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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222165/innate-sex-bias-of-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-infection-is-driven-by-%C3%AE-hemolysin
#1
Moriah J Castleman, Srijana Pokhrel, Kathleen D Triplett, Donna F Kusewitt, Bradley O Elmore, Jason A Joyner, Jon K Femling, Geetanjali Sharma, Helen J Hathaway, Eric R Prossnitz, Pamela R Hall
Numerous studies have reported sex bias in infectious diseases, with bias direction dependent on pathogen and site of infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), yet sex bias in susceptibility to S. aureus SSTI has not been described. A search of electronic health records revealed an odds ratio of 2.4 for S. aureus SSTI in males versus females. To investigate the physiological basis of this bias, we compared outcomes between male and female mice in a model of S...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222040/prohibitin-a-new-player-in-immunometabolism-and-in-linking-obesity-and-inflammation-with-cancer
#2
Yang Xin Zi Xu, Sudharsana Rao Ande, Suresh Mishra
Immunometabolism, which has important implications in cancer biology, has emerged as a major regulator of different immune cell types. Various factors that integrate metabolic switches within immune cells with signal directed program that promote or inhibit their functions remain largely unidentified. Furthermore, sex differences are known to exist in immune functions and cancer incidences in the body and sex steroid hormones are integral component of these differences. However, factors that mediate such differences, and the potential link between the two fundamental aspects of immune cell biology that contributes to sex differences in health and disease remain unexplored...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215040/sex-related-pharmacokinetic-differences-and-mechanisms-of-metapristone-ru486-metabolite
#3
Wenge Chen, Yingying Xiao, Jianzhong Chen, Jian Liu, Jingwei Shao, Tao Li, Yewei Zhu, Ji Ma, Yu Gao, Jichuang Wang, Jianguo Xu, Yusheng Lu, Lee Jia
Metapristone is the primary metabolite of the abortifacient mifepristone (RU486), and is being developed as a safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventive agent for both sexes. Here, we systematically investigated the sex-related pharmacokinetics of metapristone in both rats and dogs, and explored the related mechanisms of actions. Administration of metapristone to rats and dogs showed that plasma concentrations of metapristone (AUC, C max ) were significantly higher in female dogs and rats than in males...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207292/reproductive-system-development-in-male-and-female-horse-embryos-and-fetuses-gonadal-hyperplasia-revisited
#4
R S N Barreto, P Romagnolli, A M Mess, N N Rigoglio, T H C Sasahara, L S Simões, P Fratini, G S S Matias, J C F Jacob, E L Gastal, M A Miglino
In horses, pregnancy is characterized by high levels of maternal estrogens that are produced largely by the interstitial tissue inside the gonads of the offspring, associated with a physiological gonadal hyperplasia, that is uncommon in other species. However, a detailed structural-functional understanding of the early stages of gonadal development and hyperplasia has remained elusive in horse pregnancy because of the lack of substantial data. The goal of this study was to describe the genital organs' development in 19 early horse embryos and fetuses (days 20-140 of gestation) of both sexes by means of anatomy, histology, stereology, and immunohistochemistry, with a specific focus on gonadal hyperplasia and interstitial tissue development...
December 2, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203241/the-splicing-factor-transformer2-tra2-functions-in-the-drosophila-fat-body-to-regulate-lipid-storage
#5
Cezary Mikoluk, Alexis A Nagengast, Justin R DiAngelo
Excess nutrients are stored as triglycerides mainly in the adipose tissue of an animal and these triglycerides are located in structures called lipid droplets. Previous genome-wide RNAi screens in Drosophila cells identified splicing factors as playing a role in lipid droplet formation. Our lab has recently identified the SR protein, 9G8, as an important factor in fat storage as decreasing its levels results in augmented triglyceride storage in the fat body. Previous in vitro studies have implicated 9G8 in the regulation of splicing of the sex determination gene doublesex (dsx) by binding to transformer (tra) and transformer2 (tra2); however, any function of these sex determination proteins in regulating metabolism is unknown...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198508/the-g-spot-is-not-a-structure-evident-on-macroscopic-anatomic-dissection-of-the-vaginal-wall
#6
Nathan Hoag, Janet R Keast, Helen E O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists in the literature regarding the presence or absence of an anatomic "G-spot." However, few studies have examined the detailed topographic or histologic anatomy of the putative G-spot location. AIM: To determine the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall and present detailed, systematic, accessible findings from female cadaveric dissections to provide anatomic clarity with respect to this location. METHODS: Systematic anatomic dissections were performed on 13 female cadavers (32-97 years old, 8 fixed and 5 fresh) to characterize the gross anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190946/%C3%AE-2gpi-exerts-an-anti-obesity-effect-in-female-mice-by-inhibiting-lipogenesis-and-promoting-lipolysis
#7
Shangwen Dong, Miao Qi, Ying Wang, Liming Chen, James Crofton Weaver, Steven Antony Krilis, Bill Giannakopoulos
