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Anna Fickler, Stefanie Staats, Mario Hasler, Gerald Rimbach, Carsten Schulz
The utilization of vegetable oils in salmonid diets substantially decreased the body content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), and thus the product quality for human consumption. Therefore, new ingredients for aquaculture feeds are needed that maximize the deposition of health-promoting n-3 LC-PUFA. This study investigated Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil, a plant oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and stearidonic acid (18:4n-3, SDA), as a source of n-3 fatty acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) nutrition...
October 17, 2018: Lipids
Wen-Hui Weng, Wai-Hung Leung, Yeu Jye Pang, Li-Wei Kuo, Hsi-Hsien Hsu
It is known that colorectal cancer (CRC) cells containing mutations of the genes KRAS and BRAF are predominate mechanisms causing resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and commonly exhibit a lower expression of microRNA-378 (miR-378) when compared with the wild type. In the present study, the aim was to determine the possible mechanism which associates miR-378 with the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and to determine the efficiency of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA) in its ability to restore sensitivity towards cetuximab, an EGFR inhibitor...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Xiaoqian Liu, Na Li, Min-Min Xu, Chunhui Jiang, Jianhao Wang, Guoqiang Song, Yong Wang
A simple 1,2-squaraine based chemosensor material (SQ) has been reported to show dual sensing performance for colorimetric detection of Fe3+ and Hg2+ ions. Compared to common instrumental analysis, this method could provide fast and direct detection though colorimetric changes by the naked eye. The sensor has shown excellent selectivity over the other metal ions by tuning different solvent environments. The detection limit for Fe3+ could reach to 0.538 μM, which was lower than that in the environmental agency guideline (U...
October 16, 2018: Materials
Larisa M Gearhart-Serna, Nishad Jayasundara, Moises Tacam, Richard Di Giulio, Gayathri R Devi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is widespread, and many PAHs are considered carcinogenic. The PAH-contaminated AWI Superfund site in Virginia provides a model for studying a complex PAH mixture and its extrapolation to cancer risk and PAH exposure in the general population. We examined cancer risk at the Superfund site due to sediment-derived PAHs and then evaluated PAH sources in the general population and potentially vulnerable subpopulations upon PAH mixture exposure. The PAH mixture was assessed for potential carcinogenicity using the US EPA's OncoLogic™ ranking tool and the US EPA list of priority PAHs...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Ahmed M Darwesh, K Lockhart Jamieson, Chuying Wang, Victor Samokhvalov, John M Seubert
Impaired mitochondrial function and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes cascade has a significant role in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The current study investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or their corresponding CYP epoxygenase metabolites, 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (19,20-EDP), protect against IR injury. Isolated mouse hearts were perfused in the Langendorff mode with vehicle, DHA, 19,20-EDP, EPA or 17,18-EEQ and subjected to 30 min schemia and followed by 40 min of reperfusion...
October 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sara García-Ravelo, Nieves Marta Díaz-Gómez, María Virginia Martín, Roberto Dorta-Guerra, Mercedes Murray, Diana Escuder, Covadonga Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is known to affect human milk composition. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are vital nutrients to the nervous system development and precursors of eicosanoids related to obesity (prostaglandin E2 -PGE2 -and leukotriene E4 -LTE4 ). The aim of the present research was to study the lipid profiles, with particular emphasis to LCPUFAs, and the concentrations of eicosanoids PGE2 and LTE4 , involved in adipose tissue development, in human milk from overweight mothers compared with normal weight mothers...
October 16, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Om Ganda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Statins are the most evidence-based therapy to target LDL-C to reduce atherosclerotic events. Yet, many people are unable to achieve adequate reduction in this key atherogenic factor. Moreover, residual risk of cardiovascular events may persist even after "optimal" LDL-C due to elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Therefore, additional therapies beyond statins are needed, particularly in patients with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials with ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors have reported further reductions in cardiovascular events, beyond statins...
October 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Akramsadat Mortazavi, Ebrahim Nematipoor, Mahmoud Djalali, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Simin Samavat, Mahnaz Zarei, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have both anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects through inducing the expression and production of adipokines. Adipokines such as apelin, have been observed to play a protective role in the incidence and progression of CVD. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on the serum apelin levels in patients with cardiovascular disease...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Susan S Vos Chair, Meagan M Brown, Elizabeth A Cardello, Matthew R Dintzner, George E MacKinnon, Eric M Maroyka, Peter Mbi, Sharon K Park, Krystalyn K Weaver, Jacqueline M Zeeman, Lynette R Bradley-Baker, Cecilia M Plaza
The 2017-2018 AACP Professional Affairs Committee addressed the charges of (1) developing a self-reflection/self-assessment tool for pharmacy faculty and preceptors to allow them to assess their capability and confidence with Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) Educational Outcomes, the Pharmacists' Patient Care Process (PPCP), and the Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) for New Pharmacy Graduates and (2) creation of a plan for AACP to utilize in the development of preceptor continuing education and training programs...
