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non tuberculous mycobacteria

Simone Scherrer, Patricia Landolt, Ute Friedel, Roger Stephan
The most commonly used tools for tuberculosis testing in cattle, the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-γ release assay, detect immune reactivity to various antigens of Mycobacterium bovis, including ESAT-6 and CFP-10. However, some non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can also harbor the cfp-10 and/or esat-6 genes, which can lead to false-positive results. We tested 77 NTM isolates belonging to 22 different species from lymph nodes of healthy slaughtered cattle for the occurrence of cfp-10 and esat-6. Most isolates did not harbor cfp-10 and esat-6...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Yeya Ds Sarro, Bourahima Kone, Bassirou Diarra, Alisha Kumar, Ousmane Kodio, Djeneba B Fofana, Chad J Achenbach, Abdoul H Beavogui, Moussa Seydi, Jane L Holl, Babafemi Taiwo, Souleymane Diallo, Seydou Doumbia, Robert L Murphy, Sally M McFall, Mamoudou Maiga
Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease in the world which disproportionately affects low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) where diagnostic resources and treatment options are limited. The incidence of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is also rapidly increasing in these regions traditionally dominated by TB infections. This poses significant diagnostic and treatment challenges, since these two diseases are often indistinguishable clinically or by sputum smear microscopy (SSM), the most commonly used TB diagnostic tool in LMICs...
December 2018: Clinical microbiology and infectious diseases
D-H Seo, J Y Shin, S-G Roh, S C Chang, N-H Lee
Autologous fat has long been used as a filler in the face, and has recently gained popularity in plastic surgery with a wound infection rate of 1% - 5%. The incidence of mycobacterial infections has increased over recent decades, which is attributed in part to the increased popularity of these procedures.2 Infections by non-tuberculosis mycobacteria often cause chronic inflammation and progressive infection that may eventually manifest themselves as severe scars, fistulas, and hollows, and irregular facial contours...
January 3, 2019: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
S Singh, M Sharma, M Modi, A Sharma, R Singh, P Ray, K Sharma
Infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) often escape detection on traditional diagnostics. We evaluated the ability of heat shock protein 65 ( hsp 65) polymerase chain reaction and high-resolution melting curve (HRMC) analysis to identify and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) from NTM in 150 clinical mycobacterial isolates from extra-pulmonary sites. A hundred MTC and 50 NTM isolates were identified. We were able to simultaneously differentiate between seven mycobacterial species using HRMC analysis; a concordance of 100% between hsp 65 HRMC analysis, polymerase chain reaction + restriction analysis and hsp 65 sequencing was observed...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Monika Szturmowicz, Izabela Siemion-Szcześniak, Dorota Wyrostkiewicz, Magdalena Klatt, Sylwia Brzezińska, Anna Zabost, Anna Lewandowska, Dorota Filipczak, Karina Oniszh, Agnieszka Skoczylas, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Jan Kuś
INTRODUCTION: An increasing incidence rate of respiratory isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been noted recently in most European countries as well as in the US. Despite many publications, there is no consensus concerning the importance of different factors in promoting NTM lung disease (NTMLD). The aim of the present retrospective study was to analyse patients with positive NTM respiratory isolates in search of factors predisposing to NTMLD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 73 patients, 23 males, 50 females, median age 62...
December 30, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Claudia A Tortone, Delia S Oriani, Ana S Staskevich, Alejandra S Oriani, Lilia M Gino, María J Marfil, Alejandro Nava Vargas, Andrea K Gioffré, Martín J Zumárraga
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are studied not only for their importance as emerging opportunistic pathogens but also for their applications in biotechnology and bioremediation. Our aim was to determine the occurrence and diversity of mycobacteria in different aquatic habitats of General Pico city, Province of La Pampa. The percentage of samples with positive cultures for mycobacteria were the following: 37.5% recovered from the water supply distribution system; 32.6% from the aquifer that supplies water to the distribution system; 36...