In humans, males compared to females have increased visceral adipose tissue which contributes to their increased risk of early death. Mice display analogous sexual diamorphism whereby females are protected from weight gain when fed a high fat diet compared to males. A role has recently been reported for β2-glycoprotein I, an abundant plasma protein, in healthy leanness in humans. In this study we investigated the role of β2-glycoprotein I in fat metabolism in male and female mice fed a normal chow or high fat diet...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190301/identification-and-validation-of-reference-genes-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-aphidius-gifuensis-hymenoptera-aphidiidae
#8
Xue-Ke Gao, Shuai Zhang, Jun-Yu Luo, Chun-Yi Wang, Li-Min Lü, Li-Juan Zhang, Xiang-Zhen Zhu, Li Wang, Jin-Jie Cui
Reference genes have been utilized in estimating gene expression levels using quantitative reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Aphidius gifuensis Ashmaed is one of the most widely used biological control agents for aphids. The biological properties of this species have been studied in detail, and current investigations are focused on elucidating the regulatory mechanisms in its host However, the appropriate reference genes for target gene expression studies have not been identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183806/the-antagonist-properties-of-bazedoxifene-after-acute-treatment-are-shifted-to-stimulatory-action-after-chronic-exposure-in-the-liver-but-not-in-the-uterus
#9
Mélissa Buscato, Coralie Fontaine, Aurélie Fabre, Alexia Vinel, Marie-Cécile Valera, Emmanuelle Noirrit, Maeva Guillaume, Bernard Payrastre, Raphaël Métivier, Jean-François Arnal
A promising alternative to conventional hormone therapy for postmenopausal symptoms is treatment combining Bazedoxifene (BZA), a third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and conjugated equine estrogen (CE). This combination is also known as a tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC). Understanding the tissue-specific actions of SERMs and the TSEC remains a major challenge to try to predict their clinical effects. The aim of this study was to compare acute versus chronic treatment with BZA, CE or CE + BZA in two major targets of estrogens, the uterus and the liver...
November 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178945/crispr-cas9-mediated-targeted-chromosome-elimination
#10
Erwei Zuo, Xiaona Huo, Xuan Yao, Xinde Hu, Yidi Sun, Jianhang Yin, Bingbing He, Xing Wang, Linyu Shi, Jie Ping, Yu Wei, Wenqin Ying, Wei Wei, Wenjia Liu, Cheng Tang, Yixue Li, Jiazhi Hu, Hui Yang
BACKGROUND: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become an efficient gene editing method for generating cells carrying precise gene mutations, including the rearrangement and deletion of chromosomal segments. However, whether an entire chromosome could be eliminated by this technology is still unknown. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to eliminate targeted chromosomes. Using either multiple cleavages induced by a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) that targets multiple chromosome-specific sites or a cocktail of multiple sgRNAs, each targeting one specific site, we found that a sex chromosome could be selectively eliminated in cultured cells, embryos, and tissues in vivo...
November 24, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178881/atrial-erk1-2-activation-in-the-embryo-leads-to-incomplete-septal-closure-a-novel-mouse-model-of-atrial-septal-defect
#11
Che-Chung Yeh, Yanying Fan, Yi-Lin Yang, Michael J Mann
BACKGROUND: MEK1 mutation and activated MAPK signaling has been found in patients with RASopathies and abnormal cardiac development. Previous studies have suggested that regulation of fetal MAPK signaling is essential for normal cardiac development. We investigated the effect of active MEK1 overexpression on fetal atrial septal development. METHODS AND RESULTS: An inducible double transgenic (DTg) mouse model was developed in which cardiac-specific fetal expression of a constitutively active form of human MEK1 (aMEK1) was induced primarily in the atrium via the withdrawal of doxycycline from the drinking water of pregnant mice...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178545/genome-wide-study-of-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-reveals-novel-sex-specific-adiposity-loci-in-mexican-americans
#12
Chuan Gao, Carl D Langefeld, Julie T Ziegler, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Yii-Der I Chen, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Xiuqing Guo, Matthew A Allison, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Jerome I Rotter, Donald W Bowden, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Nicholette D Palmer
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the genetic mechanisms of regional fat deposition, which is a strong risk factor for metabolic diseases beyond total adiposity. METHODS: A genome-wide association study of 7,757,139 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 983 Mexican Americans (nmale  = 403; nfemale  = 580) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study was performed. Association analyses were performed with and without sex stratification for subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and visceral-subcutaneous ratio (VSR) obtained from computed tomography...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175482/impacts-of-wastewater-treatment-plant-effluent-on-energetics-and-stress-response-of-rainbow-darter-etheostoma-caeruleum-in-the-grand-river-watershed
#13
Hossein Mehdi, Fiona H Dickson, Leslie M Bragg, Mark R Servos, Paul M Craig
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent on the energetics and stress response of rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). Male and female rainbow darter were collected upstream and downstream of the Waterloo WWTP in the Grand River watershed, ON, Canada. To assess the effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent on whole-body and tissue specific metabolic capacity, closed-chamber respirometry and muscle-enzyme activity analyses were performed. Plasma cortisol was also collected from fish before and after an acute air-exposure stressor to evaluate the cortisol stress response in fish exposed to additional stressors...
