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Nelly Conus, Nicola Burgher-Kennedy, Frans van den Berg, Gurleen Kaur Datta
OBJECTIVES: Emulsified formulations of omega-3 fatty acids may increase plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) compared with non-emulsified formulations. The current study evaluated plasma concentrations of DHA+EPA as well as DHA and EPA individually following administration of emulsified versus non-emulsified cod liver oil formulations. METHODS: In this randomized, 2-period, crossover study ( NCT02428699), 47 healthy adults received single doses of an emulsified cod liver oil formulation and a non-emulsified cod liver oil formulation, each containing 10% cod liver oil plus 10% cod oil and closely matched DHA and EPA content...
August 14, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Stuart T Haines, Amy L Pittenger, Brenda L Gleason, Melissa S Medina, Stephen Neely
PURPOSE: The face validity of the core entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for new pharmacy graduates published by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) in 2017 was evaluated. METHODS: A 28-item questionnaire was sent to experienced pharmacy practitioners affiliated with 4 schools of pharmacy. In addition to demographic information about education, training, credentials, and practice setting, participants were asked whether each EPA statement was pertinent to pharmacy practice and an expected activity that all pharmacists should be able to perform...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
S S Al-Ghannami, E Sedlak, I S Hussein, Y Min, S M Al-Shmmkhi, H S Al-Oufi, A Al-Mazroui, P Clough, K Ghebremeskel
Dietary habits of Omani population particularly of children and young adults have changed significantly. Consumption of imported calorie-dense foods, vegetable oils, milled and polished grains and carbonated beverages have become the norm. Concomitantly, there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The impact of the westernisation of eating habits on children has not been evaluated. We have investigated blood fatty acid profile of male (n = 125) and female (n = 160) children aged 9 and 10 (9...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
A E Sanders, S R Shaikh, G D Slade
The objective of this study was to assess whether dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with lower prevalence of headache in the U.S. POPULATION: This cross-sectional study used data for a nationally representative sample of 12,317 men and women aged ≥ 20 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 1999-2004. Interviewers recorded self-report of severe headache or migraine in the past three months...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Clemens von Schacky, William S Harris
As currently defined, the Omega-3 Index comprises eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but not docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in erythrocytes. In fish and many fish oils DPA is detectable (along with EPA and DHA), but sources rich in DPA are scarce. Purified DPA is available, and DPA is a precursor of biologically active molecules, but much remains to be learned about the effects of DPA in humans. In epidemiologic studies, erythrocyte DPA did not predict risk for total mortality, sudden cardiac death, or other relevant cardiovascular events, and, more importantly, did not improve prediction of these events when included along with EPA and DHA, the original Omega-3 Index...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Carlos Cardoso, Joana Paiva Martinho, Paula A Lopes, Susana Martins, Jorge Correia, Cláudia Afonso, Francisco J Alarcón, María J González-Fernández, Rui M Pinto, José A Prates, Narcisa M Bandarra, José L Guil-Guerrero
In this study, we hypothesized that terrestrial plant oils, rich in alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) relative to fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevent negative effects on cardiovascular and neurological function using a rat model fed a hypercaloric diet. Results showed effects on the FA profile, namely, eicosapentaenoic, EPA, and docosahexaenoic, DHA, levels. There were also effects on neural aspects (cAMP response element-binding protein, CREB, gene expression, at least, doubled) and the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance (TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha reduced by 30-50%)...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Andréa Taschereau-Charron, Jean-François Bilodeau, Jessica Larose, Karine Greffard, Line Berthiaume, François Audibert, William D Fraser, Pierre Julien, Iwona Rudkowska
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and pregnancy are both associated with oxidative stress, characterized by an increase of F2 -isoprostanes from the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid, a n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). We hypothesized that pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes will be characterized by elevated levels of specific F2 -isoPs isomers and altered PUFA composition in plasma early pregnancy when compared to normoglycemic controls. METHODS: Plasma samples from 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancies and 11 women with pre-existing diabetes in pregnancy were collected between 12 and 18 weeks of pregnancy (MIROS cohort)...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ismail Altintop, Mehmet Tatli
AIM: Elderly physical abuse (EPA) is defined as injury or assault to or the restriction of an elderly person. Although EPA is an important social problem, its diagnosis is difficult because of tendency to cover up the event. In this study, patients aged 65 years and over who presented at the emergency department (ED) for forensic reasons and in whom physical abuse was suspected were examined. The aim of this study was to raise ED awareness of EPA and thereby to contribute to treatment plans for these patients in the ED...
August 13, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Lindsay Johnston, Taylor Sawyer, Akira Nishisaki, Travis Whtifill, Anne Ades, Heather French, Kristen Glass, Rita Dadiz, Christie Bruno, Orly Levit, Sandeep Gangadharan, Daniel Scherzer, Ahmed Moussa, Marc Auerbach
BACKGROUND: Neonatal tracheal intubation (NTI) is an important clinical skill. Suboptimal performance is associated with patient harm. Simulation training can improve NTI performance. Improving performance requires an objective assessment of competency. Competency assessment tools need strong evidence of validity. We hypothesized that a NTI competency assessment tool with multi-source validity evidence could be developed, and could be used for formative and summative assessment during simulation-based training...
