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tissue sex specific

Peter Hanlon, Barbara I Nicholl, Bhautesh Dinesh Jani, Duncan Lee, Ross McQueenie, Frances S Mair
BACKGROUND: Frailty is associated with older age and multimorbidity (two or more long-term conditions); however, little is known about its prevalence or effects on mortality in younger populations. This paper aims to examine the association between frailty, multimorbidity, specific long-term conditions, and mortality in a middle-aged and older aged population. METHODS: Data were sourced from the UK Biobank. Frailty phenotype was based on five criteria (weight loss, exhaustion, grip strength, low physical activity, slow walking pace)...
June 13, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
June 15, 2018: Food & Function
Wen-Juan Ma, Paris Veltsos, Melissa A Toups, Nicolas Rodrigues, Roberto Sermier, Daniel L Jeffries, Nicolas Perrin
Sex-biased genes are central to the study of sexual selection, sexual antagonism, and sex chromosome evolution. We describe a comprehensive de novo assembled transcriptome in the common frog Rana temporaria based on five developmental stages and three adult tissues from both sexes, obtained from a population with karyotypically homomorphic but genetically differentiated sex chromosomes. This allows the study of sex-biased gene expression throughout development, and its effect on the rate of gene evolution while accounting for pleiotropic expression, which is known to negatively correlate with the evolutionary rate...
June 12, 2018: Genes
Manoj Kumar Panigrahi, Gourahari Pradhan, Nibedita Sahoo, Pritinanda Mishra, Susama Patra, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant mesenchymal tumor with variable epithelial differentiation that affects mostly young adults and can arise at any anatomic site. Primary intrathoracic SS is very rare accounting for <0.5% of all lung tumors. Most commonly, it arises from the lung followed by pleura and mediastinum. Primary pulmonary SS (PPSS) affects both sexes equally with no preference for any hemithorax. The morphology, immunostaining properties, cytogenetic features, and management strategy of PPSS are similar to that of soft tissue SS...
April 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Cheng Qu, Ran Wang, Wunan Che, Xun Zhu, Fengqi Li, Chen Luo
Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a polyphagous insect that is an important biological agent used to control agricultural and forestry pests. The role of functional genes in H. axyridis based on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is increasingly well understood to investigate biology, physiology, feeding behavior and the role of important genes in physiological processes. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful and reliable technique to quantify gene expression. Using qRT-PCR, expression levels of target genes are determined based on the levels of internal reference genes; therefore, reference genes need to be stably expressed under specific experimental conditions...
2018: PloS One
Su H Chu, Eric B Loucks, Karl T Kelsey, Stephen E Gilman, Golareh Agha, Charles B Eaton, Stephen L Buka, Yen-Tsung Huang
AIM: The objective of this study was to identify potential epigenetic mediating pathways linking early life social disadvantage (ELSD) to adulthood BMI. METHODS: Sex-specific epigenome-wide two-stage mediation analyses were conducted in blood and adipose tissue, and mediation estimates were obtained using cross-product mediation analysis. Pathway analyses were conducted using GREAT software (Bejerano Lab, CA, USA). RESULTS: Candidate mediation CpG sites were identified in adipose tissue, but not blood, and were sex-specific...
June 11, 2018: Epigenomics
Adam M Burton, Matt S Stock
INTRODUCTION: Echo intensity reflects both intramuscular adiposity and fibrous tissue content. Recently, equations that allow investigators to estimate the percentage of intramuscular fat for individual muscles via measurements of echo intensity and subcutaneous fat were created. However, as the trial-to-trial consistency of these values has not been reported in the literature, it is unclear if they can be used to track changes during physical activity and/or nutritional interventions...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Clare J Wilhelm, Joel G Hashimoto, Melissa L Roberts, Xiaolu Zhang, Calla M Goeke, Shelley H Bloom, Marina Guizzetti
In utero alcohol exposure can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), characterized by structural brain abnormalities and long-lasting behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. Neuronal plasticity is affected by in utero alcohol exposure and can be modulated by extracellular proteolysis. Plasmin is a major extracellular serine-protease whose activation is tightly regulated by the plasminogen activator (PA) system. In the present study we explored the effect of ethanol on the expression of the main components of the brain PA system in sex-specific cortical astrocyte primary cultures in vitro and in the cortex and hippocampus of post-natal day (PD) 9 male and female rats...
June 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Virginia H Huxley, Scott S Kemp, Christine Schramm, Steve Sieveking, Susan Bingaman, Yang Yu, Isabella Zaniletti, Kevin Stockard, Jianjie Wang
KEY POINTS: Endothelial dysfunction is an early hallmark of multiple disease states that also display sex differences with respect to age of onset, frequency, and severity. Results of in vivo studies of basal and stimulated microvascular barrier function revealed sex differences difficult to ascribe to specific cells or environmental factors. The present study evaluated endothelial cells (EC) isolated from macro- and/or microvessels of reproductively mature rats under the controlled conditions of low-passage culture to test the assumption that EC phenotype would be sex-independent...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Matthew J Fuxjager, Eric R Schuppe
Sex steroids mediate the organization and activation of masculine reproductive phenotypes in diverse vertebrate taxa. However, the effects of sex steroid action in this context vary tremendously, in that steroid action influences reproductive physiology and behavior in markedly different ways (even among closely related species). This leads to the idea that the mechanisms underlying sex steroid action similarly differ across vertebrates in a manner that supports diversification of important sexual traits. Here, we highlight the Evolutionary Potential Hypothesis as a framework for understanding how androgen-dependent reproductive behavior evolves...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Erin F Barreto, Andrew D Rule, Stacy A Voils, Sandra L Kane-Gill
Over the last decade, the discovery and research into the application of novel renal biomarkers to improve medication efficacy and safety has expanded considerably. Pharmacists are uniquely positioned to leverage this new technology for renal assessment to improve medication dosing and monitoring. Serum cystatin C is a relatively new, inexpensive, functional renal biomarker that responds more quickly to changing renal function than creatinine and is not meaningfully affected by age, sex, skeletal muscle mass, dietary intake, or deconditioning...
