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Fetal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730459/fetal-programming-as-a-predictor-of-adult-health-or-disease-the-need-to-reevaluate-fetal-heart-function
#1
REVIEW
Joana O Miranda, Carla Ramalho, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, José Carlos Areias
Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that adverse stimuli during critical periods in utero permanently alters organ structure and function and may have persistent consequences for the long-term health of the offspring. Fetal hypoxia, maternal malnutrition, or ventricular overloading are among the major adverse conditions that can compromise cardiovascular development in early life. With the heart as a central organ in fetal adaptive mechanisms, a deeper understanding of the fetal cardiovascular physiology and of the echocardiographic tools to assess both normal and stressed pregnancies would give precious information on fetal well-being and hopefully may help in early identification of special risk groups for cardiovascular diseases later in life...
July 20, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727763/loss-of-receptor-activity-modifying-protein-2-in-mice-causes-placental-dysfunction-and-alters-pth1r-regulation
#2
Mahita Kadmiel, Brooke C Matson, Scott T Espenschied, Patricia M Lenhart, Kathleen M Caron
Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (Ramp2) is a single-pass transmembrane protein that heterodimerizes with several family B G-protein coupled receptors to alter their function. Ramp2 has been primarily characterized in association with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Calcrl, CLR), forming the canonical receptor complex for the endocrine peptide adrenomedullin (Adm, AM). However, we previously demonstrated that Ramp2+/- female mice display a constellation of endocrine-related phenotypes that are distinct from those of Adm+/- and Calcrl+/- mice, implying that RAMP2 has physiological functions beyond its canonical complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727021/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-the-effects-of-poor-maternal-nutrition-during-gestation-on-offspring-postnatal-growth-and-metabolism
#3
M L Hoffman, S A Reed, S M Pillai, A K Jones, K K McFadden, S A Zinn, K E Govoni
Poor maternal nutrition during gestation has been linked to poor growth and development, metabolic dysfunction, impaired health, and reduced productivity of offspring in many species. Poor maternal nutrition can be defined as an excess or restriction of overall nutrients or specific macro- or micronutrients in the diet of the mother during gestation. Interestingly, there are several reports that both restricted- and over-feeding during gestation negatively affect offspring postnatal growth with reduced muscle and bone deposition, increased adipose accumulation, and metabolic dysregulation through reduced leptin and insulin sensitivity...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726984/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-alterations-in-uteroplacental-hemodynamics-during-melatonin-supplementation-in-sheep-and-cattle
#4
C O Lemley, K A Vonnahme
Compromised placental function can result in fetal growth restriction which is associated with greater risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Large increases in transplacental nutrient and waste exchange, which support the exponential increase in fetal growth during the last half of gestation, are dependent primarily on the rapid growth and vascularization of the uteroplacenta. The amplitude of melatonin secretion has been associated with improved oxidative status and altered cardiovascular function in several mammalian species; however, melatonin mediated alterations of uteroplacental capacity in sheep and cattle are lacking...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722653/directing-visceral-white-adipocyte-precursors-to-a-thermogenic-adipocyte-fate-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-mice
#5
Chelsea Hepler, Mengle Shao, Jonathan Y Xia, Alexandra L Ghaben, Mackenzie J Pearson, Lavanya Vishvanath, Ankit X Sharma, Thomas S Morley, William L Holland, Rana K Gupta
Visceral adiposity confers significant risk for developing metabolic disease in obesity whereas preferential expansion of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) appears protective. Unlike subcutaneous WAT, visceral WAT is resistant to adopting a protective thermogenic phenotype characterized by the accumulation of Ucp1(+) beige/BRITE adipocytes (termed "browning"). In this study, we investigated the physiological consequences of browning murine visceral WAT by selective genetic ablation of Zfp423, a transcriptional suppressor of the adipocyte thermogenic program...
