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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043498/sex-specific-strategies-of-resource-allocation-in-response-to-competition-for-light-in-a-dioecious-plant
#1
Jeanne Tonnabel, Patrice David, John R Pannell
The differential plasticity hypothesis suggests that sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants could evolve in response to sex-specific resource requirements for reproduction (i.e., high carbon requirements for ovules and high nitrogen demands for pollen). When resources become limiting during growth, males and females should, therefore, adjust their allocation to resource-harvesting organs differently. To investigate the potential for plants to respond to resource limitation late in life and to test the differential plasticity hypothesis, we grew male and female individuals of the annual wind-pollinated plant Mercurialis annua in a common garden...
October 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037750/environmental-toxicology-and-omics-a-question-of-sex
#2
Xuefang Liang, April Feswick, Denina Simmons, Christopher J Martyniuk
Molecular initiating events and downstream transcriptional/proteomic responses provide valuable information for adverse outcome pathways, which can be used predict the effects of chemicals on physiological systems. There has been a paucity of research that addresses sex-specific expression profiling in toxicology and due to cost, time, and logistical considerations, sex as a variable has not been widely considered. In response to this deficiency, federal agencies in the United States, Canada, and Europe have highlighted the importance of including sex as a variable in scientific investigations...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034220/head-and-neck-lymphoma-in-an-iranian-population
#3
Nafiseh Shamloo, Alireza Ghannadan, Mahsa Jafari, Samane Ahmadi, Hamed Mortazavi, Maryam Baharvand
INTRODUCTION: This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of head and neck lymphoma in a defined group of an Iranian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 126,450 biopsy reports from two referral Pathology Departments, (Tehran, the capital of Iran) were evaluated. In cases with head and neck lymphoma, other variables such as age, sex, specific location of lesions, and histopathological findings were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to measure the prevalence and characteristics of head and neck lymphoma by means of SPSS soft ware, version 18...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033587/dna-hypermethylated-status-and-gene-expression-of-pax1-sox1-in-patients-with-colorectal-carcinoma
#4
Jin Huang, Zhi-Rong Tan, Jing Yu, He Li, Qiao-Li Lv, Ying-Ying Shao, Hong-Hao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a widespread and aggressive carcinoma with poor prognosis. Hypermethylation of specific gene promoters is an important mechanism of CRC. In this study, we investigated the hypermethylation of paired boxed gene 1 (PAX1) and sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility group box 1 (SOX1) genes in CRC tissues. METHODS: DNA methylation at cg2,09,07,471 PAX1 and cg0,66,75,478 SOX1 from 166 cancer tissues and 37 normal tissues from CRC patients were compared using datasets downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032573/protein-biomarkers-of-cell-proliferation-determine-prognosis-in-cases-of-equine-large-colon-volvulus
#5
C R Kucera, L W Stranahan, F Hughes, A T Blikslager, L M Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Progenitor cells play critical roles in epithelial repair following ischaemic injury. Protein biomarkers have been used to identify intestinal progenitor cell subpopulations. This study aims to determine if a critical number of intestinal progenitor cells can predict tissue viability and survival to discharge of large colon volvulus (LCV) cases. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to (1) identify intestinal progenitor cell subpopulations using biomarkers: proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), sex determining region Y box 9 (SOX9), phospho-histone H3 (PHH3), and Ki-67, (2) define cutoff values for critical numbers of positive cells and (3) determine if survival to discharge is associated with cutoff values...
October 15, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027001/cancer-incidence-in-urban-rural-and-densely-populated-districts-close-to-core-cities-in-bavaria-germany
#6
M Radespiel-Tröger, K Geiss, D Twardella, W Maier, M Meyer
OBJECTIVE: An ecologic study on the level of districts was performed to evaluate the possible association between district type and risk of cancer in Bavaria, Southern Germany. METHODS: Cancer incidence data for the years 2003-2012 were obtained from the population-based cancer registry Bavaria according to sex and cancer site. Data on district type, socio-economic area deprivation, particulate matter exposure, tobacco consumption, and alcohol consumption were obtained from publicly available sources...
