is similar to the reduced VRN1 H3K27me3 in vernalized plants...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582417/genome-wide-alteration-in-dna-hydroxymethylation-in-the-sperm-from-bisphenol-a-exposed-men
#14
Huajun Zheng, Xiaoyu Zhou, De-Kun Li, Fen Yang, Hongjie Pan, Tianqi Li, Maohua Miao, Runsheng Li, Wei Yuan
Environmental BPA exposure has been shown to impact human sperm concentration and motility, as well as rodent spermatogenesis. However, it is unclear whether BPA exposure is associated with alteration in DNA hydroxymethylation, a marker for epigenetic modification, in human sperm. A genome-wide DNA hydroxymethylation study was performed using sperm samples of men who were occupationally exposed to BPA. Compared with controls who had no occupational BPA exposure, the total levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmc) increased significantly (19...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561778/ezh2-in-cancer-progression-and-potential-application-in-cancer-therapy-a-friend-or-foe
#15
REVIEW
Ke-Sin Yan, Chia-Yuan Lin, Tan-Wei Liao, Cheng-Ming Peng, Shou-Chun Lee, Yi-Jui Liu, Wing P Chan, Ruey-Hwang Chou
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase, catalyzes tri-methylation of histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3K27me3) to regulate gene expression through epigenetic machinery. EZH2 functions as a double-facet molecule in regulation of gene expression via repression or activation mechanisms, depending on the different cellular contexts. EZH2 interacts with both histone and non-histone proteins to modulate diverse physiological functions including cancer progression and malignancy. In this review article, we focused on the updated information regarding microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulation of EZH2, the oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles of EZH2 in cancer progression and malignancy, as well as current pre-clinical and clinical trials of EZH2 inhibitors...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554742/immunohistochemical-investigation-of-topoii%C3%AE-h3k27me3-and-jmjd3-expressions-in-medulloblastoma
#16
Jing Chen, Junxia Zhao, Xiaofen Zhou, Shuang Liu, Yongxin Yan, Yanling Wang, Cuili Cao, Shou Han, Najing Zhou, Yannan Xu, Juan Zhao, Yunli Yan, Huixian Cui
Topoisomerase IIβ (topoIIβ) is a nuclear enzyme specifically expressed in neurons, and plays an important role in the development of the cerebellum. To date, the expression of topoIIβ protein in medulloblastoma (MB) has not been investigated. In this study, 16 MB specimens including 10 classical subtypes of MB and 6 desmoplastic subtypes of MB (DMB), along with 5 normal cerebellum samples, were obtained from clinics. With immunohistochemical staining, prominently expressed topoIIβ was seen in normal cerebellar tissues, while there was no or less pronounced staining in classical MB cells...
April 20, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554479/rice-pcg-gene-osemf2b-controls-seed-dormancy-and-seedling-growth-by-regulating-the-expression-of-osvp1
#17
Min Chen, Shiyong Xie, Yidan Ouyang, Jialing Yao
The induction and release of seed dormancy are a precisely regulated process that influences seed germination. ABA promotes seed dormancy but suppresses seed germination and seedling growth. However, how chromatin and epigenetic mechanisms regulate the expression of ABA related genes during these processes remains unclear. Polycomb gene OsEMF2b was required for regulation of seed dormancy and seedling growth by dynamically activating and repressing ABA signal response genes. Downregulation of OsEMF2b led to vivipary and decreased expression level of OsVP1, which was involved in ABA signal pathway in seed dormancy...
July 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551330/histopathologic-evaluation-of-atypical-neurofibromatous-tumors-and-their-transformation-into-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-in-neurofibromatosis-1-patients-a-consensus-overview
#18
Markku M Miettinen, Cristina R Antonescu, Christopher D M Fletcher, Aerang Kim, Alexander J Lazar, Martha M Quezado, Karlyne M Reilly, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Douglas R Stewart, David Viskochil, Brigitte Widemann, Arie Perry
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients develop multiple neurofibromas, with 8-15% of patients experiencing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) during their lifetime. Prediction of transformation, typically from plexiform neurofibroma, is clinically and histologically challenging. In this overview, following a consensus meeting in October 2016, we outline the histopathologic features and molecular mechanisms involved in the malignant trans-formation of neurofibromas. Nuclear atypia alone is generally insignificant...
May 24, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549969/the-dth8-hd1-module-mediates-day-length-dependent-regulation-of-rice-flowering
#19
Anping Du, Wei Tian, Menghao Wei, Wei Yan, Hang He, Da Zhou, Xi Huang, Shigui Li, Xinhao Ouyang
Photoperiodic flowering is one of the most important pathways to govern flowering in rice (Oryza sativa), in which Heading date 1 (Hd1), an ortholog of the Arabidopsis CONSTANS gene, encodes a pivotal regulator. Hd1 promotes flowering under short-day conditions but represses flowering under long-day conditions by regulating the expression of Heading date 3a (Hd3a), the rice FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) ortholog. However, the molecular mechanism by which Hd1 reverses its activity in response to day length is largely unknown...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548932/lncrna-tincr-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-epigenetic-silencing-of-camkii
#20
Mingjing Shao, Guangdong Chen, Fengli Lv, Yanyan Liu, Hongjun Tian, Ran Tao, Ronghuan Jiang, Wei Zhang, Chuanjun Zhuo
In the previous study, we established a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy using transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and found that the expression of long non-coding RNAs TINCR was downregulated in myocardial tissue. The present study was designed to determine the potential role of TINCR in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Our results showed that enforced expression of TINCR could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice. Angiotensin II (Ang-II) was found to be associated with reduced TINCR expression and increased hypertrophy in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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