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Fetal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150616/nmr-metabolomics-for-stem-cell-type-discrimination
#1
Franca Castiglione, Monica Ferro, Evangelos Mavroudakis, Rosalia Pellitteri, Patrizia Bossolasco, Damiano Zaccheo, Massimo Morbidelli, Vincenzo Silani, Andrea Mele, Davide Moscatelli, Lidia Cova
Cell metabolism is a key determinant factor for the pluripotency and fate commitment of Stem Cells (SCs) during development, ageing, pathological onset and progression. We derived and cultured selected subpopulations of rodent fetal, postnatal, adult Neural SCs (NSCs) and postnatal glial progenitors, Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs), respectively from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the olfactory bulb (OB). Cell lysates were analyzed by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy leading to metabolites identification and quantitation...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150031/thoracic-surgery-in-the-pregnant-patient
#2
REVIEW
Brian Whang
Thoracic surgeons are sometimes asked to consult on the management of a patient who is pregnant. Conditions commonly encountered are empyema, spontaneous pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic hernia. Lung cancer is rarely seen in pregnancy, but its incidence is rising. Diagnostic imaging and perioperative management involve the navigation of fetal risks and nuances in maternal physiology. Shared decision making within a multidisciplinary framework will optimally guide the course of management.
February 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146733/effects-of-chronically-increased-vegf-a-on-the-aging-heart
#3
Alexander G Marneros
Whether approaches to chronically increase VEGF-A in the heart may have beneficial effects and prevent the development of heart failure, in part by improving cardiac perfusion, or whether this increase could have detrimental effects on cardiac performance in the aging heart, has not been tested yet. In this study, a genetic mouse model with a chronic increase in VEGF-A in the heart is shown to have increased cardiac angiogenesis and develop cardiac hypertrophy with enhanced basal cardiac performance with age progression...
November 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138223/effect-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-key-components-of-the-placental-and-hepatic-endocannabinoid-system
#4
Kushal Gandhi, Cun Li, Nadezhda German, Cezary Skobowiat, Maira Carrillo, Raja Reddy Kallem, Eneko Larumbe, Stacy Martinez, Marcel Chuecos, Gary Ventolini, Peter Nathanielsz, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch
INTRODUCTION: Involvement of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) in obesity is well-characterized. However, information regarding eCB physiology in obesity associated with pregnancy is sparse. METHODS: From at least 9 months before conception, non-pregnant baboons (Papio spp.) were fed a diet of either 45% fat (HFD; n=11) or 12% fat or a control diet (CTR; n=11), and dietary intervention continued through pregnancy. Maternal and fetal venous plasma samples were evaluated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138031/mortality-and-pulmonary-outcomes-of-extremely-preterm-infants-exposed-to-antenatal-corticosteroids
#5
Colm P Travers, Waldemar A Carlo, Scott A Mcdonald, Abhik Das, Edward F Bell, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Alan H Jobe, Ronald N Goldberg, Carl T D'Angio, Barbara J Stoll, Seetha Shankaran, Abbot R Laptook, Barbara Schmidt, Michele C Walsh, Pablo J Sanchez, M Bethany Ball, Ellen C Hale, Nancy S Newman, Rosemary D Higgins
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroids are given primarily to induce fetal lung maturation but results from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have not shown mortality or pulmonary benefits for extremely preterm infants although these are the infants most at risk of mortality and pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine if exposure to antenatal corticosteroids is associated with a lower rate of death and pulmonary morbidities by 36 weeks' postmenstrual age...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137478/effects-of-increased-myocardial-tissue-concentration-of-myristic-palmitic-and-palmitoleic-acids-on-the-course-of-cardiac-atrophy-of-the-failing-heart-unloaded-by-heterotopic-transplantation
#6
M Pokorný, I Mrázová, J Malý, J Pirk, I Netuka, Z Vaňourková, Š DoleŽelová, L Červenková, H Maxová, V Melenovský, J Šochman, J Sadowski, L Červenka
The present experiments were performed to evaluate if increased heart tissue concentration of fatty acids, specifically myristic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids that are believed to promote physiological heart growth, can attenuate the progression of unloading-induced cardiac atrophy in rats with healthy and failing hearts. Heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation (HT(x)) was used as a model for heart unloading. Cardiac atrophy was assessed from the ratio of the native- to-transplanted heart weight (HW)...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136400/changes-in-bone-turnover-and-calcium-homeostasis-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-mammals-a-meta-analysis
#7
Diego A Torres, Mariella B Freitas, Reggiani V Gonçalves
Large amounts of calcium are required during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal and neonatal bone growth and calcification. An inadequate supply of calcium during these stages can lead to unsuccessful reproduction or impaired offspring fitness. During reproduction, female mammals undergo numerous physiological changes, including adaptations to allow an adequate supply of calcium. The lack of quantitative studies analysing these physiological changes from a comparative perspective limits our ability to explain and understand these adaptations...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131917/a-pediatrician-s-take-on-a-few-common-infant-urologic-and-gynecologic-issues
#8
Sabrina Fernandez
Urologic and gynecologic issues are common in a pediatric primary care office. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of a few common diagnoses in infants and young children: fetal hydronephrosis, labial adhesions, physiologic phimosis, and hydrocele. This article can help pediatricians decide when these common issues can be managed in the primary care office and when they need subspecialty guidance. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(11):e397-e399.].
