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Fetal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781990/fetal-mouse-cardiovascular-imaging-using-a-high-frequency-ultrasound-30-45mhz-system
#1
Marlin Touma
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and early mortality. Prenatal detection of the underlying molecular mechanisms of CHDs is crucial for inventing new preventive and therapeutic strategies. Mutant mouse models are powerful tools to discover new mechanisms and environmental stress modifiers that drive cardiac development and their potential alteration in CHDs. However, efforts to establish the causality of these putative contributors have been limited to histological and molecular studies in non-survival animal experiments, in which monitoring the key physiological and hemodynamic parameters is often absent...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775414/venoarterial-communication-mediates-arterial-wall-shear-stress-induced-maternal-uterine-vascular-remodeling-during-pregnancy
#2
Nga Ling Ko, Liam John, Aaron Gelinne, Maurizio Mandala, George Osol
Although expansive remodeling of the maternal uterine circulation during pregnancy is essential for maintaining uteroplacental perfusion and normal fetal growth, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood. Using a rat model, surgical approaches were used to alter uterine hemodynamics and wall shear stress (WSS) in order to evaluate the effects of WSS and venoarterial communication (e.g. transfer of placentally derived growth signals from post-placental veins to pre-placental arteries) on gestational uterine vascular remodeling...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774535/physiology-and-molecular-biology-of-barrier-mechanisms-in-the-fetal-and-neonatal-brain
#3
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Kjeld Møllgård, Mark D Habgood
Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774380/-thyroid-and-pregnancy
#4
REVIEW
K A Iwen, H Lehnert
During pregnancy thyroid hormones have profound effects on embryonal/fetal development and maternal health. Therefore, thyroid gland disorders should be immediately diagnosed and adequately treated. Pregnancy-specific physiological alterations during pregnancy cause changes in the reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and trimester-specific thresholds must be taken into account. This article summarizes the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects before, during and after pregnancy...
May 17, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773977/journey-to-the-center-of-the-fetal-brain-environmental-exposures-and-autophagy
#5
REVIEW
Jun Lei, Pilar Calvo, Richard Vigh, Irina Burd
Fetal brain development is known to be affected by adverse environmental exposures during pregnancy, including infection, inflammation, hypoxia, alcohol, starvation, and toxins. These exposures are thought to alter autophagy activity in the fetal brain, leading to adverse perinatal outcomes, such as cognitive and sensorimotor deficits. This review introduces the physiologic autophagy pathways in the fetal brain. Next, methods to detect and monitor fetal brain autophagy activity are outlined. An additional discussion explores possible mechanisms by which environmental exposures during pregnancy alter fetal brain autophagy activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772309/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obesity-a-review-and-model-of-current-hypotheses-explaining-their-comorbidity
#6
REVIEW
Tomasz Hanć, Samuele Cortese
Available meta-analyses point to a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. The possible mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Here, we overview the studies aimed at identifying the factors contributing to the comorbidity between ADHD and obesity, including genetic factors, fetal programming, executive dysfunctions, psychosocial stress, factors directly related to energy balance, and sleep patterns alterations. The bulk of current research has focused on reduced physical activity and abnormal eating patterns as possible causes of weight gain in individuals with ADHD...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772083/effects-of-prenatal-stress-on-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behaviors-are-sex-specific-in-prepubertal-rats
#7
Ann Mary Iturra-Mena, Marcia Arriagada-Solimano, Ariane Luttecke-Anders, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761855/presence-of-scf-cxcl12-double-positive-large-blast-like-cells-at-the-site-of-cutaneous-extramedullary-hematopoiesis
#8
Toshiaki Kogame, Masahiro Hirata, Tatsuki R Kataoka, Judith A Seidel, Chiyuki Ueshima, Miho Matsui, Takashi Nomura, Kenji Kabashima
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is observed in the fetal liver and the spleen under physiological conditions, but can rarely occur as pathologic condition after birth. EMH is observed in various anatomical sites in patients with hypoxia-inducing conditions, such as idiopathic myelofibrosis. The nature of the microenvironment for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in EMH is unclear. Recent studies showed that mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)-derived cells, that can differentiate into various types of cells, play critical roles in the formation of hematopoietic niches...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753694/physiological-adaptation-of-the-growth-restricted-fetus
#9
REVIEW
Karel Maršál
The growth-restricted fetus in utero is exposed to a hostile environment and suffers undernutrition and hypoxia. To cope with the stress, the fetus changes its physiological functions. These adaptive changes aid intrauterine survival; however, they can lead to permanent functional and structural changes that can contribute to the development of serious chronic diseases later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are an important part of the pathophysiological processes behind this "developmental origin of adult diseases...
