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Fetal physiology

Jeffery S Babischkin, Graham W Aberdeen, Gerald J Pepe, Eugene D Albrecht
We have shown that fetal adrenal fetal zone (FZ) volume and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS) levels were increased, whereas definitive and transitional zone (DZ/TZ) volume was unaltered, in baboons in which estrogen levels were suppressed by administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. The interaction of the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) with its accessory protein (MRAP) is essential for trafficking MC2R to the adrenal cell surface for binding to ACTH. The present study determined whether the estrogen-dependent regulation of fetal adrenocortical development is mediated by ACTH and/or expression/interaction of MC2R and MRAP...
October 25, 2016: Endocrinology
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Boulot Pierre, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle
Physiological studies on fetal blood in narrow glass tubes have suggested that fetal optimal hematocrit (hct) might be as high as 60%. A theoretical 'ideal' hct can also be predicted with a theoretical curve of hematocrit/viscosity (h/η) ratio vs hct constructed with Quemada's model. We used the database of one of our previous papers on fetal hemorheology to reinterpret its results with this concept. A series of 28 intrauterine cord punctures (between 19 and 33 weeks gestation) with doppler measurements of resistance in umbilical arteries was studied...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Maïlys De Sousa Mendes, Gabrielle Lui, Yi Zheng, Claire Pressiat, Deborah Hirt, Elodie Valade, Naïm Bouazza, Frantz Foissac, Stephane Blanche, Jean-Marc Treluyer, Saik Urien, Sihem Benaboud
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and their fetuses are exposed to numerous drugs; however, they are orphan populations with respect to the safety and efficacy of drugs. Therefore, the prediction of maternal and fetal drug exposure prior to administration would be highly useful. METHODS: A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nevirapine, which is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2B6 and 2D6 pathways, was developed to predict maternal and fetal pharmacokinetics (PK)...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Hanna Gustafsson, Colleen Doyle, Michelle Gilchrist, Elizabeth Werner, Catherine Monk
The consequences of childhood maltreatment are profound and long lasting. Not only does the victim of abuse suffer as a child, but there is mounting evidence that a history of maltreatment places the next generation at risk for significant psychopathology. Research identifies postnatal factors as affecting this intergenerational transmission of trauma. However, emerging evidence suggests that part of this risk may be transmitted before birth, passed on via abuse-related alterations in the in utero environment that are as yet largely unidentified...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Mario Tirone, Valentina Conti, Fabio Manenti, Pier Andrea Nicolosi, Cristina D'Orlando, Emanuele Azzoni, Silvia Brunelli
Embryonic VE-Cadherin-expressing progenitors (eVE-Cad+), including hemogenic endothelium, have been shown to generate hematopoietic stem cells and a variety of other progenitors, including mesoangioblasts, or MABs. MABs are vessel-associated progenitors with multilineage mesodermal differentiation potential that can physiologically contribute to skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and have been used in an ex vivo cell therapy setting for the treatment of muscular dystrophy. There is currently a therapeutic need for molecules that could improve the efficacy of cell therapy protocols; one such good candidate is nitric oxide...
2016: PloS One
Kate Denton, Karen Moritz, Lindsey Booth, Clive May, Geoff Head, Markus Schlaich, Reetu Singh
OBJECTIVE: Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to the control of kidney function and blood pressure. A critical question is whether catheter-based renal denervation (cDNX) has adverse consequences, in situations of clinical challenge, such as hemorrhage. The aim was to examine the effects of cDNX on basal mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and in response to hemorrhage in hypertensive sheep with chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN AND METHOD: Hypertension and CKD was induced in sheep by performing fetal unilateral nephrectomy (CKD; N = 14)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pramod K Guru, Devon M Ramaeker, Arundhathi Jeybalan, Nirav A Shah, Sheldon Bastacky, Kelly V Liang
Pregnancy-related renal diseases are unique and need special attention, both for diagnosis and management. The major confounding factors for diagnosis are the physiological multiorgan changes that occur throughout the gestational period. Proper diagnosis of the renal disease is also important, given the impact of varied management options both on the maternal and fetal health. A young middle-aged female with a long-standing history of diabetes presented to the hospital with worsening proteinuria in her second trimester of pregnancy...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Amit Agrawal, Veena Asthana, J P Sharma, Vineeta Gupta
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid block is the preferred technique for providing anesthesia for patients undergoing cesarean section. Various pharmacological agents in added to local anesthetics (LA) modify their original effects in terms of block characteristics and quality of analgesia. However, there is ongoing debate about this practice of using adjuncts with LA. We tested whether addition of lipophilic versus lipophobic opioids to LA gives any clinical benefits to maternal and fetal outcome when used in these patients requiring spinal anesthesia...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Muren, Satoshi Kusuda, Osamu Doi, Hitomi Naito, Hisashi Hashikawa
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E2) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14.7 ± 4...