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129788/a-new-formulation-of-poly-maotib-nanoparticles-as-an-efficient-contrast-agent-for-in-vivo-x-ray-imaging
#9
Justine Wallyn, Nicolas Anton, Christophe Serra, Michel Bouquey, Mayeul Collot, Halina Anton, Jean-Luc Weickert, Nadia Messaddeq, Thierry F Vandamme
Polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) are gaining increasing importance as nanocarriers or contrasting material for preclinical diagnosis by micro-CT scanner. Here, we investigated a straightforward approach to produce a biocompatible, radiopaque, and stable polymer-based nanoparticle contrast agent, which was evaluated on mice. To this end, we used a nanoprecipitation dropping technique to obtain PEGylated PNPs from a preformed iodinated homopolymer, poly(MAOTIB), synthesized by radical polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl(2,3,5-triiodobenzoate) monomer (MAOTIB)...
November 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128907/a-new-conditionally-immortalized-human-fetal-brain-pericyte-cell-line-establishment-and-functional-characterization-as-a-promising-tool-for-human-brain-pericyte-studies
#10
Kenta Umehara, Yuchen Sun, Satoshi Hiura, Koki Hamada, Motoyuki Itoh, Keita Kitamura, Motohiko Oshima, Atsushi Iwama, Kosuke Saito, Naohiko Anzai, Kan Chiba, Hidetaka Akita, Tomomi Furihata
While pericytes wrap around microvascular endothelial cells throughout the human body, their highest coverage rate is found in the brain. Brain pericytes actively contribute to various brain functions, including the development and stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), tissue regeneration, and brain inflammation. Accordingly, detailed characterization of the functional nature of brain pericytes is important for understanding the mechanistic basis of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Herein, we report on the development of a new human brain pericyte cell line, hereafter referred to as the human brain pericyte/conditionally immortalized clone 37 (HBPC/ci37)...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127374/prediction-of-human-prenatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-and-bisphenol-a-glucuronide-from-an-ovine-semi-physiological-toxicokinetic-model
#11
Glenn Gauderat, Nicole Picard-Hagen, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Rémi Servien, Catherine Viguié, Sylvie Puel, Marlène Z Lacroix, Tanguy Corbel, Alain Bousquet-Melou, Véronique Gayrard
Bisphenol A (BPA) risk assessment is hampered by the difficulty of determining the extent of internal exposure in the human fetus and uncertainties regarding BPA toxicokinetics (TK) in the maternal-fetal unit. A feto-maternal TK model describing BPA and BPA glucuronide (BPAG) disposition in sheep was humanized, using human TK data obtained after d6-BPA administration on a cookie, to predict BPA and BPAG kinetics in the human mother-fetus unit. Validation of the model predictions included the assessed dose proportionality of BPA and BPAG disposition and the similarity between the simulated and measured time courses of BPA and BPAG in fetal rhesus monkeys after BPA maternal dosing...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123159/zinc-is-a-critical-regulator-of-placental-morphogenesis-and-maternal-hemodynamics-during-pregnancy-in-mice
#12
Rebecca L Wilson, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Zona Goh, Dale McAninch, Tanja Jankovic-Karasoulos, Gabriela E Leghi, Jessica A Phillips, Katrina Mirabito Colafella, Cuong Tran, Sean O'Leary, Sam Buckberry, Stephen Pederson, Sarah A Robertson, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts
Zinc is an essential micronutrient in pregnancy and zinc deficiency impairs fetal growth. We used a mouse model of moderate zinc deficiency to investigate the physiological mechanisms by which zinc is important to placental morphogenesis and the maternal blood pressure changes during pregnancy. A 26% reduction in circulating zinc (P = 0.005) was exhibited in mice fed a moderately zinc-deficient diet. Zinc deficiency in pregnancy resulted in an 8% reduction in both near term fetal and placental weights (both P < 0...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121458/placental-drug-transport-on-a-chip-a-microengineered-in-vitro-model-of-transporter-mediated-drug-efflux-in-the-human-placental-barrier
#13
Cassidy Blundell, Yoon-Suk Yi, Lin Ma, Emily R Tess, Megan J Farrell, Andrei Georgescu, Lauren M Aleksunes, Dongeun Huh
The current lack of knowledge about the effect of maternally administered drugs on the developing fetus is a major public health concern worldwide. The first critical step toward predicting the safety of medications in pregnancy is to screen drug compounds for their ability to cross the placenta. However, this type of preclinical study has been hampered by the limited capacity of existing in vitro and ex vivo models to mimic physiological drug transport across the maternal-fetal interface in the human placenta...