July 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#6
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721492/peristaltic-like-motion-of-the-human-fetal-right-ventricle-and-its-effects-on-fluid-dynamics-and-energy-dynamics
#7
Hadi Wiputra, Guat Ling Lim, Khong Chun Chua, R Nivetha, Sanah Merchant Soomar, Arijit Biwas, Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar, Hwa Liang Leo, Choon Hwai Yap
In both adult human and canine, the cardiac right ventricle (RV) is known to exhibit a peristaltic-like motion, where RV sinus (inflow region) contracts first and the infundibulum (outflow region) later, in a wave-like contraction motion. The delay in contraction between the sinus and infundibulum averaged at 15% of the cardiac cycle and was estimated to produce an intra-ventricular pressure difference of 15 mmHg. However, whether such a contractile motion occurs in human fetuses as well, its effects on hemodynamics remains unknown, and are the subject of the current study...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718622/graphene-sheet-induced-global-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Jiaxian Wang, Chang Cui, Haiyan Nan, Yuanfang Yu, Yini Xiao, Ellen Poon, Gang Yang, Xijie Wang, Chenchen Wang, Lingsong Li, Kenneth Richard Boheler, Xu Ma, Xin Cheng, Zhenhua Ni, Minglong Chen
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can proliferate infinitely. Their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes provides abundant sources for disease modeling, drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) display a low degree of maturation and fetal-like properties. Current in vitro differentiation methods do not mimic the structural, mechanical, and physiological properties of the cardiogenesis niche. Recently, we present an efficient cardiac maturation platform that combines hiPSCs monolayer cardiac differentiation with graphene substrate which is a biocompatible and superconductive material...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715785/prenatal-exposure-estimation-of-bpa-and-dehp-using-integrated-external-and-internal-dosimetry-a-case-study
#9
M A Martínez, J Rovira, R Prasad Sharma, M Nadal, M Schuhmacher, V Kumar
Prenatal exposure to Endocrine disruptors (EDs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has been associated with obesity and diabetes diseases in childhood, as well as reproductive, behavioral and neurodevelopment problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prenatal exposure to BPA and DEHP through food consumption for pregnant women living in Tarragona County (Spain). Probabilistic calculations of prenatal exposure were estimated by integrated external and internal dosimetry modelling, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, using a Monte-Carlo simulation...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711072/chronic-kidney-disease-and-pregnancy
#10
Michelle A Hladunewich
Women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk for adverse pregnancy-associated outcomes, including progression of their underlying renal dysfunction, a flare of their kidney disease, and adverse pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Earlier-stage CKD, as a rule, is a safer time to have a pregnancy, but even women with end-stage kidney disease have attempted pregnancy in recent years. As such, nephrologists need to be comfortable with pregnancy preparation and management at all stages of CKD...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707738/prenatal-exposure-to-dexamethasone-in-the-mouse-induces-sex-specific-differences-in-placental-gene-expression
#11
Ji-Yeon Lee, Hyo Jung Yun, Clara Yuri Kim, Yong Woo Cho, Yongmin Lee, Myoung Hee Kim
Prenatal stress during pregnancy leads to sex-specific effects on fetal development and disease susceptibility over the life span; however, the origin of sex differences has not been identified. The placenta not only plays a key role in fetal growth and development throughout pregnancy, but also affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts. Therefore, sex-specific adaptation of the placenta may be central to the sex differences in fetal growth and survival. Here, we analyzed the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) on sex-specific changes in placental gene expression using RNA-Seq...
July 14, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703927/reducing-the-primary-cesarean-birth-rate-a-quality-improvement-project
#12
Julie A Javernick, Amy Dempsey
INTRODUCTION: Research continues to support vaginal birth as the safest mode of childbirth, but despite this, cesarean birth has become the most common surgical procedure performed on women. The rate has increased 500% since the 1970s without a corresponding improvement in maternal or neonatal outcomes. A Colorado community hospital recognized that its primary cesarean birth rate was higher than national and state benchmark levels. To reduce this rate, the hospital collaborated with its largest maternity care provider group to implement a select number of physiologic birth practices and measure improvement in outcomes...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694465/generation-of-complement-protein-c3-deficient-pigs-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting
#13
Wei Zhang, Guan Wang, Ying Wang, Yong Jin, Lihua Zhao, Qiang Xiong, Lining Zhang, Lisha Mou, Rongfeng Li, Haiyuan Yang, Yifan Dai
Complement protein C3 is the pivotal component of the complement system. Previous studies have demonstrated that C3 has implications in various human diseases and exerts profound functions under certain conditions. However, the delineation of pathological and physiological roles of C3 has been hampered by the insufficiency of suitable animal models. In the present study, we applied the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system to target the C3 gene in porcine fetal fibroblasts...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693373/prenatal-growth-patterns-and-birthweight-are-associated-with-differential-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-of-cardiometabolic-risk-genes-in-human-placentas-a-discovery-based-approach
#14
Pao-Yang Chen, Alison Chu, Wen-Wei Liao, Liudmilla Rubbi, Carla Janzen, Fei-Man Hsu, Shanthie Thamotharan, Amit Ganguly, Larry Lam, Dennis Montoya, Matteo Pellegrini, Sherin U Devaskar
Inherent genetic programming and environmental factors affect fetal growth in utero. Epidemiologic data in growth-altered fetuses, either intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) or large for gestational age (LGA), demonstrate that these newborns are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. There is growing evidence that the in utero environment leads to epigenetic modification, contributing to eventual risk of developing heart disease or diabetes. In this study, we used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to examine genome-wide DNA methylation variation in placental samples from offspring born IUGR, LGA, and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and to identify differential methylation of genes important for conferring risk of cardiometabolic disease...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684892/the-adaptability-of-somatic-stem-cells-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Kenyon S Tweedell
Cell and tissue specific somatic stem cells develop as dynamic populations of precursor cells to discrete tissue and organ differentiation during embryonic and fetal stages and their potential evolves with development. Some of their progeny are sequestered into separate cell niches of tissues as adult somatic stem cells at various times during organ development and differentiation These are diverse cell populations of stem and progenitor cells that respond to homeostatic needs for cell and tissue maintenance and the cycling of differentiated cells for physiological/ endocrinological changes...