December 19, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
C Balavoine, P Lanotte, M Campana, M Ghanem, S Marchand-Adam
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium avium complex can be responsible for a number of different radio-clinical presentations, ranging from invasive infections to hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to repeated inhalation of antigens. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinical, radiological, biological and microbiological. CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old male developed a hypersensitivity pneumonitis reaction to non-tuberculous mycobacteria, following the repeated use of his own spa, which later evolved into chronic respiratory failure...
December 17, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Elena Portell-Buj, Andrea Vergara, Izaskun Alejo, Alexandre López-Gavín, Maria Rosa Monté, Lorena San Nicolás, Julian González-Martín, Griselda Tudó
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to human health worldwide. The increasing incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections and particularly those produced by Mycobacterium avium has emphasized the need to develop new drugs. Additionally, high levels of natural drug resistance in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB is of great concern. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are antibiotics with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The objective was to assess the activity of AMPs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Molla I Ahmed, Hemant Kulkarni, Sarita Shajpal, Deepa Patel, Prakash Patel, Alison Claydon, Deborah E Modha, Erol A Gaillard
AIM: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have emerged as an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). Early detection and treatment of NTM can preserve lung function and maintain good lung health. Many children with CF are not regular sputum producers and cough swabs cannot routinely be used to diagnose NTM. We aimed to test the hypothesis that performing sputum induction at routine annual review results in earlier identification of NTM in non-sputum producing children with CF. METHOD: We conducted a 5-year prospective observational cohort study involving children with CF aged 5-17 years who had sputum induction with hypertonic saline for microbiological surveillance including NTM at their annual review...
December 18, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Colin Swenson, Christa S Zerbe, Kevin Fennelly
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that may cause opportunistic infections in susceptible hosts. Lung infections in immunocompetent persons with structural lung disease are most common, while disseminated disease occurs primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Human disease caused by certain species, such as Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium abscessus , and Mycobacterium kansasii , is increasing in incidence and varies by geographic distribution. The spectrum of NTM disease varies widely in presentation and clinical outcome, but certain patterns can be organized into clinical phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aleksandra Ledwoń, Agnieszka Napiórkowska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Piotr Szeleszczuk
Mycobacterioses are a constant problem in backyard poultry, as well as pet birds. To date, no evidence of direct transmission of atypical bacilli between humans has been demonstrated, but it cannot be ruled out that sick animals can be a source of infection for people in their environment. The aim of the study was to identify mycobacteria isolated from birds with diagnosed mycobacteriosis and to determine the susceptibility of mycobacterial isolates from these animals to antituberculous drugs most commonly used in the treatment of mycobacterial infections in humans...
2018: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Steven A Cowman, Phillip James, Robert Wilson, William O C Cookson, Miriam F Moffatt, Michael R Loebinger
The diagnosis of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease (pNTM) is dependent on the isolation of NTM in culture, which is prone to overgrowth and contamination and may not capture the diversity of mycobacteria present, including rare or unidentified species. This study aimed to develop a culture independent method of detecting and identifying mycobacteria from sputum samples using partial sequencing of the hsp65 gene. DNA was extracted from sputum samples from subjects with pNTM and disease controls...
2018: PloS One
Blachy J Dávila Saldaña, Michael Keller, Benjamin R Hanisch, Xiaoyan Song
Five patients, all with severe T cell dysfunction, had invasive non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections diagnosed over a 16 month period, with four meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for hospital-acquired infections. Testing of the hospitals tap water confirmed the presence of NTM. NTM are naturally present in water systems and present a threat to patients with lymphopenia; steps should be taken to avoid NTM exposure when caring for this patient population.