November 9, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115705/co-culturing-porcine-normal-urothelial-cells-urinary-bladder-fibroblasts-and-smooth-muscle-cells-for-tissue-engineering-research
#14
Daša Zupančič, Katjuša Mrak Poljšak, Mateja Erdani Kreft
New strategies for culturing and co-culturing of the main types of urinary bladder cells are essential for successful establishment of biomimetic in vitro models, which could be applied for research into, and management of, diverse urological disorders. Porcine normal urothelial cells are available in nearly unlimited amounts and have many properties equivalent to human urothelial cells. In the present study, we established normal differentiated porcine urothelial cells in co-cultures with porcine urinary bladder normal fibroblasts and/or smooth muscle cells...
November 8, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113124/role-of-placental-vdr-expression-and-function-in-common-late-pregnancy-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Julia Knabl, Aurelia Vattai, Yao Ye, Julia Jueckstock, Stefan Hutter, Franz Kainer, Sven Mahner, Udo Jeschke
Vitamin D, besides its classical role in bone metabolism, plays a distinct role in multiple pathways of the feto-maternal unit. Calcitriol is the major active ligand of the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in different uteroplacental parts and exerts a variety of functions in physiologic pregnancy. It regulates decidualisation and implantation, influences hormone secretion and placental immune modulations. This review highlights the role of the vitamin D receptor in physiologic and disturbed pregnancy, as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes and preterm birth...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112941/yoga-can-improve-assisted-reproduction-technology-outcomes-in-couples-with-infertility
#16
Sara Darbandi, Mahsa Darbandi, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi
Context • Depending on the cause of the infertility, nonsurgical or surgical treatments may be used to treat men and women with infertility. Despite improved outcomes due to medical advances, assisted reproductive technology (ART) for couples with infertility is sometimes unsuccessful. Success may be affected by the patient's social, psychological, and physical status. Objective • The study examined the effects of yoga-including asanas (yoga poses), pranayama (proper breathing), shavasana, and meditation-on male and female fertility and ART outcomes...
November 7, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111429/megakaryocyte-and-polyploidization
#17
REVIEW
Stefania Mazzi, Larissa Lordier, Najet Debili, Hana Raslova, William Vainchenker
In mammals, platelets are produced in the blood by cytoplasmic fragmentation of megakaryocytes (MKs). Platelet production is thus dependent on both the MK number and size. During differentiation, MKs switch from a division by mitosis to polyploidization by endomitosis to increase their size. The endomitotic process includes several successive rounds of DNA replication with an entry in mitosis with a failure in late cytokinesis and a defect in karyokinesis. This leads to a giant cell with a modal ploidy at 16N and one multilobulated nucleus...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108634/maternal-growth-restriction-and-stress-exposure-in-rats-differentially-alters-expression-of-components-of-the-placental-glucocorticoid-barrier-and-nutrient-transporters
#18
Jessica F Briffa, Sogand S Hosseini, Melanie Tran, Karen M Moritz, James S M Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
The placenta plays a major role in the development of fetal growth restriction, which affects 10% of pregnancies and contributes to chronic adult disease risk. We have reported that female rats born small develop cardiometabolic dysfunction only during pregnancy. The physiological tests performed during pregnancy induced a maternal stress response as indicated by increased maternal corticosterone concentrations. This stress effected placental growth compared to females who were unhandled during pregnancy. Maternal stress and growth restriction independently program F2 offspring metabolic dysfunction...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105382/hypoxia-from-placental-development-to-fetal-programming
#19
REVIEW
Lais Fajersztajn, Mariana Matera Veras
Hypoxia may influence normal and different pathological processes. Low oxygenation activates a variety of responses, many of them regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, which is mostly involved in cellular control of O2 consumption and delivery, inhibition of growth and development, and promotion of anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia plays a significant physiological role in fetal development; it is involved in different embryonic processes, for example, placentation, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. More recently, fetal hypoxia has been associated directly or indirectly with fetal programming of heart, brain, and kidney function and metabolism in adulthood...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102397/short-time-pre-washing-of-brushite-forming-calcium-phosphate-cement-improves-its-in-vitro-cytocompatibility
#20
Elke Kunisch, Stefan Maenz, Marie Knoblich, Frank Ploeger, Klaus D Jandt, Joerg Bossert, Raimund W Kinne, Saifeddin Alsalameh
A pre-washing protocol was developed for resorbable, brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) to avoid harmful in vitro effects on cells. CPC discs (JectOS+, Kasios; self-developed CPC) were pre-washed with repeated changes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 24h total). Unwashed or PBS-pre-washed discs were incubated in culture medium (5% fetal calf serum; up to 10days) and then tested for their influence on pH/calcium/phosphate levels in H2O extracts. Effects on pH/calcium/phosphate levels in culture supernatants, and morphology, adherence, number, and viability of ATDC5 cells and adipose-tissue derived stem cells were analyzed in co-culture...
October 14, 2017: Tissue & Cell
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