2017: Journal of Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683140/morgagnian-cataract-resulting-from-a-naturally-occurring-nonsense-mutation-elucidates-a-role-of-cpamd8-in-mammalian-lens-development
#16
Anne K Hollmann, Insa Dammann, Wiebke M Wemheuer, Wilhelm E Wemheuer, Almuth Chilla, Andrea Tipold, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer, Julia Beck, Ekkehard Schütz, Bertram Brenig
To investigate the genetic basis of hereditary lens opacities we analyzed 31 cases of bilateral congenital cataract in Red Holstein Friesian cattle. A genome-wide association study revealed a significant association on bovine chromosome 7 at positions 6,166,179 and 12,429,691. Whole genome re-sequencing of one case and four relatives showed a nonsense mutation (g.5995966C>T) in the PZP-like, alpha-2-macroglobulin domain containing 8 (CPAMD8) gene leading to a premature stop codon (CPAMD8 p.Gln74*) associated with cataract development in cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680327/different-effects-of-feeding-pregnant-and-lactating-mice-rhodiola-kirilowii-aqueous-and-hydro-alcoholic-extracts-on-their-serum-angiogenic-activity-and-content-of-selected-polyphenols
#17
Robert Zdanowski, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Jacek Wilczak, Anna Borecka, Aneta Lewicka, Sławomir Lewicki
Angiogenesis plays an important role in many physiological processes, among them the formation of tissues and organs during embryogenesis. A lot of medicinal plants exhibit angiomodulatory properties. This creates the need for a thorough check of whether the plant extracts that we would like to give to pregnant women in order to increase their resistance to bacterial or viral infection will have negative effects on angiogenesis, and consequently on fetal development. This paper seeks to investigate the effect of serum of pregnant and nursing Balb/c mice that received aqueous (RKW) or hydro-alcoholic (RKW-A) R...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679758/a-cell-fusion-based-screening-method-identifies-the-gpi-anchored-protein-ly6e-as-the-receptor-for-the-mouse-endogenous-retroviral-envelope-syncytin-a
#18
Agathe Bacquin, Caroline Bireau, Maxime Tanguy, Charlotte Romanet, Cécile Vernochet, Anne Dupressoir, Thierry Heidmann
Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been exapted for a role in placentation. They are involved in the formation of a syncytial structure (the syncytiotrophoblast) at the fetomaternal interface via their fusogenic activity. The mouse placenta is rather unique among placental mammals since the fetomaternal interface comprises two syncytiotrophoblast layers (ST-I and ST-II) instead of one, as observed in humans and all other hemochorial placentae. Each layer specifically expresses a distinct mouse syncytin, namely syncytin-A (SynA) for ST-I and syncytin-B (SynB) for ST-II, which have been shown to be essential to placentogenesis and embryo survival...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679164/maternal-placenta-modulates-a-deleterious-fetal-mutation
#19
Hongen Xu, Hubert Pausch, Heli Venhoranta, Karolina Rutkowska, Christine Wurmser, Beate Rieblinger, Tatiana Flisikowska, Dmitrij Frishman, Lech Zwierzchowski, Ruedi Fries, Magnus Andersson, Alexander Kind, Angelika Schnieke, Krzysztof Flisikowski
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by dysregulation of placental metabolism. Paternally inherited IUGR mutations in the fetus influence maternal physiology via the placenta. However, it is not known whether the maternal placenta also affects the extent of IUGR in such fetuses. In cattle and other ruminants, maternal-fetal communication occurs primarily at the placentomes. We previously identified a 3' deletion in the non-coding MIMT1 gene that, when inherited from the sire, causes IUGR and late abortion in Ayshire cattle with variable levels of severity...
June 29, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674684/effect-of-fetal-sex-on-maternal-and-obstetric-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Mohammed Al-Qaraghouli, Yu Ming Victor Fang
Fetal sex plays an important role in modifying the course and complications related to pregnancy and may also have an impact on maternal health and well-being both during and after pregnancy. The goal of this article is to review and summarize the findings from published research on physiologic and pathologic changes that may be affected by fetal sex and the effect of these changes on the maternal and obstetrical outcomes. This will help create awareness that fetal sex is not just a random chance event but an interactive process between the mother, the placenta, and the fetus...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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