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Fetal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096571/acute-respiratory-failure-and-mechanical-ventilation-in-pregnant-patient-a-narrative-review-of-literature
#1
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar Bhatia, Ghansham Biyani, Sadik Mohammed, Priyanka Sethi, Pooja Bihani
Physiological changes of pregnancy imposes higher risk of acute respiratory failure (ARF) with even a slight insult and remains an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although pregnant women have different respiratory physiology and different causes of ARF, guidelines specific to ventilatory settings, goals of oxygenation and weaning process could not be framed due to lack of large-scale randomized controlled trials. During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women had higher morbidity and mortality compared to nonpregnant women...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094441/sex-drugs-and-rock-and-roll-tales-from-preterm-fetal-life
#2
Laura Bennet
Premature fetuses and babies are at greater risk of mortality and morbidity than their term counterparts. The underlying causes are multifactorial, but include exposure to hypoxia. Immaturity of organs and their functional control may impair the physiological defence responses to hypoxia and the preterm fetal responses, or lack thereof, to moderate hypoxia appear to support this concept. However, as this review demonstrates, despite immaturity, the preterm fetus responds to asphyxia in a qualitatively similar manner to that seen at term...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089504/review-nutrient-sulfate-supply-from-mother-to-fetus-placental-adaptive-responses-during-human-and-animal-gestation
#3
REVIEW
P A Dawson, K Richard, A Perkins, Z Zhang, D G Simmons
Nutrient sulfate has numerous roles in mammalian physiology and is essential for healthy fetal growth and development. The fetus has limited capacity to generate sulfate and relies on sulfate supplied from the maternal circulation via placental sulfate transporters. The placenta also has a high sulfate requirement for numerous molecular and cellular functions, including sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) to estrogen and thyroid hormone which leads to their inactivation. Accordingly, the ratio of sulfonated (inactive) to unconjugated (active) hormones modulates endocrine function in fetal, placental and maternal tissues...
January 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077838/low-grade-metabolically-induced-inflammation-mediators-interleukin-6-adiponectin-and-tnf-%C3%AE-serum-levels-in-obese-pregnant-patients-in-the-perinatal-period
#4
Malgorzata Zembala-Szczerba, Andrzej Jaworowski, Hubert Huras, Dorota Babczyk, Robert Jach
BACKGROUND Obesity is a major clinical problem. The number of obese pregnant women is rising rapidly. The consequences of obesity are significant and affect every aspect of perinatal care for both the mother and the developing fetus. Adipose tissue may be responsible for chronic subclinical inflammation in obesity, being a source of inflammatory mediators. The study was designed to evaluate the analysis of the serum concentration of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and adiponectin, in obese pregnant women at full-term pregnancies...
January 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074549/systemic-alterations-and-their-oral-manifestations-in-pregnant-women
#5
REVIEW
Camilla Silva de Araujo Figueiredo, Cíntia Gonçalves Carvalho Rosalem, Andre Luis Costa Cantanhede, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira da Cruz
The aims of this literature review are: to depict the main oral diseases that are related to pregnancy; to clarify some of the possible systemic mechanisms that are associated with these changes; and to address issues about oral care during pregnancy. A woman's organs undergo various physiological, neurological, and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Such changes occur gradually and are essential for the development of the fetus, providing what is needed for tissue formation and establishment of reserves for uterine and fetal life...
January 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062025/amniotic-fluid-technical-update-on-physiology-and-measurement
#6
Kenneth I Lim, Kimberly Butt, Kentia Naud, Mila Smithies
OBJECTIVE: OUTCOMES: EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE and KFINDER search was used to identify relevant articles, with review of bibliography identified article including Cochrane reviews and recent review articles. VALUES: The evidence collected was reviewed by the Diagnostic Imaging Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada. The recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by The Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care (Table 1)...
January 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060265/analysis-of-cap-binding-proteins-in-human-cells-exposed-to-physiological-oxygen-conditions
#7
Sara Timpano, Gaelan Melanson, Sonia L Evagelou, Brianna D Guild, Erin J Specker, James Uniacke
Translational control is a focal point of gene regulation, especially during periods of cellular stress. Cap-dependent translation via the eIF4F complex is by far the most common pathway to initiate protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, but stress-specific variations of this complex are now emerging. Purifying cap-binding proteins with an affinity resin composed of Agarose-linked m(7)GTP (a 5' mRNA cap analog) is a useful tool to identify factors involved in the regulation of translation initiation. Hypoxia (low oxygen) is a cellular stress encountered during fetal development and tumor progression, and is highly dependent on translation regulation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057738/a-population-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-derives-from-gata4-expressing-progenitors-located-in-the-placenta-and-lateral-mesoderm-of-mice
#8
Ana Cañete, Rita Carmona, Laura Ariza, Maria Jose Sanchez, Anabel Rojas, Ramon Muñoz-Chápuli
GATA transcription factors are expressed in mesoderm and endoderm during development. GATA1-3, but not GATA4, are critically involved in hematopoiesis. An enhancer (G2) of the mouse Gata4 gene directs its expression throughout the lateral mesoderm and the allantois, beginning at E7.5, becoming restricted to the septum transversum by E10.5, and disappearing by midgestation. We have studied the developmental fate of the G2-Gata4 cell lineage using a G2-Gata4Cre;R26REYFP mouse line. We found a substantial number of YFP+ hematopoietic cells of lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid lineages in embryos...