September 8, 2016: Theriogenology
Vikesh V Chandaria, James McGinty, Niamh C Nowlan
Mechanical forces due to fetal movements play an important role in joint shape morphogenesis, and abnormalities of the joints relating to abnormal fetal movements can have long-term health implications. While mechanical stimulation during development has been shown to be important for joint shape, the relationship between the quantity of mechanical stimulation and the growth and shape change of developing cartilage has not been quantified. In this study, we culture embryonic chick limb explants in vitro in order to reveal how the magnitude of applied movement affects key aspects of the developing joint shape...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Sudipa Sarkar, Lindsay A Bischoff
Hyperthyroidism can occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and the treatment of hyperthyroidism should be considered in the preconception phase. Pregnancy has multiple normal physiologic effects on thyroid hormone, which is a separate process distinct from syndromes such as transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. The rationale regarding antithyroid drug use during different stages of pregnancy is reviewed, including the literature regarding adverse neonatal outcomes such as aplasia cutis and methimazole embryopathy in the setting of first trimester maternal methimazole use...
October 14, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
You Li, Dongwoon Hyun, Lotfi Abou-Elkacem, Juergen Willmann, Jeremy Dahl
Power Doppler (PD) imaging is a widely used technique for flow detection. Despite the wide use of Doppler ultrasound, limitations exist in the ability of Doppler ultrasound to assess slow flow in small-diameter vasculature, such as the maternal spiral arteries and fetal villous arteries of the placenta and focal liver lesions. The sensitivity of PD in small vessel detection is limited by the low signal produced by slow flow and the noise associated with small vessels. The noise sources include electronic noise, stationary or slowly moving tissue clutter, reverberation clutter, and off-axis scattering from tissue, among others...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Erica Sarchielli, Paolo Comeglio, Roberta Squecco, Lara Ballerini, Tommaso Mello, Giulia Guarnieri, Eglantina Idrizaj, Benedetta Mazzanti, Linda Vignozzi, Pasquale Gallina, Mario Maggi, Gabriella B Vannelli, Annamaria Morelli
CONTEXT: Previous studies have suggested that inflammatory pathways may impair central regulatory networks involving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron activity. Studies in humans are strongly hampered by the lack of human GnRH neuron cell lines. OBJECTIVE: To establish an in vitro model of GnRH neurons of human origin and analyze the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on their biological properties. Design, samples and treatments: The primary human fetal hypothalamic (hfHypo) cell cultures were isolated from brain of three 12 week-old fetuses...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alyson Blanchard, Luna C Munoz Centifanti
Children who exhibit callous-unemotional (CU) traits are identified as developing particularly severe forms of externalising behaviours (EB). A number of risk factors have been identified in the development of CU traits, including biological, physiological, and genetic factors. However, prenatal testosterone (PT) remains un-investigated, yet could signal fetal programming of a combination of CU/EB. Using the 2D:4D digit ratio, the current study examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between PT and EB...
October 12, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Kenna Degner, Ronald R Magness, Dinesh M Shah
The uterine vasculature undergoes marked changes during pregnancy in order to provide the necessary increase in blood flow to support growth and nutrition of the uterus, placenta, and developing fetus. Pregnancy-associated uterine vascular transformations are orchestrated by a complex array of endocrine and cellular mechanisms to bring about structural modifications at the maternal-fetal interface, which collectively lead to development of the uteroplacental circulation. Understanding intrinsic uterine vascular remodeling in pregnancy is essential for understanding the physiologic and pathophysiologic regulation of maternal uterine blood flow...
October 12, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Young Me Yoon, Kelsie J Storm, Ashley N Kamimae-Lanning, Natalya A Goloviznina, Peter Kurre
Our mechanistic understanding of Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway function in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) owes much to their role in experimentally induced DNA crosslink lesion repair. In bone marrow HSPCs, unresolved stress confers p53-dependent apoptosis and progressive cell attrition. The role of FA proteins during hematopoietic development, in the face of physiological replicative demand, remains elusive. Here, we reveal a fetal HSPC pool in Fancd2(-/-) mice with compromised clonogenicity and repopulation...
October 6, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Platonova Natalia, Lesma Elena, Basile Andrea, Bignotto Monica, Garavelli Silvia, Palano Maria Teresa, Moschini Adriana, Neri Antonino, Colombo Michela, Chiaramonte Raffaella
BACKGROUND: Notch is a multifaceted protein that plays a fundamental role in fetal development and tissue homeostasis by directing many cellular functions, including cell growth and differentiation, cell fate determination and regulation of stem cells maintenance. The Notch family consists of four receptors (Notch 1-4) and five ligands (Jagged1-2 and Delta-like 1-3-4) widely expressed in human tissues. Given the crucial contribution of Notch signaling in many physiological processes, it is not surprising that a variety of human malignancies is characterized by a dysregulation of one or more components of this pathway Methods: In this review, we are going to provide a broad overview on the role of Notch pathway in solid and hematological malignancies and a survey on possible Notch-directed therapeutic strategies...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Stine Linding Andersen, Peter Laurberg
Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Jeffrey Pudney, Xianbao He, Zahrah Masheeb, David W Kindelberger, Wendy Kuohung, Robin R Ingalls
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential component of the innate immune system. While a number of studies have described TLR expression in the female reproductive tract, few have examined the temporal expression of TLRs within the human placenta. We hypothesized that the pattern of TLR expression in the placenta changes throughout the first and second trimester, coincident with physiological changes in placental function and the demands of innate immunity. We collected first and second trimester placental tissue and conducted quantitative PCR analysis for TLRs 1-10, followed by immunohistochemistry to define the cell specific expression pattern of a subset of these receptors...
October 2016: Placenta
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