June 8, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Margaret R Bell, Ariel Dryden, Ryan Will, Andrea C Gore
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous in the environment and exposure to them is associated with immune, endocrine and neural dysfunction. Effects of PCBs on inflammation and immunity are best described in spleen and blood, with fewer studies on neural tissues. This is an important gap in knowledge, as molecules typically associated with neuroinflammation also serve neuromodulatory roles and interact with hormones in normal brain development. The current study used Sprague-Dawley rats to assess whether gestational PCB exposure altered hypothalamic gene expression and serum cytokine concentration in neonatal animals given an immune challenge...
June 4, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Jun Zhang, Peng Yu, Qinyan Zhou, Xilei Li, Shuquan Ding, Shiping Su, Xiaohua Zhang, Xiaoli Yang, Weishang Zhou, Quan Wan, Jian-Fang Gui
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform distinct functions in various biological processes in mammals, including sex differentiation. However, the roles of lncRNAs in other vertebrates, especially in the Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), remain to be clarified. In this study, we performed genome-wide analysis of the lncRNA expression profiles in gonad tissues and screened numerous sex-specific lncRNAs in the Chinese soft-shell turtle. Of the 363,310,650 clean reads obtained, 5,994 sequences were typed as lncRNAs, of which 4,463 were novel...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicolas L Schwartz, Biren A Patel, Theodore Garland, Angela M Horner
Bone modeling and remodeling are aerobic processes that entail relatively high oxygen demands. Long bones receive oxygenated blood from nutrient arteries, epiphyseal-metaphyseal arteries, and periosteal arteries, with the nutrient artery supplying the bulk of total blood volume in mammals (~ 50-70%). Estimates of blood flow into these bones can be made from the dimensions of the nutrient canal, through which nutrient arteries pass. Unfortunately, measuring these canal dimensions non-invasively (i.e. without physical sectioning) is difficult, and thus researchers have relied on more readily visible skeletal proxies...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Catherine W Saltus, Brian Calingaert, Sean Candrilli, Maria Lorenzo, Yulia D'yachkova, Thorsten Otto, Uwe Wagner, James A Kaye
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data compiled from the regional German cancer registries by the Centre for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD) at the Robert Koch Institut (RKI) to describe the epidemiology of adult soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) in Germany in 2003-2012, focusing on advanced STS. We identified 33,803 incident adult cases of STS (other than the Kaposi sarcoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors). The incidence of STS was 6.05 (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.82-6.29) per 100,000 in 2012 (4,079 cases)...
2018: Sarcoma
Michael Weber, Julia Wunderer, Birgit Lengerer, Robert Pjeta, Marcelo Rodrigues, Lukas Schärer, Peter Ladurner, Steven A Ramm
BACKGROUND: Along with sperm, in many taxa ejaculates also contain large numbers of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs). SFPs and sperm are transferred to the mating partner, where they are thought to play key roles in mediating post-mating sexual selection. They modulate the partner's behavior and physiology in ways that influence the reproductive success of both partners, thus potentially leading to sexual conflict. Despite the presumed general functional and evolutionary significance of SFPs, their identification and characterization has to date focused on just a few animal groups, predominantly insects and mammals...
May 30, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Sonia García-Calzón, Alexander Perfilyev, Vanessa D Mello, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Charlotte Ling
Context: Epigenetics may contribute to sex-specific differences in human liver metabolism. Objective: To study the impact of sex on DNA methylation and gene expression in human liver. Design/setting: cross-sectional, Kuopio Obesity Surgery Study. Participants/Intervention: We analyzed DNA methylation with the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in liver of an obese population (34 males, 61 females). Females had higher HDL-cholesterol levels compared with males...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
J-S Lin, F-J Sun, P-Y Lin, K-W Chang, C-C Yang, C-J Liu
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes tumourigenesis and tissue repair of epithelial and mesenchymal cells and has a role in chemotaxis, mitogenesis, cell motility, and cytoprotection. It also enhances the growth of cancers. EGF may therefore have a role in the initiation or promotion of oral carcinogenesis. The cases of 152 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma whose preoperative serum EGF level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were analyzed retrospectively, along with those of 40 age- and sex-matched controls...
May 26, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Timothy J Hohman, Logan Dumitrescu, Lisa L Barnes, Madhav Thambisetty, Gary Beecham, Brian Kunkle, Katherine A Gifford, William S Bush, Lori B Chibnik, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Philip L De Jager, Walter Kukull, Paul K Crane, Susan M Resnick, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine, Gerard D Schellenberg, Jonathan L Haines, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Eric B Larson, Sterling C Johnson, Marilyn Albert, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider, Angela L Jefferson
Importance: The strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, has a stronger association among women compared with men. Yet limited work has evaluated the association between APOE alleles and markers of AD neuropathology in a sex-specific manner. Objective: To evaluate sex differences in the association between APOE and markers of AD neuropathology measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during life or in brain tissue at autopsy...
May 7, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Judit Castillo, Meritxell Jodar, Rafael Oliva
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the proteomic composition of the gametes is essential to understand reproductive functions. Most of the sperm proteins are related to spermatogenesis and sperm function, but less abundant protein groups with potential post-fertilization roles have also been detected. The current data are challenging our understanding of sperm biology and functionality, demanding an integrated analysis of the proteomic and RNA-seq datasets available for spermatozoa, oocytes and early embryos, in order to unravel the impact of the male gamete on the generation of the new individual...
May 23, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
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