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Doppler physics

B Lyu, J Chen, R J Hu, L F Delgado-Aparicio, F D Wang, M Bitter, K W Hill, N Pablant, S G Lee, M Y Ye, Y J Shi, B N Wan
Newly developed large-area pixelated two-dimensional detector and two-crystal assemblies were deployed for the first time on tokamaks to enable time-resolved Bragg-diffracted x-ray imaging with good framing rate and water-cooling capabilities for in-vacuum long-pulse operations. High-quality helium-like (He-like) and hydrogen-like (H-like) argon spectra have been observed simultaneously for the first time on a single detector for a wide range of plasma parameters to infer both ion temperature and rotation profiles and support studies on spontaneous rotation, impurity transport, and RF physics...
October 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Joanna Słomko, Monika Zawadka-Kunikowska, Sławomir Kujawski, Jacek J Klawe, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Julia L Newton, Paweł Zalewski
The main objective of the study was to analyze the impact of sleep deprivation upon hemodynamic and autonomic parameters in subjects with normal blood pressure (BP) compared to prehypertension and hypertension at 24, 28, and 32 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Thirty volunteers, healthy men with current medical tests indicating the absence of disease took part in the study. After physical examination (basic neurological, clinical examination, echocardiography and doppler ultrasound of the renal arteries, evaluation of the autonomic nervous system) subjects were divided into three groups: I - normotensive, II - pre-hypertensive, III - hypertensive (age: 31...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xin Li, Daniel Staub, Vasileios Rafailidis, Mohammed Al-Natour, Sanjeeva Kalva, Sasan Partovi
Ultrasound has been established as an important diagnostic tool in assessing vascular abnormalities. Standard B-mode and Doppler techniques have inherent limitations with regards to detection of slow flow and small vasculature. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a complementary tool and is useful in assessing both the macro- and microvascular anatomy of the aorta. CEUS can also provide valuable physiological information in real-time scanning sessions due to the physical and safety profiles of the administered microbubbles...
October 16, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Amin Abolhasani Foroughi, Ehsan Yazdanpanah, Masoume Nazeri, Tannaz Eghbali, Peyman Arasteh, Ali Ariafar
OBJECTIVE: Inhere, we compared two of the most common grading systems based on color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) and physical examination in patients suspected of varicocele. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Overall, 66 patients clinically suspected of varicocele were visited by an attending urologist and a radiologist for physical examination and CDU. Varicocele was then graded according to the WHO criteria and Sarteschi criteria. For comparing the results of the two grading systems, each grading systems was then categorized into four scoring groups...
October 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
S W Ma, M Shen, G B Xia
Objective: To analyze the heart rate changes and risk factors, as a result of high altitude. Methods: Retrospective analysis of echocardiographic data of plateau workers at a railway maintenance company from 2006 to 2013. The survival curve method was used to analyze the abnormal rate of the heart. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors. Results: In the first occurrence of cardiac abnormalities, the main types of abnormalities were right atrium enlargement (53...
August 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Myung Rae Cho, Kyung Tae Kim, Won Kee Choi
RATIONALE: Arterial occlusion, a rare condition after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), may cause fatal outcomes if not treated on time. We report a case of arterial occlusion after undergoing navigated TKA with no tourniquet use, in a patient at high risk of postoperative arterial occlusion due to the patient's ipsilateral popliteal artery aneurysm. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 79-year-old man presented with several years of left knee joint pain. Nine years earlier, the patient underwent vascular graft surgery on his right knee due to occlusion in his right popliteal artery...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rafael de la Espriella-Juan, Eduardo Núñez, Gema Miñana, Juan Sanchis, Antoni Bayés-Genís, Jessika González, Javier Chorro, Julio Núñez
The aim of this case report is to assess the potential role of intrarenal Doppler ultrasonography as a non-invasive method to evaluate intrarenal venous flow (IRVF) in acute heart failure (AHF) and concomitant renal dysfunction. We report a case of an 81-year-old woman with valvular heart disease (previous mitral valve replacement) that presented with acutely decompensated heart failure and concomitant worsening renal function (WRF). In addition to complete physical examination, laboratory analysis, and echocardiography, IRVF was assessed at baseline and 48 h after the administration of diuretic treatment...
