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Fetal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806624/bcl-2-bax-protein-and-mrna-expression-in-yak-bos-grunniens-placentomes
#1
JiangFeng Fan, SiJiu Yu, Yan Cui, Gengquan Xu, Libin Wang, Yangyang Pan, Honghong He
Placental function is complex and influenced by various factors; furthermore, it depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are key apoptosis regulators and are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of both dynamic balance and integrity of many tissues. Changes in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions have been described during different developmental stages in normal human placentas. Studies furthermore indicated several pathological placental changes to be related to abnormal Bcl-2 and Bax expressions...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805106/measuring-fetal-brain-and-lung-transcripts-in-amniotic-fluid-supernatant-a-comparison-of-digital-pcr-and-rt-qpcr-methods
#2
Lisa Hui, Sally Beard, Natalie J Hannan
PURPOSE: Amniotic fluid (AF) cell-free RNA is a promising source of information regarding fetal physiology. Digital PCR (dPCR) is a direct approach to nucleic acid detection that reports absolute transcript copy number. The aim of this study was to compare quantification of cell-free fetal brain and lung RNA transcripts in AF by reverse transcription-qPCR and dPCR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective hospital-based study performed in 2016-2017. Pulmonary genes were quantified in term AF samples collected at elective cesarean birth; neurodevelopmental genes were measured in preterm samples (< 34 weeks) obtained from women undergoing clinically-indicated amniocentesis...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803917/sca1-cells-from-the-heart-possess-a-molecular-circadian-clock-and-display-circadian-oscillations-in-cellular-functions
#3
Bastiaan C Du Pré, Evelyne J Demkes, Dries A M Feyen, Pieterjan Dierickx, Sandra Crnko, Bart J M Kok, Joost P G Sluijter, Pieter A Doevendans, Marc A Vos, Toon A B Van Veen, Linda W Van Laake
Stem cell antigen 1-positive (SCA1(+)) cells (SPCs) have been investigated in cell-based cardiac repair and pharmacological research, although improved cardiac function after injection has been variable and the mode of action remains unclear. Circadian (24-hr) rhythms are biorhythms regulated by molecular clocks that play an important role in (patho)physiology. Here, we describe (1) the presence of a molecular circadian clock in SPCs and (2) circadian rhythmicity in SPC function. We isolated SPCs from human fetal heart and found that these cells possess a molecular clock based on typical oscillations in core clock components BMAL1 and CRY1...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796394/maternal-haemodynamics-in-normal-pregnancies-and-in-pregnancies-affected-by-pre-eclampsia
#4
Daniel Stott, Obianuju Nzelu, Kypros H Nicolaides, Nikos A Kametas
OBJECTIVES: To determine if in a high risk group in the first half of pregnancy, women who developed pre-eclampsia (PE) with fetal growth restriction (PE-FGR) demonstrate distinct haemodynamics compared to those with PE in the absence of FGR (PE-only). METHODS: Cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at the first hospital visit at 9-24 weeks' gestation in 69 women who had chronic hypertension and 67 who had a hypertensive disorder in a previous pregnancy...
August 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796236/genetic-disruption-of-the-oncogenic-hmga2-plag1-igf2-pathway-causes-fetal-growth-restriction
#5
Walid Abi Habib, Frédéric Brioude, Thomas Edouard, James T Bennett, Anne Lienhardt-Roussie, Frédérique Tixier, Jennifer Salem, Tony Yuen, Salah Azzi, Yves Le Bouc, Madeleine D Harbison, Irène Netchine
PurposeFetal growth is a complex process involving maternal, placental and fetal factors. The etiology of fetal growth retardation remains unknown in many cases. The aim of this study is to identify novel human mutations and genes related to Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a syndromic form of fetal growth retardation, usually caused by epigenetic downregulation of the potent fetal growth factor IGF2.MethodsWhole-exome sequencing was carried out on members of an SRS familial case. The candidate gene from the familial case and two other genes were screened by targeted high-throughput sequencing in a large cohort of suspected SRS patients...
August 10, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794470/endocrine-disruptors-induce-perturbations-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derivatives
#6
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Camille Ocampo, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We delineate the effects upon physiological low-dose exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals including, perfluoro-octanoic acid, tributyltin, and butylhydroxytoluene, in endocrine-active human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived foregut epithelial cells and hypothalamic neurons...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792420/primary-culture-of-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri-hemocytes-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-studying-host-pathogen-interactions
#7
Aichang Ji, Xueyu Li, Sha Fang, Zhenkui Qin, Changming Bai, Chongming Wang, Zhifeng Zhang
Primary cultured cells can be a useful tool in studies on physiology, virology, and toxicology. Hemocytes play an important role in animal rapid response to pathogen invasion. In this study, an appropriate medium for primary culture of hemocytes of the bivalve Chlamys farreri was developed by adding 5% fetal bovine serum and 1% C. farreri serum to Leibovitz L-15 medium. These primary cultured hemocytes were maintained for more than 40 d in vitro and were classified into 3 types: (1) granulocytes containing numerous granules in the cytoplasm, (2) hyalinocytes with no or few granules, (3) a small percentage of macrophage-like cells...
