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non tuberculous mycobacteria

Miguel Costa-Silva, Artur César, Preto Gomes Nuno, Filomena Azavedo
Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium widely present in the natural environment and is now being increasingly identified as a cause of human disease. However, it can cause skin and soft tissue infection following trauma or surgery. We report a case of a skin ulcer associated with M. abscessus in a spa worker. Frequently, contamination with atypical mycobacteria occurs through tap water. However, in most outbreaks the infection source remains unknown. For an early diagnosis, it is important to perform biopsies and mycobacterium cultures...
September 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Vitalii Litvinov, Marina Makarova, Ksenia Galkina, Elena Khachaturiants, Maria Krasnova, Lidia Guntupova, Svetlana Safonova
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the research was to assess the susceptibility of the slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria strains to the antimicrobial drugs used for mycobaterioses treatment using SLOMYCO test system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 363 NTM strains: 177 MAC (161 M. avium, 16 M. intracellulare), 112 M. kansasii and 74 M. xenopi collected from the respiratory material of the patients were under the treatment or under diagnostic procedures at our Center, affiliates and the diagnostic department in 2010-2016...
2018: PloS One
Hye-Young Wang, Kwangjin Ahn, Young Uh, Hyeyoung Lee, Seoyong Kim, Yunhee Chang, Chulhun L Chang, Tae-Sun Shim
Rapid and accurate detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is of primary importance for infection control and selection of anti-tuberculosis drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform, QMAP) for the direct detection of rifampin-resistant MTB in respiratory specimens. A total of 400 respiratory specimens collected from patients with clinically suspected tuberculosis or non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections were tested with the culture-based conventional Mycobacterium species identification and QMAP system...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M van Mechelen, J van der Hilst, I C Gyssens, P Messiaen
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are a known cause of skin and soft tissue infections. However, only too often it takes inordinately long to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis and start treatment. Actively searching for predilection factors, exposure risks and specific clinical clues may speed up the diagnostic process. Deep tissue biopsy cultures are indispensable to determine the species and strain of mycobacterium, with important consequences for treatment. Less well known as a causative agent of prolonged tenosynovitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
August 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Stefano Aliberti, Luigi Ruffo Codecasa, Andrea Gori, Giovanni Sotgiu, Maura Spotti, Antonio Di Biagio, Andrea Calcagno, Stefano Nardini, Baroukh Maurice Assael, Enrico Tortoli, Giorgio Besozzi, Maurizio Ferrarese, Alberto Matteelli, Enrico Girardi, Saverio De Lorenzo, Manuela Seia, Andrea Gramegna, Bruno Del Prato, Leonardo Terranova, Martina Oriano, Nicola Sverzellati, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, James D Chalmers, Charles S Haworth, Michael R Loebinger, Timothy Aksamit, Kevin Winthrop, Felix C Ringshausen, Giuliana Previdi, Francesco Blasi
Background: A substantial increase in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been documented worldwide, especially among subjects suffering from chronic respiratory diseases and immunocompromised patients. Many questions remain regarding the epidemiology of pulmonary disease due to NTM (NTM-PD) mainly because reporting of NTM-PD to health authorities is not mandated in several countries, including Italy. This manuscript describes the protocol of the first Italian registry of adult patients with respiratory infections caused by NTM (IRENE)...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Abhishek Shenoy, Walid El-Nahal, McCall Walker, Tushar Chopra, Gregory Townsend, Scott Heysell, Joshua Eby
Mycobacterium immunogenum is a member of the rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria and is a relatively new species identified within this group. An 81-year-old immune-competent male was diagnosed with M. immunogenum infection of his peritoneal dialysis catheter exit site and surrounding soft tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of M. immunogenum infection of a peritoneal catheter. Treatment included catheter removal, local surgical debridement, and combination antimicrobial therapy...