November 22, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174386/expression-and-cellular-localization-of-double-sex-and-mab-3-related-transcription-factor-1-in-testes-of-postnatal-small-tail-han-sheep-at-different-developmental-stages
#14
Taotao Li, Zengkui Lu, Ruirui Luo, Jianfeng Gao, Xingxu Zhao, Youji Ma
Double sex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1), an evolutionarily conserved gene, is a sex-related gene expressed in male gonads, that is involved in the regulation of sex differentiation, testicular development and reproductive function maintenance. Until now, functional studies on the Dmrt1 gene in sheep (Ovis aries) have been lacking. In this study, testis, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and longissimus dorsi muscle tissues were collected from Small-Tail Han sheep at 0, 2, 5, 12 and 24months after birth (mab)...
November 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167401/acetaminophen-relieves-inflammatory-pain-through-cb1-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla
#15
Pascal P Klinger-Gratz, William T Ralvenius, Elena Neumann, Ako Kato, Rita Nyilas, Zsolt Lele, István Katona, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug with only incompletely understood mechanisms of action. Previous work, using models of acute nociceptive pain, indicated that analgesia by acetaminophen involves an indirect activation of CB1 receptors by the acetaminophen metabolite and endocannabinoid re-uptake inhibitor AM 404. However, the contribution of the cannabinoid system to anti-hyperalgesia against inflammatory pain, the main indication of acetaminophen, and the precise site of the relevant CB1 receptors have remained elusive...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161779/micronuclei-assay-in-exfoliated-buccal-cells-of-radiation-treated-oral-cancer-patients
#16
Gayathri Ramesh, Smriti Chaubey, Amrita Raj, Ravi Kumar Seth, Anuradha Katiyar, Amit Kumar
BACKGROUND: Micronuclei are suitable internal dosimeters for revealing tissue-specific genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to carcinogenic mixtures. Evaluation of radiation-induced cellular changes to predict radiosensitivity has invested many investigators since such changes were first found in biopsy material. AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship of with histopathological grade and number of radiation therapy sittings with the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies among oral cancer patients...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160127/the-fetal-programming-effect-of-prenatal-smoking-on-igf1r-and-igf1-methylation-is-organ-and-sex-specific
#17
Karolin F Meyer, Rikst Nynke Verkaik-Schakel, Wim Timens, Lester Kobzik, Torsten Plösch, Machteld N Hylkema
The impact of prenatal smoke exposure (PSE) on DNA methylation has been demonstrated in blood samples from children of smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is limited. As the identified differentially methylated genes can be associated with developmental processes, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a critical role in prenatal tissue growth, we hypothesized that PSE induces fetal programming of Igf1r and Igf1. Using a mouse model of smoking during pregnancy, we show that PSE alters promoter methylation of Igf1r and Igf1 and deregulates their gene expression in lung and liver of fetal (E17...
November 21, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157875/prostatic-calculi-do-they-matter
#18
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Cao, Wei Huang, Hong-Shen Wu, Min Cao, Yan Zhang, Xiao-Dong Jin
INTRODUCTION: Prostatic calculi (PC) are frequently detected at computed tomography or ultrasound in men attending the health center or the urology outpatient department. PC have attracted more attention from urologists, but the clinical significance of PC is unknown. AIM: To review the available literature on the effects of PC on prostatic diseases and sexual function in men. METHODS: Relevant clinical trials were identified by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases...
November 17, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156254/xenografted-tissue-models-for-the-study-of-human-endometrial-biology
#19
REVIEW
Satu Kuokkanen, Liyin Zhu, Jeffrey W Pollard
The human endometrium undergoes extensive morphological, biochemical and molecular changes under the influence of female sex steroid hormones. Besides the fact that estrogen stimulates endometrial cell proliferation and progesterone inhibits this proliferation and induces differentiation, there is limited knowledge about precise molecular mechanisms underlying human endometrial biology. The importance of paracrine signaling in endometrial physiology explains why in vitro culture of endometrial cells has been challenging...
November 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152193/using-pentosidine-and-hydroxyproline-to-predict-age-and-sex-in-an-avian-species
#20
Brian S Dorr, Randal S Stahl, Katie C Hanson-Dorr, Carol A Furcolow
All living organisms are subject to senescence accompanied by progressive and irreversible physiological changes. The error damage and cross-linking theories suggest that cells and tissues are damaged by an accumulation of cross-linked proteins, slowing down bodily processes and resulting in aging. A major category of these cross-linked proteins are compounds called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We investigated the relationship between accumulation of the AGE, pentosidine (Ps), and hydroxyproline (HYP) a post-translationally modified amino acid, with age, sex, and breeding status (breeder/nonbreeder) from skin samples of known age (i...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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