February 24, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753320/adverse-effects-of-hif1a-mutation-and-maternal-diabetes-on-the-offspring-heart
#10
Radka Cerychova, Romana Bohuslavova, Frantisek Papousek, David Sedmera, Pavel Abaffy, Vladimir Benes, Frantisek Kolar, Gabriela Pavlinkova
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, the precise mechanisms for the underlying penetrance and disease predisposition remain poorly understood. We examined whether hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, in combination with exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment, influences the function and molecular structure of the adult offspring heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a mouse model, we demonstrated that haploinsufficient (Hif1a+/- ) offspring from a diabetic pregnancy developed left ventricle dysfunction at 12 weeks of age, as manifested by decreased fractional shortening and structural remodeling of the myocardium...
May 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753115/mercury-s-neurotoxicity-is-characterized-by-its-disruption-of-selenium-biochemistry
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas V C Ralston, Laura J Raymond
BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (CH3 Hg+ ) toxicity is characterized by challenging conundrums: 1) "selenium (Se)-protective" effects, 2) undefined biochemical mechanism/s of toxicity, 3) brain-specific oxidative damage, 4) fetal vulnerability, and 5) its latency effect. The "protective effects of Se" against CH3 Hg+ toxicity were first recognized >50 years ago, but awareness of Se's vital functions in the brain has transformed understanding of CH3 Hg+ biochemical mechanisms...
May 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752389/pregnancy-in-women-with-a-fontan-circulation-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
Alvaro Garcia Ropero, Shankar Baskar, Jolien W Roos Hesselink, Andrea Girnius, Dominica Zentner, Lorna Swan, Magalie Ladouceur, Nicole Brown, Gruschen R Veldtman
BACKGROUND: The Fontan operation has provided life-saving palliation and adult survival for individuals born with single ventricle physiology. Many now seek advice about safe pregnancy. Little data are, however, available, consisting mainly of anecdotal experience and small series. This article seeks to review the published literature and identify lessons learnt from this collective experience. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy in women with a Fontan circulation...
May 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750565/pregnancy-late-in-rodent-life-has-detrimental-effects-on-the-heart
#13
Eunhee Chung, Kaylan M Haizlip, Leslie A Leinwand
During pregnancy, the heart undergoes significant and numerous changes, including hypertrophy that are usually described as physiological and reversible. Two aspects of the cardiac response to pregnancy are relatively understudied: advanced maternal age and multiple pregnancies (multiparity). Repeated breeder mice (RB) that have undergone 5 to 7 consecutive pregnancies were sacrificed 21 days after the weaning of their last pups and were compared to age-matched primiparous, one-time pregnant mice (O1P). The ages of the old mouse groups were similar (12 {plus minus} 1 month)...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748760/highly-selective-and-ratiometric-fluorescent-nanoprobe-for-the-detection-of-cysteine-and-its-application-in-test-strips
#14
Fengyang Wang, Yingying Zhu, Jie Xu, Zhiai Xu, Guiying Cheng, Wen Zhang
Cysteine (Cys) is a bithiol that plays a vital role in many physiological processes. However, it is difficult to discriminate Cys from homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH), due to their similar chemical structures and reactivity. Herein, we have developed a polymeric nanoprobe, nanoHFA, for ratiometric, highly selective, and sensitive detection of Cys based on 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HC) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-acrylate (FITC-A) group-functionalized lipopolymer DSPE-PEG. The probe nanoHFA showed a strong fluorescence emission peak centered at 450 nm attributed to HC and a weak fluorescence emission peak centered at 520 nm due to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process of FITC induced by acrylate group...
