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Flexor tendon

Łukasz Olewnik, Anna Waśniewska, Michał Polguj, Michał Podgórski, Piotr Łabętowicz, Kacper Ruzik, Mirosław Topol
PURPOSE: The palmaris longus (PL) muscle is characterized by high-morphological variability. It is clinically important as it is routinely harvested for the reconstruction of other tendons. The study characterizes the morphology of the PL in human fetuses and creates a new classification based on its variations that would relate to the spectrum of morphological variability in adults. METHODS: Eighty spontaneously aborted human foetuses (44 male, 36 female, 160 upper limbs), aged 18-38 weeks of gestation, were examined...
July 18, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Wei-Ting Wu, Ke-Vin Chang, Levent Özçakar
The tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst-which presents with fluid accumulated inside the nerve epineurium-is a rare etiology of tarsal tunnel syndrome. We report a case with insidious onset of numbness over his left medial ankle. Ultrasound imaging revealed that the tibial nerve was encircled by crescent-shaped anechoic substances, spanning from the distal leg to the sole. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a thickened tibial nerve wrapped by hyperintense materials in the tarsal tunnel. Some effusion was observed besides the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum tendons as well...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
Yaşar Mahsut Dinçel, Yavuz Arıkan, Devrim Özer, Seçkin Basılgan
Achilles tendon xanthomas are rarely seen masses that are highly associated with hyperlipidemia. They are manifested in two types: Xanthomas developed secondary to familial hypercholesterolemia and cerebrotendinous xanthomatoses. In this report, we present a case of bilateral Achilles tendon xanthoma secondary to familial hypercholesterolemia and resection along with a portion of the Achilles tendon. The patient was a 49-year-old male who presented to our clinic with complaints of difficulty walking and swelling in both heels...
August 2018: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
Mayank Patel, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
A previously undescribed variant ulnar nerve loop was discovered during the routine anatomic forearm and hand dissection of an adult female. The major finding was that of a large loop traveling around the distal tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris. The variation presented here appears to be unique. The exact function of such derailed anatomy is not clear but, if found during surgery, might confound normal dissection methods or, when present, could result in varied clinical presentations regarding the sensory or motor examination of the hand...
May 10, 2018: Curēus
Kyle R Eberlin, Chaitanya S Mudgal
Dupuytren contracture is a progressive disease involving collagen within the palmar fascia. When the contracture progresses to meet specific parameters, intervention is considered and includes collagenase injection, percutaneous or open fasciotomy, or palmar fasciectomy. Complications after treatment include contracture recurrence, digital nerve injury or postoperative neurapraxia, flexor tendon injury/rupture, delayed wound healing or skin necrosis, dysvascular digit/arterial injury, hematoma, and infection...
August 2018: Hand Clinics
Richard M Hinds, Nicole Montero-Lopez, Kenneth Brock, Ronald Adler, Anthony Sapienza, John T Capo, Nader Paksima
BACKGROUND: Previous work evaluating the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle following volar plate fixation (VPF) of distal radius fractures (DRF) suggests that PQ repair often fails in the postoperative period. The purpose of this investigation was to assess PQ repair integrity following VPF of DRF using dynamic musculoskeletal ultrasonography. METHODS: Twenty adult patients who underwent VPF of DRF with repair of the PQ with a minimum follow-up of 3 months underwent bilateral dynamic wrist ultrasonography...
July 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Hitoshi Yoshimura, Tadashi Okano, Kentaro Inui, Hiroaki Nakamura
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is an effective and safe immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer. However, reactive arthritis (ReA) is reported as an adverse event in about 0.5-1% of patients receiving intravesical BCG therapy. ReA is known as a kind of spondyloarthritis, the main pathological finding of which is enthesitis. Here we report a patient with ReA induced by intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer, in whom the diagnosis of ReA was supported by ultrasonographic findings of enthesitis and synovitis...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Leonhard Gruber, Marnix T van Holsbeeck, Viviane Khoury, Christian Deml, Markus Franz Gabl, Werner Jaschke, Andrea Sabine Klauser
OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic performance of median nerve (MN) flip-angle measurements, deformation during wrist flexion [transit deformation coefficient (TDC)], during compression [compression deformation coefficient (CDC)] and fascicular freedom to potentially identify fibrotic MN changes in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: This prospective study was performed with institutional review board approval; all participants provided oral and written informed consent...
July 9, 2018: European Radiology
Amirreza Sadeghifar, Ali Krbalei Kahani, Alireza Saied, Elham Rasayi
The palmaris longus is harvested as a tendon graft in various surgical procedures. Several tests are used to assess the presence of palmaris longus tendon. In the present study, we attempted to assess the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of five of the most famous methods and also the examination of fifth superficial flexor function. Two observers, who had been trained on the tests and had practiced them, examined 105 volunteers on two separate occasions and in 1-month interval the results were recorded...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Dhivyalakshmi Gnanasekaran, Raveendranath Veeramani, Aravindhan Karuppusamy
Pulleys are thickened regions in flexor tendons sheaths of the digits. They are essential and act as fulcrum for the flexion and extension of the digits. The arrangement and number of pulley system differs greatly between the thumb and other digits. There is paucity of literature regarding the pulley system of thumb. We aimed to study the morphometry of the pulley system of the thumb in Indian cadavers. Dissection was carried out in 55 adult human cadaveric thumbs. The most common morphologic pattern of pulley observed in the thumb is type III (30 thumbs)...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Sara Edsfeldt, Martin Eklund, Monica Wiig
STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study. INTRODUCTION: Investigating prognostic factors using population-based data may be used to improve functional outcome after flexor tendon injury and repair. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of concomitant nerve transection, combined flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon transection and the age of the patient, on digital range of motion (ROM) more than 1 year after FDP tendon transection and repair in zone I and II...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Qian Liu, Yaxi Zhu, Peter C Amadio, Steven L Moran, Anne Gingery, Chunfeng Zhao
Tendon injuries are among the most common and severe hand injuries with a high demand for functional recovery. Stem cells have been identified and isolated from different species and a variety of tissues for the sake of regenerative medicine. Recently, turkey has been suggested as a potential new large animal model for flexor tendon-related research. However, turkey tissue-specific stem cells have not been investigated. Here, we presented the isolation and verification of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) from 6- to 8-month-old heritage-breed turkey...