August 10, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach, Cesare R Sirtori, Željko Reiner
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) is a key regulator of triglycerides metabolism. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of fish omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on apo C-III levels. METHODS: Randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the impact of omega-3 on apo C-III levels were searched in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar. A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Theresa Greupner, Laura Kutzner, Svenja Pagenkopf, Heike Kohrs, Andreas Hahn, Nils Helge Schebb, Jan Philipp Schuchardt
There is a debate about the optimal dietary ratio of the parent n6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA) and n3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to promote an efficient conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, which have implications for human health. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a low-LA/high-ALA (loLA/hiALA) diet with a high-LA/low-ALA (hiLA/loALA) diet on fatty acid concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs). Fifteen omnivore healthy men (mean age 26.1 ± 4.5 years) with a low initial EPA/DHA status (sum (∑) EPA + DHA% of total fatty acids in RBC at baseline: 4...
August 13, 2018: Food & Function
Ryszard Lauterbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
Wei Jiang, David J Whellan, Kirkwood F Adams, Michael A Babyak, Stephen H Boyle, Jennifer L Wilson, Chetan B Patel, Joseph G Rogers, William S Harris, Christopher M O'Connor
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the effects of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on omega-3 levels, depressive symptoms, and other psychosocial factors, as well as other chronic heart failure (CHF)-related functional measures. BACKGROUND: Patients with CHF and depression had low blood omega-3 concentrations that were associated with an elevated risk of mortality. METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial using a 400/200 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) fish oil at 2 g and an almost pure EPA at 2 g, compared with a matched placebo, daily for 12 weeks for patients with CHF and major depressive disorder...
August 7, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
D M Mazur, I G Zenkevich, V B Artaev, O V Polyakova, A T Lebedev
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is one of the most accurate, well developed, and reliable analytical tools for the analysis of volatile and semivolatile compounds. The GC-MS data have been extensively improved by enhancing the separation capacity via comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). The reliability of the identification of the analytes in GC × GC-MS can be notably improved by applying the second-dimension retention index (2 I) as additional analytical parameter along with the commonly used first dimension retention index (1 I) and mass spectrum...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
How does risk of heart disease depend on age, sex, smoking, income, education, marital status, and outdoor concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5)? We join data available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFSS) System for years 2008-2012 to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data on county-specific concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to quantify associations among these variables and to explore possible causal interpretations...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Jennifer Steiman, Sarah A Sullivan, John Scarborough, Lee Wilke, Carla Pugh, Richard H Bell, K Craig Kent
OBJECTIVE: To assess competency in surgical residents with bundled assessments using a surgical entrustable professional activity (SEPA) framework. DESIGN: A pilot study was conducted using a combination of validated assessment tools (multiple choice exam (MCE) questions from the Surgical Council on Resident Education [SCORE], the Clinical Assessment and Management Examination - Outpatient (CAMEO) form, the Virtual Surgical Patient (VSP) website, and a procedure-specific Operative Performance Rating System [OPRS]) to determine competency in surgical residents in the treatment of breast cancer and gallbladder disease, respectively...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Cristina Allende-Prieto, Beatriz I Méndez-Fernández, Luis A Sañudo-Fontaneda, Susanne M Charlesworth
Intense urbanisation, combined with climate change impacts such as increased rainfall intensity, is overloading conventional drainage systems, increasing the number of combined sewer overflow events and making treatment plants outdated. There is a need for better urban planning, incorporating stormwater and flood management design in order to accurately design urban drainage networks. Geographic Information System (GIS) tools are capable of identifying and delineating the runoff flow direction, as well as accurately defining small-sized urban catchments using geospatial data...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Wenbiao Li, Zijian Li, Aaron Jennings
Residential surface soil contamination is often addressed by the use of regulatory guidance values (RGVs), which specify the maximum allowed concentration that can be present without prompting a regulatory action. In the U.S., there are at least 72 jurisdictions, including national, state, and regional, that have published guidance values for one or more of the one hundred most frequently regulated chemicals. A standard-value-based comparison tool in this study is developed to analyze values from 40 states and from the U...
August 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A M Oberbauer, R Daniels, K Levy, T R Famula, P Mundell, R Kelley
Unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when fed to dogs improves cognitive and neurological development. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has also been associated with lipid peroxidation, which in turn has been implicated in reduced body weight and altered bone formation. To assess the impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on skeletal growth, diets containing three levels of DHA and EPA (0.01 and 0.01%, 0.14 and 0.12%, and 0...
2018: PloS One
Hailong Li, Mingguang Zhang, Lei Zhu, Jianping Yang
Nano-structured zinc sulfide (Nano-ZnS) has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative to activated carbon (AC) for controlling mercury emission from coal combustion flue gas. The ultimate fate of the mercury-laden Nano-ZnS after mercury capture is mostly disposed in landfill with fly ashes. Thus, the stability of mercury adsorbed on the Nano-ZnS is of considerable significance in the secured disposal of fly ash after mercury removal and in the commercial application of the Nano-ZnS sorbent for removal of mercury from coal combustion flue gas...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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