October 8, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Zafer Demirer, Ibrahim Karademir, Ali Ugur Uslu, Ali Güragac, Yusuf Aksu
INTRODUCTION: The mean platelet volume (MPV) is an extensively employed laboratory indicator related to platelet volume and function in inflammatory circumstances. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between inflammation and mean platelet volume in varicocele pathophysiology. METHODS: We conducted a recent study, which included 131 varicocele subjects and 82 healthy controls. The identification of varicocele was based on the results from both physical examination and color Doppler ultrasound...
October 2018: Revista Internacional de Andrología
Ammar A Oglat, M Z Matjafri, Nursakinah Suardi, Mostafa A Abdelrahman, Mohammad A Oqlat, Ahmad A Oqlat
Background: To examine the blood flow and detection of the issues related to it by medical ultrasound, it is extremely important to have suitable blood mimicking fluid (BMF) to be used in vitro and to have a movable or portable Doppler flow phantom to use it as a standardizing tool. As known, the main drawbacks of the currently commercial BMF used in the research studies are high in cost and the long time needed for preparation, which is at least 5-7 h. Moreover, there are only two common scatter particles using in BMF as suspension materials such as nylon (Orgasol) and polystyrene...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasound
Aleksander Labuda, Changhong Cao, Tim Walsh, Jieh Meinhold, Roger Proksch, Yu Sun, Tobin Filleter
A method for calibrating the dynamic torsional spring constant of cantilevers by directly measuring the thermally driven motion of the cantilever with an interferometer is presented. Random errors in calibration were made negligible (<1%) by averaging over multiple measurements. The errors in accuracy of ±5% or ±10% for both of the cantilevers calibrated in this study were limited only by the accuracy of the laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) used to measure thermal fluctuations. This is a significant improvement over commonly used methods that result in large and untraceable errors resulting from assumptions made about the cantilever geometry, material properties, and/or hydrodynamic physics of the surroundings...
September 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yun-Hye Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim, Chul Park
OBJECTIVE To investigate cardiac structural and functional changes by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and strain imaging in dogs with spontaneous type 1 diabetes mellitus. ANIMALS 30 client-owned dogs, of which 10 had normotensive type 1 diabetes mellitus and 20 were healthy. PROCEDURES All dogs underwent physical examination, laboratory analyses, standard echocardiography, and TDI. RESULTS On TDI and strain imaging, transmitral peak early diastolic velocity (E)-to-tissue Doppler-derived peak early diastolic velocity at basal segment (E') of septum ratio, E:lateral E' ratio, and septal tissue Doppler-derived peak late diastolic velocity at basal segment (A') were significantly higher and the septal E':A' ratio and lateral longitudinal strain were significantly lower for diabetic dogs than for control dogs...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Anahita Zoghi, Peyman Petramfar, Alireza Nikseresht, Ehsan Sakhaee
Purpose: Variations of cerebral blood flow in response to hypoxia and hyperoxia in different disease conditions can provide new insights into disease etiopathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of cerebral vasoreactivity for ischemia and demyelination. Materials and methods: This case-control study included: 28 patients with lacunar infarctions verified by history, physical examination, and MRI; 28 age- and sex-matched healthy controls; 28 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), based on McDonald criteria; and 28 age- and sex-matched healthy controls for the MS group...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Shahrokh Shahriari, Damien Garcia
Before embarking on a series of in vivo tests, design of ultrasound-flow-imaging modalities are generally more efficient through computational models as multiple configurations can be tested methodically. To that end, simulation models must generate realistic blood flow dynamics and Doppler signals. The current in silico ultrasound simulation techniques suffer mainly from uncertainty in providing accurate trajectories of moving ultrasound scatterers. In mesh-based Eulerian methods, numerical truncation errors from the interpolated velocities, both in the time and space dimensions, can accumulate significantly and make the pathlines unreliable...