October 12, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017816/oral-and-dermal-diflubenzuron-exposure-causes-a-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-hpt-axis-disturbance-in-the-mongolian-racerunner-eremias-argus
#7
Jing Chang, Huili Wang, Peng Xu, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Wei Li
Diflubenzuron (DFB) is a potential endocrine-disrupting chemical. However, its thyroid endocrine effect on reptiles has not been reported. In this study, immature lizards (Eremias argus) were exposed to 20 mg kg(-1) DFB once a week for 42 days through oral or dermal routes. Their body weight, plasma thyroid hormone levels, thyroid gland histology and the transcription of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis-related genes in different tissues were assessed to explore the effects of DFB on the HPT axis of lizards...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988348/insight-into-the-neuroendocrine-basis-of-signal-evolution-a-case-study-in-foot-flagging-frogs
#8
REVIEW
Lisa A Mangiamele, Matthew J Fuxjager
A hallmark of sexual selection is the evolution of elaborate male sexual signals. Yet, how the physiology of an animal changes to support a new or modified signal is a question that has remained largely unanswered. Androgens are important in regulating male reproductive behavior, therefore, selection for particular signals may drive the evolution of increased androgenic sensitivity in the neuro-motor systems underlying their production. Studies of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of anuran sexual signaling provide evidence to support this idea...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985032/organ-on-a-chip-systems-for-women-s-health-applications
#9
REVIEW
Janna Nawroth, Julia Rogal, Martin Weiss, Sara Y Brucker, Peter Loskill
Biomedical research, for a long time, has paid little attention to the influence of sex in many areas of study, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to animal models and clinical studies on human subjects. Many studies solely rely on male cells/tissues/animals/humans, although there are profound differences in male and female physiology, which can significantly impact disease mechanisms, toxicity of compounds, and efficacy of pharmaceuticals. In vitro systems have been traditionally very limited in their capacity to recapitulate female-specific physiology and anatomy such as dynamic sex-hormone levels and the complex interdependencies of female reproductive tract organs...
October 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978150/parp-inhibitors-protect-against-sex-and-aag-dependent-alkylation-induced-neural-degeneration
#10
Mariacarmela Allocca, Joshua J Corrigan, Kimberly R Fake, Jennifer A Calvo, Leona D Samson
Alkylating agents are commonly used to treat cancer. Although base excision repair (BER) is a major pathway for repairing DNA alkylation damage, under certain conditions, the initiation of BER produces toxic repair intermediates that damage healthy tissues. The initiation of BER by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG, a.k.a. MPG) can mediate alkylation-induced cytotoxicity in specific cells in the retina and cerebellum of male mice. Cytotoxicity in both wild-type and Aag-transgenic (AagTg) mice is abrogated in the absence of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1)...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977970/cd147-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-predicting-the-prognosis-and-clinicopathological-features-of-bladder-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#11
Hongru Li, Yadong Xu, Hui Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic and clinicopathological characteristics of CD147 in human bladder cancer. METHODS: Studies on CD147 expression in bladder cancer were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the WanFang databases. Outcomes were pooled with meta-analyzing softwares RevMan 5.3 and STATA 14.0. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies with 25 datasets demonstrated that CD147 expression was higher in bladder cancer than in non-cancer tissues (OR=43...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976974/the-sex-of-specific-neurons-controls-female-body-growth-in-drosophila
#12
Annick Sawala, Alex P Gould
Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. Most models for how sex chromosome genes specify size dimorphism have emphasized the importance of gonadal hormones and cell-autonomous influences in mammals versus strictly cell-autonomous mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we use tissue-specific genetics to investigate how sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is established in Drosophila. We find that the larger body size characteristic of Drosophila females is established very early in larval development via an increase in the growth rate per unit of body mass...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974570/novel-mechanism-for-buffering-dietary-salt-in-humans-effects-of-salt-loading-on-skin-sodium-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-c-and-blood-pressure
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Viknesh Selvarajah, Kaisa M Mäki-Petäjä, Liliana Pedro, Sylvaine F A Bruggraber, Keith Burling, Anna K Goodhart, Morris J Brown, Carmel M McEniery, Ian B Wilkinson
High dietary sodium intake triggers increased blood pressure (BP). Animal studies show that dietary salt loading results in dermal Na(+) accumulation and lymphangiogenesis mediated by VEGF-C (vascular endothelial growth factor C), both attenuating the rise in BP. Our objective was to determine whether these mechanisms function in humans. We assessed skin electrolytes, BP, and plasma VEGF-C in 48 healthy participants randomized to placebo (70 mmol sodium/d) and slow sodium (200 mmol/d) for 7 days. Skin Na(+) and K(+) concentrations were measured in mg/g of wet tissue and expressed as the ratio Na(+):K(+) to correct for variability in sample hydration...
November 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971497/circulating-and-intraprostatic-sex-steroid-hormonal-profiles-in-relation-to-male-pattern-baldness-and-chest-hair-density-among-men-diagnosed-with-localized-prostate-cancers
#14
Cindy Ke Zhou, Frank Z Stanczyk, Muhannad Hafi, Carmela C Veneroso, Barlow Lynch, Roni T Falk, Shelley Niwa, Eric Emanuel, Yu-Tang Gao, George P Hemstreet, Ladan Zolfghari, Peter R Carroll, Michael J Manyak, Isabell A Sesterhenn, Paul H Levine, Ann W Hsing, Michael B Cook
BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations with aggressive and fatal prostate cancer risk. Given that androgens underlie the development of patterned hair loss and chest hair, we assessed whether these two dermatological characteristics were associated with circulating and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroid hormones among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer...