January 5, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049636/verification-of-a-maternal-fetal-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-passive-placental-permeability-drugs
#9
Zufei Zhang, Jashvant D Unadkat
Fetal exposure to drugs cannot be readily estimated from single time point cord blood sampling at the time of delivery. Therefore, we developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to estimate fetal drug exposure throughout pregnancy. Here we report verification of this novel maternal-fetal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (m-f-PBPK) model for drugs that passively diffuse across the placenta and are not metabolized/transported there. Our recently built m-f-PBPK model was populated with gestational age-dependent changes in maternal drug disposition and maternal-fetal physiology...
January 3, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034657/failure-of-physiologic-transformation-of-spiral-arteries-endothelial-and-trophoblast-cell-activation-and-acute-atherosis-in-the-basal-plate-of-the-placenta
#10
Carlos A Labarrere, Hector L Dicarlo, Elaine Bammerlin, James W Hardin, Yeon M Kim, Piya Chaemsaithong, David M Haas, Ghassan S Kassab, Roberto Romero
BACKGROUND: Failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries has been reported in preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, fetal death, and spontaneous preterm labor with intact or ruptured membranes. Spiral arteries with failure of physiologic transformation are prone to develop atherosclerotic-like lesions of atherosis. There are striking parallels between preeclampsia and atherosclerotic disease, and between lesions of atherosis and atherosclerosis. Endothelial activation, identified by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, is present in atherosclerotic-like lesions of heart transplantation, and is considered a manifestation of rejection...
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031325/diethylstilbestrol-activates-catsper-and-disturbs-progesterone-actions-in-human-spermatozoa
#11
Qian-Xing Zou, Zhen Peng, Qing Zhao, Hou-Yang Chen, Yi-Min Cheng, Qing Liu, Yuan-Qiao He, Shi-Qi Weng, Hua-Feng Wang, Tao Wang, Li-Ping Zheng, Tao Luo
STUDY QUESTION: Is diethylstilbestrol (DES), a prototypical endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), able to induce physiological changes in human spermatozoa and affect progesterone actions? SUMMARY ANSWER: DES promoted Ca(2+) flux into human spermatozoa by activating the cation channel of sperm (CatSper) and suppressed progesterone-induced Ca(2+) signaling, tyrosine phosphorylation and sperm functions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: DES significantly impairs the male reproductive system both in fetal and postnatal exposure...
December 28, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031147/review-effects-of-maternal-micronutrient-supplementation-on-placental-function
#12
REVIEW
Kerry Richard, Olivia Holland, Kelly Landers, Jessica J Vanderlelie, Pierre Hofstee, James S M Cuffe, Anthony V Perkins
Pregnancy is a physiological challenge that may require additional nutritional support. Suboptimal micronutrient intakes and micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy are a global problem, often leading to poor maternal and child outcomes. Micronutrient supplementation is commonly recommended during pregnancy to support and enhance maternal metabolism. Recent studies suggest that the use of multiple micronutrient supplements may be of benefit during a normal pregnancy and may significantly reduce the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and improve pregnancy outcomes...
December 20, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031015/melatonin-pharmacology-functions-and-therapeutic-benefits
#13
Sylvie Tordjman, Sylvie Chokron, Richard Delorme, Annaëlle Charrier, Eric Bellissant, Nemat Jaafari, Claire Fougerou
Melatonin synchronizes central but also peripheral oscillators (fetal adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, kidney, heart, lung, fat, gut, etc.), allowing temporal organization of biological functions through circadian rhythms in relation to periodic environmental changes and therefore adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environment. Measures of melatonin are considered the best peripheral indices of human circadian timing. First, the pharmacology of melatonin (biosynthesis and circadian rhythms, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of action) is described, allowing a better understanding of the short and long term effects of melatonin following its immediate or prolonged release...