September 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
F Echeverría, R Valenzuela, A Espinosa, A Bustamante, D Álvarez, D Gonzalez-Mañan, M Ortiz, S A Soto-Alarcon, L A Videla
High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice show obesity with development of liver steatosis and a proinflammatory state without establishing an inflammatory reaction. The aim of this work was to assess the hypothesis that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus hydroxytyrosol (HT) supplementation prevents the inflammatory reaction through enhancement in the hepatic resolvin content in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD or a control diet and supplemented with EPA (50 mg/kg/day) and HT (5 mg/kg/day) or their respective vehicles for 12 weeks...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Stuart N Riddick, Denise L Mauzerall, Michael A Celia, Mary Kang, Kara Bressler, Christopher Chu, Caleb D Gum
Recent studies have reported methane (CH4 ) emissions from abandoned and active oil and gas infrastructure across the United States, where measured emissions show regional variability. To investigate similar phenomena in West Virginia, we measure and characterize emissions from abandoned and active conventional oil and gas wells. In addition, we reconcile divergent regional CH4 emissions estimates by comparing our West Virginia emissions estimates with those from other states in the United States. We find the CH4 emission factors from 112 plugged and 147 unplugged wells in West Virginia are 0...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elizabeth W Murphy, Marian L Smith, Ji X He, William Wellenkamp, Edward Barr, Philip C Downey, Kenneth M Miller, Kathryn A Meyer
Incorporation of fish age into the assessment of status and trends for persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals in the Great Lakes has become an important step for the U.S. EPA's Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program (GLFMSP). A slowing in the rate of decline for total PCBs in Lake Huron beginning in 2000, led the Program to complete a retrospective analysis to assess how chemical contamination may be influenced by fish age. Analytical results suggest that fish age is an important variable when assessing contaminant trends and that the Program needed to revise its compositing scheme to group fish according to age, rather than by length, prior to homogenization and chemical analysis...
August 2018: Journal of Great Lakes Research
Sara Pedro, Aaron T Fisk, Steven H Ferguson, Nigel E Hussey, Steven T Kessel, Melissa A McKinney
We determined concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA + DHA), Σomega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids (ΣPUFA), selenium, methylmercury, and selenium:methylmercury (Se:Hg) ratios in native and northward-redistributing sub-Arctic marine fish and invertebrates from low, mid-, and high Canadian Arctic latitudes. There was no clear latitudinal trend in nutrient or contaminant concentrations. Among species, EPA + DHA concentrations in native Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) were similar to concentrations in sub-Arctic capelin (Mallotus villosus) and sand lance (Ammodytes spp...
October 1, 2018: Chemosphere
C Arndt, A B Leytem, A N Hristov, D Zavala-Araiza, J P Cativiela, S Conley, C Daube, I Faloona, S C Herndon
Reported estimates of CH4 emissions from ruminants and manure management are up to 2 times higher in atmospheric top-down calculations than in bottom-up (BU) inventories. We explored this discrepancy by estimating CH4 emissions of 2 dairy facilities in California with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) methodology, which is used for BU inventories, and 3 independent measurement techniques: (1) open-path measurements with inverse dispersion modeling (hereafter open-path), (2) vehicle measurements with tracer flux ratio method, and (3) aircraft measurements with the closed-path method...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Dragan Soldo, Mikulić-Kajić Matija, Spalldi Barišić Lara, Penava Nikolina, Orlović Martina, Soldo Neven, Kajić Martin
Background The objective of the study was to compare the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on their concentration in total lipids (TL) and lipid fractions of maternal and umbilical vein (UV) blood. The specific objective was to analyze the impact of EPA and DHA supplementation on pregnancy outcome and neonatal birth weight. Methods Women were randomly single-blinded (randomized controlled trial; ISRCTN36705743) allocated to the group receiving EPA and DHA supplementation (supplemented group) or the group receiving placebo-corn oil (control group) in the time period from January 1st, 2016 until March 1st, 2017...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Claudia Torno, Stefanie Staats, Stéphanie Céline Michl, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Marisol Izquierdo, Gerald Rimbach, Carsten Schulz
To sustainably produce marine fish with a high lipid quality rich in omega-3 fatty acids, alternative sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are being identified. Moreover, the use of bioactive compounds that would stimulate the in vivo fatty acid synthesis, such as resveratrol (RV), would reduce the dependence on fish oil in aquafeeds. Gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) were fed four experimental diets combining two fish oil levels (6% dry matter (DM); 2% DM) with or without 0...
October 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Kailin Jiao, Wupeng Xiao, Yuanchao Xu, Xianhai Zeng, Shih-Hsin Ho, Edward A Laws, Yinghua Lu, Xueping Ling, Tuo Shi, Yong Sun, Xing Tang, Lu Lin
Background: Organic carbon sources have been reported to simultaneously increase the growth and lipid accumulation in microalgae. However, there have been no studies of the mixotrophic growth of Porphyridium purpureum in organic carbon media. In this study, three organic carbon sources, glucose, sodium acetate, and glycerol were used as substrates for the mixotrophic growth of P. purpureum . Moreover, a novel trait-based approach combined with Generalized Additive Modeling was conducted to determine the dosage of each organic carbon source that optimized the concentration of cell biomass or fatty acid...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Takahiro Muroya, Hiroaki Kawano, Seiji Koga, Satoshi Ikeda, Fumi Yamamoto, Takashi Miwa, Yusuke Kohno, Koji Maemura
The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death. Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is a predictor of cardiac mortality, but little information is known on the relationship between CMD and omega-3 PUFAs. This study aimed to identify the relationship between the serum levels of omega-3 PUFAs and the CMD evaluated by the hyperemic microvascular resistance index (hMVRI) to assess coronary microvascular function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD)...
October 10, 2018: International Heart Journal
C Torno, S Staats, S de Pascual-Teresa, G Rimbach, C Schulz
The replacement of the finite and costly resource fish oil is an important task for aquaculture nutrition. A promising approach could be the use of plant bioactives that may have the potential to influence the metabolism and the synthesis of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3). In this study, the two phytochemicals resveratrol (RV) and genistein (G) were investigated for their effects on fish growth, nutrient utilization and body nutrient composition alongside their effects on whole body fatty acid (FA) composition...
October 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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