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Flexor tendon

Anthony John Blazevich
The aim of this mini-review is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of chronic changes in the patterns of muscle use (defined as changes lasting >1 week), including muscle stretching, strengthening and others, on the passive mechanical properties of healthy human skeletal muscles. Various forms of muscle stretch training and some forms of strength training (especially eccentric training) are known to strongly impact the maximum elongation capacity of muscles in vivo (i.e. maximum joint range of motion), largely by increasing our ability to tolerate higher stretch loads...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
John G Skedros, Steven C Su, Alex N Knight, Roy D Bloebaum, Kent N Bachus
Sheep and deer calcanei are finding increased use as models for studies of bone adaptation, including advancing understanding of how the strain (deformation) environment influences the ontogenetic emergence of biomechanically relevant structural and material variations in cortical and trabecular bone. These artiodactyl calcanei seem ideal for these analyses because they function like simply loaded short-cantilevered beams with net compression and tension strains on the dorsal and plantar cortices, respectively...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Cesar de Cesar Netto, Lauren E Roberts, Parke William Hudson, Brent Cone, Bahman Sahranavard, Ibukunoluwa Araoye, Ashish Shah
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the success rate of first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) lateral soft tissue release through a medial transarticular approach. METHODS: Ten cadaveric specimens were used (6 females/4 males, mean age, 73.4years). Lateral release was performed through a 4cm medial approach using a number 15 blade. Surgical aim was to release four specific structures: lateral capsule, lateral collateral ligament (LCL), adductor hallucis tendon (AHT) and lateral metatarsosesamoid suspensory ligament (LMSL)...
October 17, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
A Sukop, P Tichá, M Molitor
Injuries of the flexor finger apparatus are very common. Primarily, it is routinely treated by suture of the tendon. Isolated deep flexor injuries, when the flexion restriction only reaches the DIP joint, are sometimes overlooked by the surgeon or by the patients themselves, especially if the deep flexor is injured, after a closed rupture or cutaneous injury with a small skin wound. The patient is then sent to a department specializing in hand surgery after a few weeks. Subsequent shortening of the tendon apparatus makes flexor suture more difficult or sometimes even impossible...
2018: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
Darby A Houck, Matthew J Kraeutler, Eric C McCarty, Jonathan T Bravman
Background: Fixed- and adjustable-loop femoral cortical suspension devices are commonly used for femoral graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose: To compare the biomechanical results of fixed- versus adjustable-loop femoral cortical suspension devices in studies simulating ACLR with an isolated device and/or specimen setup using porcine femora and bovine flexor tendons. Study Design: Systematic review...
October 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Luisa Perasso, Laura Avanzino, Giovanna Lagravinese, Alessandro Giannini, Emanuela Luisa Faelli, Ambra Bisio, Angelo Quartarone, Vincenzo Rizzo, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove
Tendon vibration of a limb elicits illusory movements in the direction that the vibrated muscle would be stretched, followed by a transient perception of movement in the opposite direction, that was demonstrated to correspond to a "cortical" aftereffect (Goodwin et al. Science 175:1382-1384, 1972). Primary motor cortex (M1) excitability of the non-vibrated antagonist muscle of the vibrated muscle increased during vibration and decreased thereafter. The cortical aftereffect is of interest when considering the possibility to use tendon vibration in rehabilitation for restoring unbalance activity between antagonistic muscles but, due to its short-lasting duration, has not been explored so far...
October 16, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Chunjie Liu, Kunlun Yu, Jiangbo Bai, Dehu Tian, Guoli Liu
The adhesion of tendon and surrounding tissue is the most common complication after repairing an injured tendon. The injured flexor tendons in zone II are frequently accompanied by tendon sheath defects, which lead to poor recovery. A variety of biological and non-biological materials have been recently used for repair or as substitute for tendon sheaths to prevent tendon adhesion. However, non-biological materials, such as polyethylene films, have been used to prevent tendon adhesions by mechanical isolation...
2018: PloS One
Mineyuki Zukawa, Ryusuke Osada, Hiroto Makino, Tomoatsu Kimura
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of the wide-awake tendon reconstruction for chronic rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon with evaluation of the voluntary active contraction distance (ACD) of the ruptured musculotendinous unit. METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients underwent tendon reconstruction under wide-awake surgery for chronic tendon rupture of the FPL. If the total of the passive distraction distance (PDD) and the ACD of the ruptured FPL musculotendinous unit was greater than 30 mm, tendon grafting was performed...
October 10, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Antonio Furlan, Roberto Stramare
PURPOSE: To investigate the frequency of thickening of pulleys for flexor tendons in patients with early arthritis in their hands, and to evaluate it as a predictive sign of PsA. METHODS: A prospective observational study involving 228 consecutive patients presenting with recent onset of arthritis in their hands was conducted at rheumatology outpatient clinics in the Veneto region of Italy between October 2014 and September 2017. Diabetic patients were excluded because of the high frequency of trigger finger...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
Ole Kristian Alhaug, Gøran Berdal, Elisabeth Ellingsen Husebye, Kjetil Hvaal
BACKGROUND: The transfer of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon (FHL) is an established method for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. An extensive examination of power, strength, endurance and complications related to this procedure is presented. METHODS: 21 patients treated with open FHL transfer for chronic Achilles tendon rupture were studied retrospectively. Medical records were reviewed. The patients were examined with a test battery for triceps surae strength, functional tests and PROMs...
