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non tuberculous mycobacteria

Jeong-Uk Kim, Dae-Shick Ryu, Choong-Hwan Cha, Seon-Hee Park
AIMS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are clinically different, and the rapid detection and differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and NTM is crucial for patient management and infection control. Given the slow growth of most pathogenic mycobacteria, nucleic acid amplification assays are excellent tools for direct identification of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. Recently, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed that can directly detect 20 mycobacterial species in clinical specimens...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
A O Jenkins, E Gormley, N Gcebe, G T Fosgate, A Conan, C Aagaard, A L Michel, V P M G Rutten
Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle may be compromised in areas where there are high rates of exposure to environmental/non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This cross reaction of immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis antigens shared with NTMs can result in reduced specificity of commonly used diagnostic tests including tuberculin skin tests and the interferon gamma assay (IFN-ɣ). In this study we assessed the cross-reactive immune responses of M. bovis (infected) and NTM exposed animals to M. bovis and M...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Anne Küntzel, Peter Oertel, Sina Fischer, Andreas Bergmann, Phillip Trefz, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch, Petra Reinhold, Heike Köhler
BACKGROUND: Species of Mycobacteriaceae cause serious zoonotic diseases in mammals, for example tuberculosis in humans, dogs, parrots, and elephants (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and in ruminants and humans (caused by M. bovis and M. caprae). Pulmonary diseases, lymphadenitis, skin diseases, and disseminated diseases can be caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Diagnosis and differentiation among Mycobacterium species are currently done by culture isolation. The established diagnostic protocols comprise several steps that allow species identification...
2018: PloS One
Rachel E Bosserman, Cristal Reyna Thompson, Kathleen R Nicholson, Patricia A Champion
Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tuberculous pathogen of poikilothermic fish and an opportunistic human pathogen. Like tuberculous mycobacteria, the M. marinum M strain requires the ESX-1 (ESAT-6 System 1) secretion system for virulence in host cells. EsxB and EsxA, two major virulence factors exported by the ESX-1 system, are encoded by the esxBA genes within the ESX-1 locus. Deletion of the esxBA genes abrogates ESX-1 export and attenuates M. marinum in ex vivo and in vivo models of infection. Interestingly, there are several duplications of the esxB and esxA genes ( esxB_1, esxB_2, esxA_1 , esxA_2, and esxA_3 ) in the M...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Graciela Rodríguez-Sevilla, Marta García-Coca, David Romera-García, John Jairo Aguilera-Correa, Ignacio Mahíllo-Fernández, Jaime Esteban, Concepción Pérez-Jorge
Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the progressive colonization of the respiratory tract by different bacteria, which develop polymicrobial biofilms. In the past decades, there has been an increase in the number of CF patients infected with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). Although Mycobacterium abscessus is the main NTM isolated globally, little is known about M. abscessus multispecies biofilm formation. In the present study we developed an in vitro model to study the phenotypic characteristics of biofilms formed by M...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Victor P M G Rutten, Nicolaas Gey van Pittius, Brendon Naicker, Anita L Michel
Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ibrahim Abubakar, Rishi K Gupta, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Marc Lipman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Laura Reisfeld, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Laura Ippolito, Bruna Silvatti, José Soares Ferreira Neto, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Fernando C W Rosas, José Anselmo Neto, Vera M F da Silva
An adult male Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis under human care presented with 3 circular cutaneous lesions on the dorsal aspect of the rostrum and between the nostrils (plenum). Initially these lesions were superficial, hypopigmented, without warmth and non-painful. Microbiological cultures of skin swabs isolated Candida sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and topical treatment with antiseptic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic medication was instituted. This treatment strategy did not lead to any clinical improvement, and after 6 mo, the lesions progressed to a confluent abscess (5...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jiraprapa Wipasa, Romanee Chaiwarith, Kriangkrai Chawansuntati, Jutarat Praparattanapan, Kritsadee Rattanathammethee, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo
A major characteristic of immunodeficiency associated with life-threatening intracellular infection in adults is the presence of anti-interferon-γ antibodies. Although little is known about the mechanism underlying this syndrome, it is believed that the antibodies inhibit the activity of downstream signaling pathway of interferon-γ. In this study, the characteristics of these antibodies in patients who presented, or have a history of, intracellular infection and were positive to anti-interferon-γ antibodies were investigated...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ignacio Duarte
In the 19th century it was widely believed that both tuberculosis and cervical lymph node swelling, known as scrophula, affected individuals predisposed to an inherited "diathetic constitution". In 1882 Robert Koch proved that human tuberculosis and scrophulous lesions were caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the early twentieth century it was stated that Mycobacterium bovis, the bacillus of cattle tuberculosis, could also cause cervical lymphoadenitis in humans, especially in children, by the intake of milk from sick cows...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Tatjana Adzic-Vukicevic, Aleksandra Barac, Ana Blanka-Protic, Marija Laban-Lazovic, Bojana Lukovic, Vesna Skodric-Trifunovic, Salvatore Rubino
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms associated with various infections. The aim of the study was to determine the most relevant clinical characteristics of NTM during the 7-year period. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study of NTM infections was conducted between January 2009 and December 2016. The American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America criteria were used to define cases of pulmonary or an extrapulmonary site...