August 9, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782142/influence-of-gestational-diabetes-on-the-fetal-autonomic-nervous-system-a-study-using-phase-rectified-signal-averaging-analysis
#8
Silvia M Lobmaier, Javier U Ortiz, Maria Sewald, Alexander Müller, Georg Schmidt, Bernhard Haller, Renate Oberhoffer, Karl T M Schneider, Dino A Giussani, Annette Wacker-Gußmann
OBJECTIVES: Maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) is known to influence fetal physiology. Phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA), an innovative signal processing technique, can be used to investigate signals obtained from fetal heart. The PRSA calculated variables "average acceleration capacity" (AAC) and "average deceleration capacity" (ADC) are established indices of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gestational diabetes on the fetal ANS in human pregnancy using PRSA...
August 7, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781260/-impairments-of-placental-amino-acid-metabolism-in-fetal-growth-restriction
#9
T N Pogorelova, V O Gunko, V V Avrutskaya, L V Kaushanskaya, O A Durnitsyna
The content of the amino acids in the placenta during physiological pregnancy and fetal growth restriction (FGR) has been investigated my means of the method of ion-exchange chromatography. It has been found that in FGR the placental amino acid pool is characterized by a decreased content of arginine, proline, alanine, serine, cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, leucine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, glutamine and an increased content of dicarboxylic amino acids, lysine, histidine and glycine. These changes are accompanied by altered activity of some enzymes of amino acid metabolism, and the degree of these changes correlates with the level of corresponding amino acids...
May 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780659/preconception-counseling-for-women-with-cardiac-disease
#10
REVIEW
Mark A Clapp, Sarah N Bernstein
All providers who care for reproductive-aged women with cardiac disease should assess these patients' desires and plans for pregnancy at every encounter. For those considering pregnancy, preconception counseling, often performed by a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, can help patients understand the potential implications of pregnancy on their health and estimate the risks of an adverse cardiac event prior to conceiving. There are cardiac conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and aortic stenosis, in which pregnancy may be contraindicated given the high morbidity and mortality; there are tools available to help quantify a patient's risk...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776582/thyroid-disease-in-pregnancy-new-insights-in-diagnosis-and-clinical-management
#11
REVIEW
Tim I M Korevaar, Marco Medici, Theo J Visser, Robin P Peeters
Adequate thyroid hormone availability is important for an uncomplicated pregnancy and optimal fetal growth and development. Overt thyroid disease is associated with a wide range of adverse obstetric and child development outcomes. An increasing number of studies now indicate that milder forms of thyroid dysfunction are also associated with these adverse pregnancy outcomes. The definitions of both overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction have changed considerably over the past few years, as new data indicate that the commonly used fixed upper limits of 2...
August 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760794/comparison-of-a-freeze-all-strategy-including-gnrh-agonist-trigger-versus-a-fresh-transfer-strategy-including-hcg-trigger-in-assisted-reproductive-technology-art-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Sacha Stormlund, Kristine Løssl, Anne Zedeler, Jeanette Bogstad, Lisbeth Prætorius, Henriette Svarre Nielsen, Mona Bungum, Sven O Skouby, Anne Lis Mikkelsen, Anders Nyboe Andersen, Christina Bergh, Peter Humaidan, Anja Pinborg
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759840/an-experimental-canine-patent-ductus-arteriosus-occlusion-device-based-on-shape-memory-polymer-foam-in-a-nitinol-cage
#13
Mark A Wierzbicki, Sarah B Raines, Sonya G Gordon, John C Criscione, Ashley B Saunders, Scott Birch, Bradley Due, Brandis Keller, Landon D Nash, Matthew W Miller, Duncan J Maitland
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital cardiovascular defect in which a fetal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery does not spontaneously close shortly after birth. If left uncorrected serious complications and even death can occur. Surgical ligation is the traditional treatment method; however, it is an invasive procedure, that motivates development of a minimally invasive option. Shape memory polymer (SMP) foams are unique materials that hold promise in the field of minimally invasive occlusion devices...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751574/expression-of-adamts13-in-normal-and-abnormal-placentae-and-its-potential-role-in-angiogenesis-and-placenta-development
#14
Juan Xiao, Yun Feng, Xueyin Li, Wei Li, Lei Fan, Jing Liu, Xue Zeng, Kaiyue Chen, Xi Chen, Xiaoshui Zhou, X Long Zheng, Suhua Chen
OBJECTIVE: ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 repeats, member 13) is primarily synthesized in liver. The biosynthesis and its physiological role in placenta are not known. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting analyses, as well as proteolytic cleavage of FRETS-VWF73, to determine ADAMTS13 expression in placenta and trophoblasts obtained from individuals with normal pregnancy and patients with severe preeclampsia...