May 11, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746174/developmental-regulation-of-kidney-and-liver-slc-and-abc-drug-transporters-and-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-the-role-of-remote-organ-communication
#15
Jeremiah D Momper, Sanjay K Nigam
The ontogeny of drug transport and metabolism is generally studied independently in tissues, yet in the immediate postnatal period the developmental regulation of transporters and metabolizing enzymes must be coordinated. Using the Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis as a framework, we describe how a systems physiology view helps to make sense of how inter-organ communication via hepatic, renal, and intestinal transporters and drug metabolizing (DMEs) enzymes is regulated from the immediate postnatal period through adulthood...
May 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746007/preterm-growth-restriction-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-the-vascular-hypothesis-and-related-physiology
#16
Arvind Sehgal, Stella M Gwini, Samuel Menahem, Beth J Allison, Suzanne L Miller, Graeme R Polglase
KEY POINTS: Approximately 5-10% pregnancies are affected by fetal growth restriction. Preterm infants affected by fetal growth restriction have a higher incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This study is the first to measure pulmonary artery thickness and stiffness. It highlights that impaired vasculogenesis may be a contributory factor in the higher incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm growth restricted infants. The study addresses the mechanistic link between fetal programming and vascular architecture and mechanics...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745793/extreme-pregnancy-maternal-physical-activity-at-everest-base-camp
#17
Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback, Kennedy J Borle, Brittany A Matenchuk, Emily R Vanden Berg, Emily M de Freitas, Andrea M Linares, Ken D O'Halloran, Mingma T Sherpa, Trevor A Day
High altitude natives employ numerous physiological strategies to survive and reproduce. However, the concomitant influence of altitude and physical activity during pregnancy has not been studied above 3,700m. We report a case of physical activity, sleep behavior and physiological measurements on a 28-year-old third-trimester pregnant native highlander (Sherpa) during ascent from 3440m to Everest base camp (~5,300m) over eight days in the Nepal Himalaya, and again ~10-months postpartum during a similar ascent profile...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744013/pregnancy-in-women-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Karolina Adam
Patients with cardiovascular disease represent a significant cohort at risk for complications during pregnancy. The normal physiologic changes of pregnancy could further compromise the hemodynamics of various cardiovascular conditions, resulting in clinical deterioration and even death. The fetus of a gravida with cardiovascular disease also has an increased risk of morbidity, including an increased risk of inherited cardiac genetic disorders, fetal growth restriction, and premature delivery. These complications also increase the risk for antenatal and perinatal mortality...
October 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738787/experimental-challenges-regarding-the-in-vitro-investigation-of-the-nanoparticle-biocorona-in-disease-states
#19
Sherleen Xue-Fu Adamson, Zhoumeng Lin, Ran Chen, Lisa Kobos, Jonathan Shannahan
Toxicological evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) requires the utilization of in vitro techniques due to their number and diverse properties. Cell culture systems are often lacking in their ability to perform comparative toxicity assessment due to dosimetry issues and capacity to simulate in vivo environments. Upon encountering a physiological environment, NPs become coated with biomolecules forming a biocorona (BC), influencing function, biodistribution, and toxicity. Disease-induced alterations in the biological milieu can alter BC formation...
May 5, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735634/evaluation-of-sildenafil-and-tadalafil-for-reversing-constriction-of-fetal-arteries-in-a-human-placenta-perfusion-model
#20
Robert B Walton, Luckey C Reed, Sarah M Estrada, Stacey S Schmiedecke, Diana L Villazana-Kretzer, Peter G Napolitano, Nicholas Ieronimakis
Fetal growth restriction resulting from reduced placental blood perfusion is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aside from intense surveillance and early delivery, there is no treatment for fetal growth restriction. A potential treatment associated with placental vasoconstriction is the class of PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) inhibitors such as sildenafil, which is known to cross the placenta. In contrast, tadalafil, a more potent and selective PDE5 inhibitor has not been studied in pregnancy or experimental models of fetal growth restriction...
May 7, 2018: Hypertension
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