August 21, 2018: Infection
Gurpreet S Bhalla, Manbeer S Sarao, Dinesh Kalra, Kuntal Bandyopadhyay, Arun Ravi John
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are composed of mycobacterial species other than the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Initially thought to be mere contaminants when isolated from clinical specimens, literature is increasing by the day showing NTM as proven pathogens. Due to the difference in antimicrobial susceptibility of different species, it becomes imperative for the microbiology laboratory to identify them to the species level. Molecular methods are available for rapid and accurate identification, but in a resource limited nation, phenotypic methods, albeit time consuming, are of paramount importance...
November 2018: Practical Laboratory Medicine
Imran Sulaiman, Benjamin G Wu, Yonghua Li, Adrienne S Scott, Patrick Malecha, Benjamin Scaglione, Jing Wang, Ashwin Basavaraj, Samuel Chung, Katrina Bantis, Joseph Carpenito, Jose C Clemente, Nan Shen, Jamie Bessich, Samaan Rafeq, Gaetene Michaud, Jessica Donington, Charissa Naidoo, Grant Theron, Gail Schattner, Suzette Garofano, Rany Condos, David Kamelhar, Doreen Addrizzo-Harris, Leopoldo N Segal
Background: Aspiration is associated with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease and airway dysbiosis is associated with increased inflammation. We examined whether NTM disease was associated with a distinct airway microbiota and immune profile. Methods: 297 oral wash and induced sputum samples were collected from 106 participants with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities compatible with NTM. Lower airway samples were obtained in 20 participants undergoing bronchoscopy. 16S rRNA gene and a nested mycobacteriome sequencing approaches characterised microbiota composition...
August 9, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Cristal Reyna Thompson, Matthew M Champion, Patricia A Champion
N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is a post-transcriptional modification of proteins that is conserved from bacteria to humans. In bacteria, the enzymes that mediate protein NTA also promote antimicrobial resistance. In pathogenic mycobacteria, which cause human tuberculosis and other chronic infections, NTA has been linked to pathogenesis and stress response, yet the fundamental biology underlying NTA of mycobacterial proteins remains unclear. We enriched, defined, and quantified the NT-acetylated populations of both cell-associated and secreted proteins from both the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the nontuberculous opportunistic pathogen, Mycobacterium marinum...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Joseph O Falkinham
Discovery and development of antibiotics active against the environmental opportunistic non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been retarded by innate antibiotic-resistance of NTM cells and methodological challenges in the laboratory. The basis for the innate resistance of NTM cells is its lipid rich outer membrane that results in hydrophobic cells and the outer membrane's impermeability, and the residence of NTM cells in phagocytic cells, and the slow growth and dormancy of NTM. Laboratory challenges include: the choice of species and strains for screening and measurement of anti-NTM activity, the high frequency colony switching between antibiotic-susceptible and resistant variants, the preference of NTM to adhere to surfaces and form biofilms, and the aggregation of NTM cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shailesh Dalvi, Paul Das
Public Health England (PHE) issued a guidance report on the management of Mycobacterium chimaera endocarditis following cardiac valve surgery. M chimaera is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) belonging to mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). PHE has also recognised that M chimaera has caused severe infections in a small proportion of patients who have had cardiac surgery. Investigations in the UK and internationally have implicated contaminated heater cooler units used for cardiopulmonary bypass. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) presents as the frequent and severe form of infective endocarditis (IE)...
August 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Shrikala Baliga, Christina Murphy, Leesha Sharon, Suchitra Shenoy, Dhanashree Biranthabail, Helena Weltman, Steve Miller, Ranjan Ramasamy, Jyotsna Shah
OBJECTIVE: In resource-limited tuberculosis-endemic countries, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum is mainly detected by acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining and the identification of sputum-derived cultures. PCR techniques are practical only in well-resourced laboratories. This study investigated the application of a rapid, simple, and inexpensive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to identify and differentiate M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in sputum...