October 2, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967064/long-noncoding-rna-zeb1-as1-expression-predicts-progression-and-poor-prognosis-of-colorectal-cancer
#15
Jining Fu, Yongyuan Cui
BACKGROUND: ZEB1-AS1 acts as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma, accelerating tumor growth and promoting metastasis. However, its roles in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, we determined the expression of ZEB1-AS1 in CRC tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Additionally, we investigated the relationship between various clinicopathological features of CRC patients and ZEB1-AS1 expression, and evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of ZEB1-AS1 in CRC...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965608/-67-ga-as-a-biosensor-of-iron-needs-in-different-organs-study-performed-on-male-and-female-rats-subjected-to-iron-deficiency-and-exercise
#16
Patricia Vieyra-Reyes, Rigoberto Oros-Pantoja, Eugenio Torres-García, Agustín Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Jonathan Pérez-Honorato
The aim of the present study was to determine the iron needs in different organs and tissues using (67)Ga as a biosensor in males and females rats subjected to iron deficiency (ID) and voluntary exercise (EX). (67)Ga citrate was injected i.p. to female and male Wistar rats (n=5/sex/group). Groups: Control (sedentary conditions), Control+EX, ID and ID+EX. To determine the (67)Ga uptake, samples from the following regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted 12h post-injection: blood, liver, gonads, bone marrow, heart, adrenal glands, skeletal muscle, stomach, kidney, eyeball, sciatic nerve, small intestine and peritoneum...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961885/gene-regulation-and-species-specific-evolution-of-free-flight-odor-tracking-in-drosophila
#17
Benjamin Houot, Laurie Cazalé-Debat, Stéphane Fraichard, Claude Everaerts, Nitesh Saxena, Sanjay P Sane, Jean-François Ferveur
The flight ability of insects has coevolved with the development of organs necessary for takeoff from the ground, and to generate and modulate lift while flying in complex environments. Flight orientation to the appropriate food source and mating partner depends on the perception and integration of multiple chemical signals. We used a wind tunnel-based assay to investigate the natural and molecular evolution of free-flight odor-tracking behavior in Drosophila. First, the comparison of female and male flies of several populations and species revealed substantial sex-related, inter- and intra-specific variations for distinct flight features...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958754/kiaa0319-promoter-dna-methylation-predicts-dichotic-listening-performance-in-forced-attention-conditions
#18
Judith Schmitz, Robert Kumsta, Dirk Moser, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Language lateralization is one of the most prominent examples of functional hemispheric asymmetries. Previous studies indicate a significant contribution of factors not related to DNA sequence variation on the development of language lateralization, but the molecular processes underlying this relation are unclear. The Brandler-Paracchini model of hemispheric asymmetries assumes that genes involved in the establishment of ciliogenesis and bodily asymmetries also affect functional hemispheric asymmetries. Thus, genes implicated in this model represent a key target for epigenetic modulation of language lateralization...
September 25, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957462/dominance-and-sexual-dimorphism-pervade-the-salix-purpurea-l-transcriptome
#19
Craig H Carlson, Yongwook Choi, Agnes P Chan, Michelle J Serapiglia, Christopher D Town, Lawrence B Smart
The heritability of gene expression is critical in understanding heterosis and is dependent on allele-specific regulation by local and remote factors in the genome. We used RNA-Seq to test whether variation in gene expression among F1 and F2 intraspecific Salix purpurea progeny is attributable to cis- and trans-regulatory divergence. We assessed the mode of inheritance based on gene expression levels and allele-specific expression for F1 and F2 intraspecific progeny in two distinct tissue types: shoot tip and stem internode...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956239/high-estradiol-exposure-disrupts-the-reproductive-cycle-of-the-clam-ruditapes-decussatus-in-a-sex-specific-way
#20
Sawssan Mezghani-Chaari, Monia Machreki-Ajimi, Amel Hamza-Chaffai, Christophe Minier
Bivalve species may be susceptible to environmental estrogenic compounds including estradiol (E2). However, they are able to biotransform the hormone quite readily and inactivate its estrogenic action. To study the long-term effects of elevated free E2 tissue levels, we transiently exceeded the biotransformation capacity of the clam Ruditapes decussatus by exposing them with high E2 concentrations (400 ng/L) and subsequently study the consequences on gametogenesis during the following reproductive cycle. Exposure to 400 ngE2/L led to a significant increase in tissue free E2 levels, which reached 10-50 ng E2Eq/gww...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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