February 23, 2018: Infection
Jonathan D Cogen, Frankline Onchiri, Julia Emerson, Ronald L Gibson, Lucas R Hoffman, David P Nichols, Margaret Rosenfeld
RATIONALE: Azithromycin has been shown to improve lung function and reduce the number of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis patients. Concerns remain, however, regarding the potential emergence of treatment-related respiratory pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine if chronic azithromycin use (defined as thrice weekly administration) is associated with increased rates of detection of eight specific respiratory pathogens. METHODS: We performed a new-user, propensity-score matched retrospective cohort study utilizing data from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry...
February 23, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Delia Goletti, Meng-Rui Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Nicholas Walter, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a devastating disease, yet despite its enormous toll on global health, tools to control TB are insufficient and often outdated. TB Biomarkers (TB-BM) would constitute extremely useful tools to measure infection status and predict outcome of infection, vaccination or therapy. There are several types of TB-BM: Correlate of Infection; Correlate of TB Disease; Correlate of Increased Risk of Developing Active TB Disease; Correlate of the Curative Response to Therapy; and Correlate of Protection (CoP)...
February 18, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Warinyupa Pinitpuwadol, Sucheera Sarunket, Sutasinee Boonsopon, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Pitipol Choopong
BACKGROUND: Although atypical mycobacteria had been increasingly found in various ocular infections in the past decades, a slow-growing Mycobacterium haemophilum (M. haemophilum) was scarcely reported. Similar to tuberculous infection, the presentation can masquerade as low-grade granulomatous intraocular inflammation with partial response to corticosteroids. Besides, the special requirements for culture make this pathogen difficult to diagnose. The study aims to report the clinical presentation and notify the awareness of NTM endophthalmitis among clinicians...
February 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
R Hermes, J Saragusty, I Moser, S Holtze, J Nieter, K Sachse, T Voracek, A Bernhard, T Bouts, F Göritz, T B Hildebrandt
Tuberculosis (TB) has been known to affect elephants for thousands of years. It was put into spotlight when few circus elephants were diagnosed carrying Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis. Because of the zoonotic risk and high susceptibility to M. tuberculosis, periodic testing was enacted since, in captive breeding programmes. Presently, trunk wash is the recommended diagnostic procedure for TB. Trunk wash, however, puts the operator at risk, has low sensitivity, and is prone to contamination. Here, bronchoalveolar lavage is described for the first time for TB diagnosis in elephants...
February 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Y A M El-Wajeh, M G Watson, D Igoumenakis, P Stathopoulos
This retrospective study covered over two decades, during which an individual head and neck surgeon treated 24 patients with cervicofacial lymphadenitis that was related to both Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (n=17, made up of M tuberculosis (n=16) and M bovis (n=1)), and non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The seven cases of non-tuberculous mycobacteria were caused by M avium complex (n=3), M malmoense (n=3), and M kansaii (n=1). By using a tailored management approach, at times selective combined surgical and antimycobacterial treatment, he achieved a success rate of 23/24 cases, with only one recurrence and no major complications...
January 27, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Ajoy Kumar Verma, Rohit Sarin, Vijay Kumar Arora, Gavish Kumar, Jyoti Arora, Paras Singh, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
BACKGROUND: The rapid grower mycobacteria have emerged as significant group of human pathogen amongst the Runyon group IV organisms that are capable of causing infection in both the healthy and immunocompromised hosts. Study aimed to identification of species amongst rapid grower non tuberculous mycobacterial isolates by polymerase chain reaction - restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). Analysis and comparison of results with standard biochemical tests. METHODS: Rapid grower non tuberculous mycobacteria had been collected from liquid culture section during the study period...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
B Kone, Y S Sarro, M Maiga, M Sanogo, A M Somboro, B Diarra, A C G Togo, N Coulibaly, B P P Dembele, D Goita, B Baya, A Kone, S Diabaté, M A Polis, M Belson, S Dao, S Orsega, C J Achenbach, R L Murphy, S Diallo, S Siddiqui
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Lymaries Velez, Jennifer Harb, Stephanie Anuszewski, Stanton Wesson
Tattoo popularity continues to rise, with 3 in 10 Americans bearing at least one. Among tattoo complications, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has emerged as a global public health concern. NTM infections associated with tattooing of immunocompetent individuals have occurred as sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Water sources are considered the major pathogenic reservoirs. Tattoo-related inoculation has been linked to contamination of ink, either during the manufacturing process or during dilution of black ink using non-sterile water...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kathan Mehta, Annie Im, Farah Rahman, Hong Wang, Peter Veldkamp
Background: Prior studies have shown that outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in HIV (+) patients are similar to HIV (-) patients since effective implementation of HAART by 1998; but they are limited by small sample size or non-inclusion of recent data. Methods: We queried National Inpatient Sample, a large inpatient dataset in the US, from 1998 to 2012 for HSCT using ICD9 procedure code 41.0. HIV patients were identified by ICD9 diagnostic code of 042, 043, 044, V08 and 079...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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