July 27, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750898/the-use-of-a-unique-co-culture-model-of-fetoplacental-steroidogenesis-as-a-screening-tool-for-endocrine-disruptors-the-effects-of-neonicotinoids-on-aromatase-activity-and-hormone-production
#15
Elyse Caron-Beaudoin, Rachel Viau, Andrée-Anne Hudon-Thibeault, Cathy Vaillancourt, J Thomas Sanderson
Estrogen biosynthesis during pregnancy is dependent on the collaboration between the fetus producing the androgen precursors, and the placenta expressing the enzyme aromatase (CYP19). Disruption of estrogen production by contaminants may result in serious pregnancy outcomes. We used our recently developed in vitro co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis to screen the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides on the catalytic activity of aromatase and the production of steroid hormones. A co-culture of H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells with fetal characteristics and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells which display characteristics of the villous cytotrophoblast was exposed for 24h to various concentrations of three neonicotinoids: thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid...
July 24, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744795/prediction-of-fetal-darunavir-exposure-by-integrating-human-ex-vivo-placental-transfer-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling
#16
Stein Schalkwijk, Aaron O Buaben, Jolien J M Freriksen, Angela P Colbers, David M Burger, Rick Greupink, Frans G M Russel
BACKGROUND: Fetal antiretroviral exposure is usually derived from the cord-to-maternal concentration ratio. This static parameter does not provide information on the pharmacokinetics in utero, limiting the assessment of a fetal exposure-effect relationship. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to incorporate placental transfer into a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to simulate and evaluate fetal darunavir exposure at term. METHODS: An existing and validated pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of maternal darunavir/ritonavir exposure was extended with a feto-placental unit...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744256/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-as-the-homeostatic-rheostat-of-feto-maternal-symbiosis-and-developmental-programming-in-utero-and-neonatal-life
#17
REVIEW
Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso, Pamela Panetta, Patricia de Gortari, Dimitris K Grammatopoulos
A balanced interaction between the homeostatic mechanisms of mother and the developing organism during pregnancy and in early neonatal life is essential in order to ensure optimal fetal development, ability to respond to various external and internal challenges, protection from adverse programming, and safeguard maternal care availability after parturition. In the majority of pregnancies, this relationship is highly effective resulting in successful outcomes. However, in a number of pathological settings, perturbations of the maternal homeostasis disrupt this symbiosis and initiate adaptive responses with unpredictable outcomes for the fetus or even the neonate...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744200/effect-of-neuroinflammation-on-synaptic-organization-and-function-in-the-developing-brain-implications-for-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
Amin Mottahedin, Maryam Ardalan, Tetyana Chumak, Ilse Riebe, Joakim Ek, Carina Mallard
The brain is a plastic organ where both the intrinsic CNS milieu and extrinsic cues play important roles in shaping and wiring neural connections. The perinatal period constitutes a critical time in central nervous system development with extensive refinement of neural connections, which are highly sensitive to fetal and neonatal compromise, such as inflammatory challenges. Emerging evidence suggests that inflammatory cells in the brain such as microglia and astrocytes are pivotal in regulating synaptic structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737244/hypoxia-animal-experiments-and-clinical-implications
#19
Yasuyuki Kawagoe, Hiroshi Sameshima
The developing fetus has some unique physiological properties that differ from properties in extra-uterine life. The fetus exists in a hypoxemic condition as a result of the presence of the placenta, which serves as a limiting interface between maternal and fetal circulation. In addition, the fetus is prone to be exposed to uterine contractions, which place it under a further hypoxic burden. Thus, the fetal response to hypoxic insults is important. There has been marked progression in the understanding of fetal physiology since the introduction of the 'chronic preparation model'...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733063/do-early-fetal-measurements-and-nuchal-translucency-correlate-with-term-birth-weight
#20
Rinat Hackmon, Clifford Librach, Richard Burwick, Nicole Rodrigues, Dan Farine, Howard Berger
OBJECTIVE: Traditionally, physiological variation in fetal weight is believed to emerge during the latter half of pregnancy. Although recent evidence suggests that crown-rump length (CRL) and nuchal translucency (NT) measured at 11-14 weeks correlate with abnormal fetal growth, findings have been limited by dating accuracy in spontaneous gestations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether CRL or NT measurements correlated with term birth weight (BW) or BW ratio in a cohort of IVF pregnancies, in which the date of conception is precisely known...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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