October 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Thomas R Brickler, Amanda Hazy, Fernanda Guilhaume Correa, Rujuan Dai, Elizabeth J A Kowalski, Ross Dickerson, Jiang Chen, Xia Wang, Paul D Morton, Abby Whittington, Ansar Ahmed, Michelle H Theus
Although age-at-injury influences chronic recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI), the differential effects of age on early outcome remain understudied. Using a male murine model of moderate contusion injury, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) regulating the distinct response between juvenile and adult TBI. We demonstrate similar biomechanical and physical properties of naive juvenile and adult brains. However, following controlled cortical impact (CCI), juvenile mice displayed reduced cortical lesion formation, cell death, and behavioral deficits at 4 and 14 d...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Francisco J Blanco, Esteban Rubio-Romero, Raimon Sanmartí, César Díaz-Torné, Pablo Talavera, Jochen Dunkel, Esperanza Naredo
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) in Spanish patients with RA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SONAR (NCT01526434), a 12-week, open-label, prospective, observational, multicenter study. Patients with active RA for ≥3 months, according to ACR criteria, were treated with CZP (400mg at Weeks 0, 2 and 4, then 200mg every 2 weeks). The primary effectiveness endpoint was change from baseline (CFB) in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at Week 12...
September 17, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
Ángel Herráiz-Adillo, Olga Piñar-Serrano, Julián Ángel Mariana-Herráiz, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Diana Patricia Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Blanca Notario-Pacheco
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an underdiagnosed prevalent disease which implies high cardiovascular risk. Professionals usually depend on physical examination to screen for PAD. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of physical examination to screen for PAD in a rural Primary Care population and to evaluate the nurse-physician level of agreement in pedal pulse palpation. METHODS: Diagnostic accuracy study in which two experienced professionals (physician-nurse) prospectively performed pedal pulse palpation (grading as absent, reduced, normal, or bounding), femoral bruit auscultation and calf circumference (index tests) comparing with Doppler ABI (reference test, positive cut-off: 0...
November 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
X M Huang, D Wang, J Y Lin, D R Tang, F Y Sun
Objective: To investigate the clinical features, imaging features, diagnoses and therapeutic regimens of orbital ectopic meningiomas. Methods: A retrospective study. All the clinical data of 10 patients (10 eyes) with orbital ectopic meningiomas were analyzed retrospectively from August 1999 to October 2016. They included imaging data such as color Doppler ultrasound, CT and MRI, and information of diagnosis, pathology, therapeutic regimen and prognosis. Results: The age of orbital ectopic meningiomas was 7 to 68 years old...
September 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Jasmin J Samaras, Bernardo Abecasis, Margarida Serra, Andrea Ducci, Martina Micheletti
Cardiomyocytes (CMs), derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), have the potential to be used in cardiac repair. Addition of physical cues, such as electrical and mechanical stimulations, have proven to significantly effect morphology, density, cardiogenesis, maturity and functionality of differentiated CMs. This work combines rigorous fluid dynamics investigation and flow frequency analysis with iPSC differentiation experiments to identify and quantify the flow characteristics leading to a significant increase of differentiation yield...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Elisabeth Bründl, Martin Proescholdt, Petra Schödel, Sylvia Bele, Julius Höhne, Florian Zeman, Eva-Maria Stoerr, Alexander Brawanski, Karl-Michael Schebesch
OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychological dysfunction after treatment of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (sSAH) is common but underreported. The vasoconstrictor neuropeptide Y (NPY) is excessively released after sSAH and in psychiatric disorders. We prospectively analysed the treatment-specific differences in the secretion of endogenous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NPY during the acute stage after sSAH and its impact on cognitive processing. METHODS: A total of 26 consecutive patients (f:m = 13:8; mean age 50...
December 2018: Neurological Research
L C Jarrott, B Bachmann, T Ma, L R Benedetti, F E Field, E P Hartouni, R Hatarik, N Izumi, S F Khan, O L Landen, S R Nagel, R Nora, A Pak, J L Peterson, M B Schneider, P T Springer, P K Patel
Accurate measurement of the thermal temperature in inertially confined fusion plasmas is essential for characterizing ignition performance and validating the basic physics understanding of the stagnation conditions. We present experimental results from cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions on the National Ignition Facility using a differential filter spectrometer designed to measure the thermal electron temperature from x-ray continuum emission from the stagnated plasma. Furthermore, electron temperature measurements, used in conjunction with the Doppler-broadened DT neutron spectra, allow one to infer the partition of energy in the hot spot between internal energy and unconverted kinetic energy...
August 24, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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