December 28, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029254/pegylated-and-functionalized-aliphatic-polycarbonate-polyplex-nanoparticles-for-intravenous-administration-of-hdac5-sirna-in-cancer-therapy
#14
Antoine Frère, Alexandra Baroni, Elodie Hendrick, Anne-Sophie Delvigne, François Orange, Olivier Peulen, George R Dakwar, Jérôme Diricq, Philippe Dubois, Brigitte Evrard, Katrien Remaut, Kevin Braeckmans, Stefaan C De Smedt, Julie Laloy, Jean-Michel Dogné, Georges Feller, Laetitia Mespouille, Denis Mottet, Geraldine Piel
Guanidine and morpholine functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate polymers able to efficiently deliver histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) siRNA into the cytoplasm of cancer cells in vitro leading to a decrease of cell proliferation were previously developed. To allow these biodegradable and biocompatible polyplex nanoparticles to overcome the extracellular barriers and be effective in vivo after an intravenous injection, polyethylene glycol chains (PEG750 or PEG2000) were grafted on the polymer structure. These nanoparticles, showed an average size of about 150 nm and a slightly positive zeta potential with complete siRNA complexation...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028317/oral-leptin-supplementation-throughout-lactation-in-rats-prevents-later-metabolic-alterations-caused-by-gestational-calorie-restriction
#15
N Szostaczuk, T Priego, M Palou, A Palou, C Picó
OBJECTIVES: Calorie-restriction during gestation in rats has been seen to produce lasting detrimental effects in the offspring, affecting energy balance control and other related metabolic functions. Our aim was to assess whether leptin supplementation throughout lactation may prevent the dysmetabolic phenotype in adulthood associated with gestational calorie restriction. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were followed: the offspring of ad libitum fed dams (controls); the offspring of 20% calorie-restricted dams during gestation (CR); and CR rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation (CR-Leptin)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027955/oxytocin-pathways-in-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-maternal-early-life-stress
#16
REVIEW
Philipp Toepfer, Christine Heim, Sonja Entringer, Elisabeth Binder, Pathik Wadhwa, Claudia Buss
Severe stress in early life, such as childhood abuse and neglect, constitutes a major risk factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases. Importantly, these long-term effects may impact the next generation. The intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress (ELS) may occur via pre-and postnatal pathways, such as alterations in maternal-fetal-placental stress physiology, maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as impaired mother-offspring interactions...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024805/review-placental-mitochondrial-function-and-structure-in-gestational-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Olivia Holland, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Linda A Gallo, Meliha Vejzovic, Joshua J Fisher, Anthony V Perkins
The aetiology of many gestational disorders is still unknown. However, insufficient trans-placental nutrient and oxygen transfer due to abnormal placentation is characteristic of several pathologies, and may alter the function of placental mitochondria. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that respond to a wide range of stimuli - such as physiological changes in cellular energy demands or various pathologies - by reshaping via fusion or fission, increasing/decreasing in number, altering oxidative phosphorylation, and signalling cellular functions such as apoptosis...
December 14, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017357/review-the-role-of-multiple-placental-glucocorticoid-receptor-isoforms-in-adapting-to-the-maternal-environment-and-regulating-fetal-growth
#18
REVIEW
V L Clifton, J Cuffe, K M Moritz, T J Cole, P J Fuller, N Z Lu, S Kumar, S Chong, Z Saif
The physiological mechanisms that confer different outcomes in morbidity and mortality of the fetus exposed to stressful environments may be driven by significant differences in the expression and function of the placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The recent discovery that the placenta contains at least 8 different isoforms of the GR raises questions about the regulation and physiological relevance of the many GR variants expressed in the placenta. The current data also highlights that individual differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity, variations in the effect of different complications of pregnancy on birth outcomes and sex differences in the response to stress, may all be dependent on a specific GR isoform expression profile...
December 19, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011589/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-exposure-disrupts-progeny-cardiac-function-and-bioenergetics
#19
Quincy A Hathaway, Cody E Nichols, Danielle L Shepherd, Phoebe A Stapleton, Sarah L Mclaughlin, Janelle C Stricker, Stephanie L Rellick, Mark V Pinti, Alaeddin B Abukabda, Caroll R McBride, Jinghai Yi, Seth M Stine, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, John M Hollander
Nanomaterial production is expanding as new industrial and consumer applications are introduced. Nevertheless, the impacts of exposure to these compounds are not fully realized. The current study was designed to determine whether gestational nano-TiO2 exposure impacts cardiac and metabolic function of developing progeny. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to nano-TiO2 aerosols (~10 mg/m(3), 130 - 150 nm count median aerodynamic diameter) for 7-8 non-consecutive days beginning at gestational day 5-6. Physiological and bioenergetic effects on heart function and cardiomyocytes across three time points: fetal (gestational day 20), neonatal (4-10 days), and young adult (6-12 weeks) were evaluated...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009530/maternal-cortisol-during-pregnancy-and-infant-adiposity-a-prospective-investigation
#20
Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Jerod M Rasmussen, Karen Lindsay, Daniel L Gillen, Dan M Cooper, Pathik D Wadhwa
CONTEXT: Glucocorticoids play a key role during intrauterine development in cellular growth and differentiation. Evidence suggests that exposure to inappropriate concentrations of glucocorticoids during sensitive developmental periods may produce alterations in physiological systems that impact obesity risk. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the magnitude and stage-of-gestation specific association of maternal cortisol concentrations during pregnancy with infant adiposity...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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