2018: Stem Cells International
Knut Wester, Leiv M Hove, Roger Barndon, Alexander R Craven, Kenneth Hugdahl
Background: Developmental cortical plasticity with reorganization of cerebral cortex, has been known to occur in young and adult animals after permanent, restricted elimination of afferent (visual or somatosensory) input. In animals, cortical representation of unaffected muscles or sensory areas has been shown to invade the neighboring cortex when this is deprived of its normal sensory input or motor functions. Some studies indicate that similar cortical plasticity may take place in adult humans. Methods : In patients with a high cervical spinal cord injury leaving the patient without any movements of the fingers, we performed fMRI studies of the cortical representation of an elbow flexor muscle before and after a surgical procedure that changed its function to a thumb flexor, thus providing the patient with a useful grip...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gabriel Halát, Lukas L Negrin, Ewald Unger, Thomas Koch, Johannes Streicher, Jochen Erhart, Patrick Platzer, Stefan Hajdu
The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical characteristics of an innovative surgical technique based on a tension banding principle using a suture anchor in the repair of bony avulsions of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon. After injury simulation in 45 fresh frozen distal phalanges from human cadavers, repair was performed with minifragment screws, interosseous sutures and the innovative technique (15 per group). All repairs were loaded for a total of 500 cycles. Subsequently the specimens were loaded to failure...
July 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ł Olewnik, G Wysiadecki, M Podgórski, M Polguj, M Topol
Purpose: Although the plantaris muscle (PM) is vestigial in humans, it has a significant clinical role in procedures such as grafting. However, recent reports suggest its potential involvement in the tendinopathy of the midportion of the Achilles tendon. The aim of the study is therefore to evaluate morphological variation of the PM with regard to its potential conflict with the Achilles tendon. Material and Methods: Classical anatomical dissection was performed on 130 lower limbs (71 right, 59 left) fixed in 10% formalin solution...
2018: BioMed Research International
Rowan R Smart, Sienna Kohn, Cydney M Richardson, Jennifer M Jakobi
Achilles tendon mechanics influence plantar flexion force steadiness (FS) and balance. In the upper limb, elbow flexor FS is greater in supinated and neutral forearm orientations compared to pronated, with contributions of tendon mechanics remaining unknown in position-dependent FS. This study investigated whether distal biceps brachii (BB) tendon mechanics across supinated, neutral and pronated forearm orientations influence position-dependent FS of the elbow flexors. Eleven males (23 ± 3 years) performed submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks at low (5, 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and high (25, 50, 75% MVC) force levels in supinated, neutral and pronated forearm orientations...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Darshan S Shah, Claire Middleton, Sabahat Gurdezi, Maxim D Horwitz, Angela E Kedgley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Anthony David Kay, Bethanee Rubley, Chris Talbot, Minas Mina, Anthony William Baross, Anthony John Blazevich
INTRODUCTION: Stretching highly-contracted plantar flexor muscles (isokinetic eccentric contractions) results in beneficial adaptations in muscle strain risk factors; however its effects in other muscle groups, and on architectural characteristics and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), are unknown. METHODS: The influence of a 6-week knee extensor training programme was studied in 26 volunteers (13 control; 13 experimental). Before and after the training programme, passive and maximal isometric and eccentric knee extensor moments and range of motion (ROM) were recorded on an isokinetic dynamometer with simultaneous ultrasound imaging of vastus lateralis (VL)...
June 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Nikolaos Anastasopoulos, George Paraskevas, Nikolaos Lazaridis, Konstantinos Natsis
Isolated rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon is an unusual injury. We present the case of a neglected flexor hallucis longus tendon closed traumatic rupture at the plantar aspect of the first phalangeal head of the great toe in a middle-age male. The injury occurred while he was dancing. Because end-to-end tendon suture was impossible, the ensuing gap was repaired using a free plantaris tendon graft. We present the operative repair benefit of the flexor hallucis longus tendon rupture to regain the function and strength of the interphalangeal joint of the hallux, avoid extension of the distal phalanx, and maintain the longitudinal arch of the foot...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Chun Bi, Andrew R Thoreson, Chunfeng Zhao
Tendon or ligament reconstructions often use autologous or allogenic tendons from either extrasynovial or intrasynovial sources. Allograft tendons must be lyophilized for preservation before transplantation, a process which can impact mechanical properties of the graft. Reconstituted graft properties that are similar to native tendon are desirable. Although tensile and compressive properties of tendons have been investigated, there is a paucity of information describing flexural properties of tendon, which can impact the gliding resistance...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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