July 18, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Harry Whitehouse, Jeffrey C Y Chan, Matthew James
We present a case of spontaneous closed flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon rupture of the fifth finger occurring in the carpal tunnel region (Zone IV) of the hand. A review of literature illustrates that spontaneous rupture of FDP in Zone IV is extremely rare and we wish to highlight this.
2018: Case Reports in Plastic Surgery & Hand Surgery
Paulo de Souza Junior, Lucas Mucci Richter Pereira Dos Santos, Wilson Viotto-Souza, Natan da Cruz de Carvalho, Erick Candiota Souza, Carlos Benhur Kasper, Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
The characteristics of the muscles of the thoracic limb were evaluated in 22 specimens of Lycalopex gymnocercus. Descriptive and comparative analyses showed similarity with other canids in terms of topography and tendon insertions. Differences with the domestic dog were observed in the pectoralis profundus, triceps brachii and interflexorii muscles. Intraspecific variations were observed in the rhomboideus capitis, serratus ventralis cervicis, extensor carpi radialis, extensor digiti I and II, lumbricales, flexor digiti I brevis, abductor digiti I brevis, and flexor digiti V muscles...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Elizabeth M Polfer, Jennifer M Sabino, Ryan D Katz
We present an all-inside technique for zone I flexor tendon repair that combines suture anchor fixation with buried back-up fixation. The back-up fixation uses transosseous tunnels and a dorsal counterincision to allow a suture tied dorsal to the distal phalanx and buried. This technique is strong and permits early active range of motion. The dorsal tie-over does not require a suture button and, therefore, does not imperil the nail matrix. The surgical technique is herein described including the proposed anesthesia (wide awake), the incisions (midlateral), the exposures, and the repair itself...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Mohammed A Khalid, William M Weiss, Michael Iloanya, Vinod K Panchbhavi
BACKGROUND: Chronic Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon and increase long-term morbidity when untreated. There is no standard treatment for this condition. METHODS: Chronic Achilles tendon rupture was repaired in 10 patients by harvesting the flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHL) using a minimally invasive technique. It was then transferred to the calcaneus and the remnant used to bridge the gap for reconstructing the Achilles tendon itself. The patients were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale...
October 11, 2018: Foot & Ankle Specialist
Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Chun-Hao Fan, Pei-An Yu, Chi-Lung Chen, Liang-Tseng Kuo, Robert Wen-Wei Hsu
BACKGROUND: Increased body mass index (BMI) has been associated with poorer function in patients who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, the effect of high BMI on muscle strength in these patients remained unclear. The current study aimed to compare knee muscle strength and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in ACL-reconstructed patients with a variety of different BMIs. METHODS: From November 2013 to March 2016, we prospectively enrolled 30 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction (18-60 years of age)...
October 10, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Naghmeh Poorpezeshk, Seyed Kamran Ghoreishi, Mohammad Bayat, Ramin Pouriran, Masoud Yavari
BACKGROUND: To obtain the best result from flexor tendon repair surgery, proper surgical technique, appropriate materials, good rehabilitation, and patient satisfaction are essential to consider. Nevertheless, no general unique protocol still exists between researchers, for a suitable treatment plan. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present random clinical trial (RCT) was to determine the adjuvant effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on healing tendon injury in patients...
October 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Lasse Linnanmäki, Harry Göransson, Jouni Havulinna, Teemu Karjalainen, Olli V Leppänen
PURPOSE: To investigate factors that cause variation in the mechanical properties of flexor tendon repairs. METHODS: One surgeon repaired 50 homogeneous absorbent sticks and 40 porcine flexor tendons with a simple loop, an Adelaide repair, a peripheral over-and-over repair, or a combination of the latter 2 repairs. Ten hand surgeons repaired 1 porcine flexor tendon with the combined Adelaide core and over-and-over peripheral repair. We loaded the samples statically until failure and calculated the variations caused by the testing process, tendon substance, and surgical performance in terms of yield and ultimate load...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Susumu Yoneda, Hirotaka Okubo, Stephen W Linderman, Nozomu Kusano, Matthew J Silva, Stavros Thomopoulos, Fuminori Kanaya, Richard H Gelberman
The failure rate of intrasynovial tendon repair is high due to substantial elongation at the repair site and to the development of adhesions between the tendon's surface and the surrounding digital sheath. To minimize these complications, we sought to reduce the incidence of gapping and to facilitate the initiation of early motion by improving the time zero structural properties of repair. The Winters-Gelberman 8-strand repair technique was modified by adding surface lock loops and by using Fiberwire suture material...
2018: PloS One
Eleftherios Kellis
INTRODUCTION: Examination of the mechanical behavior of the hamstrings when acting as antagonists provides information about loading of this muscle group and its role for joint stability during forceful quadriceps contractions. The aim of this study was to quantify biceps femoris long head fascicle length (FL), angle of pennation (PA) and distal tendon/aponeurosis strain during maximum voluntary contraction efforts of the knee extensors using real-time ultrasound. METHODS: Fourteen participants performed passive joint movements and maximum voluntary knee extension and flexion efforts of the knee flexors at 0°, 45° and 90° of knee flexion...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Michael Lonne, David S Sparks, Carl Stephan, Michael Wagels, Anthony Berger
BACKGROUND: The Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB) is an extrinsic thumb muscle whose main function is extension of the first metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ). It is subject to significant anatomical variation and may be absent, vestigial or have an anomalous distal attachment. Clinical examination of EPB is notoriously difficult and no reliable test has yet been described. We propose a novel test for the accurate examination of EPB. We sought to clarify the anatomical variations of EPB and to validate our clinical test using human cadaveric anatomical tests...
September 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
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