July 24, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Naoki Washida, Hiroshi Itoh
BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is one of the most frequent reasons for withdrawal of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Although most cases of PD-related peritonitis can be treated with antibiotics, it is occasionally refractory and culture-negative. SUMMARY: The causes of refractory PD-related peritonitis include antibiotic-resistant bacteria, fungal peritonitis, biofilm formation in PD catheters, bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract, and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
Hye Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Eunjin Cho, Jong Seok Lee, Hyeyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) infection represents a global public health emergency. We evaluated the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform [QMAP], QuantaMatrix, Seoul, Korea) to rapidly identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and detect rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance-associated mutations. METHODS: A total of 200 clinical isolates from respiratory samples were used...
November 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Liliana Rondón, Estefanía Urdániz, Cecilia Latini, Florencia Payaslian, Mario Matteo, Ezequiel J Sosa, Darío F Do Porto, Adrian G Turjanski, Sergio Nemirovsky, Graham F Hatfull, Susana Poggi, Mariana Piuri
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 40% of tuberculosis (TB) cases are not diagnosed and treated correctly. Even though there are several diagnostic tests available in the market, rapid, easy, inexpensive detection, and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still of critical importance specially in low and middle-income countries with high incidence of the disease. In this work, we have developed a microscopy-based methodology using the reporter mycobacteriophage mCherrybomb ϕ for detection of Mycobacterium spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiu Ying Zhao, Zhao Ying Zeng, Wen Hao Hua, Yan Hua Yu, Cai Ping Guo, Xiu Qin Zhao, Hai Yan Dong, Jie Liu, Kang Lin Wan
A retrospective analysis was performed in two major HIV/AIDS referral hospitals in Beijing to evaluate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections in HIV-infected patients. A total of 627 patients' data were reviewed, and 102 (16.3%) patients were diagnosed with culture-confirmed mycobacterial infection, including 84 with MTB, 16 with NTM, and 2 with both MTB and NTM. The most frequent clinical complication by mycobacterial infection was pulmonary infection (48/102, 47...
June 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Richa Virmani, Yasha Hasija, Yogendra Singh
Mycobacteria show peculiar aggregated outgrowth like biofilm on the surface of solid or liquid media. Biofilms harbor antibiotic resistant bacteria in a self-produced extracellular matrix that signifies the bacterial fate to sedentary existence. Despite years of research, very little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to biofilm formation. LuxS has been previously known to play a role in biofilm formation in Autoinducer-2 dependent manner. We here show the effect of LuxS product-homocysteine, on the biofilm forming ability of non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG showing AI-2 independent phenotypic effect of LuxS...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Özgür Appak, Selçuk Türkel, Nuran Esen, Ayşe Aydan Özkütük
The typing of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) method and DNA sequence analysis method were utilized to target a gene region that codes the 65-kDa heat-shock protein for typing 150 suspected NTM samples isolated from the respiratory tract. Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium peregrinum were most frequently found by both methods...
July 16, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Hossein Kazemian, Hamid Heidari, Jalil Kardan Yamchi, Hengameh Zandi, Asieh Taji, Fateme Yazdani, Roya Ghanavati, Hossein Ali Rahdar, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis as an intracellular pathogen causes tuberculosis (TB). Due to the long time required for treatment, hepatotoxicity of drugs and also emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains, TB is currently a major public health problem. Some medicinal plants possess remarkable activity against Mycobacterium. Among them, Lamiaceae family are of pharmaceutical interest because of their potential antimicrobial properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activities of Satureja rechingeri, Satureja khuzestanica and Zataria multiflora against MDR M...
June 26, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Viviana P Lutzky, Champa N Ratnatunga, Daniel J Smith, Andreas Kupz, Denise L Doolan, David W Reid, Rachel M Thomson, Scott C Bell, John J Miles
The increasing global incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is of growing concern. New evidence of person-to-person transmission of multidrug-resistant NTM adds to the global concern. The reason why certain individuals are at risk of NTM infections is unknown. Using high definition flow cytometry, we studied the immune profiles of two groups that are at risk of Mycobacterium abscessus complex infection and matched controls. The first group was cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the second group was elderly individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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