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
George Sebastian, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Telagi Vishwanatha, Krishna Hemalatha, Narayana Vijayalakshmi, Prahlad Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) causing clinical disease have become increasingly common and more diverse. The development of fast, inexpensive, and reliable tests to identify nontuberculous mycobacteria is need of the hour especially under the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP). The Aim of the study was to check the Diagnostic efficacy of the GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS assay compared with HPLC and Biochemical Test for Identification of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria under the Revised Tuberculosis Control Programme...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Lisa Stockdale, Stephen Nash, Angela Nalwoga, Lorna Gibson, Hannah Painter, John Raynes, Gershim Asiki, Robert Newton, Helen Fletcher
OBJECTIVES: A growing evidence base implicates human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a risk factor for TB disease. We investigated total IgG and mycobacteria-specific antibodies in a cross-sectional study nested within a rural Ugandan General Population Cohort (GPC), in relation to HIV infection and the magnitude of HCMV IgG response. METHODS: Sera from 2,189 individuals (including 27 sputum-positive TB cases) were analysed for antibodies against mycobacteria (Ag85A, PPD, LAM, ESAT6/CFP10) and HCMV, tetanus toxoid (TT) and total IgG...
December 1, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ryuichi Yoshimura, Miharu Kawanishi, Shungo Fujii, Aska Yamauchi, Kentaro Takase, Kaori Yoshikane, Masahiro Egawa, Hiroaki Shiina, Takafumi Ito
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated infection caused by Mycobacterium spp. is rare. Mycobacterium abscessus is one of the most resistant acid-fast bacteria, and treatment is also the most difficult and refractory. Thus, we report a case of PD-associated peritonitis caused by Mycobacterium abscessus that was difficult to treat and led to PD failure. CASE PRESENTATION: We recently encountered a 56-year-old man who developed PD-associated infection. We initially suspected exit-site infection (ESI) and tunnel infection (TI) caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus...
November 29, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Robert Hermes, Joseph Saragusty, Irmgard Moser, Stefanie A Barth, Susanne Holtze, Alexis Lecu, Jonathan Cracknell, Duncan Williams, Frank Göritz, Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt
Tuberculosis (TB) occurs in a wide range of mammalian species and thus poses a health risk to humans living or working in close proximity with TB infected animals. Despite a high incidence of M. bovis infections in domestic or wildlife species tuberculosis infections in rhinoceros have so far been very limited. Over the past 53 years, tuberculosis of the respiratory tract has been confirmed in just 22 rhinoceros, most of those infected not by M. bovis but M. tuberculosis. However, because of the zoonotic risk TB testing is recommended or becomes even mandatory in endangered species...
2018: PloS One
Lorraine Michelet, Krystel de Cruz, Claudine Karoui, Jennifer Tambosco, Jean-Louis Moyen, Sylvie Hénault, María Laura Boschiroli
Surveillance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is partly based on the sanitary inspection of carcasses at the abattoir to detect bTB-like lesions which, in compliance with EU recommendations, are analysed by bacteriology and histopathology to disclose Mycobacterium bovis (or M. caprae) infection. Moreover, since 2012, a PCR method with similar sensitivity and specificity values of histopathology and bacteriology respectively is additionally employed in France, partially compensating for the weaknesses of classical diagnostic methods...
2018: PloS One
Li Liu, Renfang Zhang, Yang Tang, Tangkai Qi, Wei Song, Zhenyan Wang, Yinzhong Shen, Hongzhou Lu
The increased co-incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS is compounded by the emergence of opportunistic infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in patients with HIV/AIDS, and the treatment for these infections differs from that for TB. The high frequency of NTM strains found in patients infected with HIV raises concerns about accurate species identification before deciding proper treatment. A total of 101 isolates from 2014, 137 from 2015, and 162 from 2016 were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing to identify the species...
2018: Bioscience Trends
Mimi Lu, Vishal Saddi, Philip N Britton, Hiran Selvadurai, Paul D Robinson, Chetan Pandit, Ben J Marais, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) (especially M. abscessus complex) infections pose a considerable challenge in the management of lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The apparent increase in prevalence is likely multifactorial. Emergent evidence of patient-to-patient transmission and isolation of highly resistant strains is a concern for all CF centers around the world. Treatment is often long and burdensome with multiple agents. Treatment side effects are frequent and can cause significant morbidity...
May 19, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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