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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924423/vegan-diets-practical-advice-for-athletes-and-exercisers
#1
REVIEW
David Rogerson
With the growth of social media as a platform to share information, veganism is becoming more visible, and could be becoming more accepted in sports and in the health and fitness industry. However, to date, there appears to be a lack of literature that discusses how to manage vegan diets for athletic purposes. This article attempted to review literature in order to provide recommendations for how to construct a vegan diet for athletes and exercisers. While little data could be found in the sports nutrition literature specifically, it was revealed elsewhere that veganism creates challenges that need to be accounted for when designing a nutritious diet...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924088/docosapentaenoic-acid-22-5n-3-downregulates-mrna-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-factors-inlps-activated-murine-macrophage-like-raw264-7-cells
#2
Yanzhu Tian, Ami Katsuki, Donato Romanazzi, Matthew R Miller, Serean L Adams, Kazuo Miyashita, Masashi Hosokawa
Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, n-3 DPA) is a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in fish oil, and has been reported to have health benefits. This study investigated conversion of n-3 DPA, and examined the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 DPA on activated macrophages. Murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were incubated in culture media containing n-3 DPA for 72 h. The level of n-3 DPA in the fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were higher in treated cells than in control cells...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924085/an-improved-enzymatic-indirect-method-for-simultaneous-determinations-of-3-mcpd-esters-and-glycidyl-esters-in-fish-oils
#3
Kinuko Miyazaki, Kazuo Koyama
The enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-Es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (Gly-Es) make use of lipase from Candida cylindracea (previously referred to as C. rugosa). Because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oils high in PUFAs are currently excluded from the range of application of the method. The objective of this study was to make the enzymatic indirect method applicable to fats and oils containing PUFAs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920465/fish-oil-derived-eicosapentaenoic-acid-decreases-survivin-expression-and-induces-wt-p53-accumulation-with-caspase-3-activation-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#4
M R Sam, M Esmaeillou, S Sam, M A Shokrgozar
BACKGROUND: Defects in modulating wild-type (wt) p53 and survivin are associated with a resistant disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Yet, no wt-p53 and survivin modulating drugs have been approved for clinical application in ALL. Here, we investigated if in vitro eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations equal to human plasma levels are able to target wt-p53 and survivin. METHODS: Wt-p53 Molt-4 cells (ALL cell line) were treated with 50, 100, 150, and 200 µM of EPA after which cell number, viability, proliferation rate, survivin expression, wt-p53 accumulation, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis were evaluated...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917735/trace-analysis-of-nitrite-ions-in-environmental-samples-by-using-in-situ-synthesized-zein-biopolymeric-nanoparticles-as-the-novel-green-solid-phase-extractor
#5
Amir Hatamie, Mahmoud Nassiri, Meghdad Doust Alivand, Amit Bhatnagar
For the first time, a novel green method using Zein biopolymeric nanoparticles as a green dispersive solid-phase extractor is reported for the separation and preconcentration of trace amount of nitrite (NO2(-)) ions in ppb levels. The Zein protein is a biodegradable hydrophobic plant protein that is obtained from corn and is composed of a number of hydrophobic amino acids. Zein bionanoparticles were synthesized in an anti-solvent process and used as a new biosorbent in the extraction technique. In the proposed technique, by using a standard method at first, a mixture of 1-naphthylamine and sulphanilic acid as selective regents was added to the samples, and in the presence of the nitrite ion, a red azo product was formed...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916372/tracking-and-controlling-soft-surface-contamination-in-health-care-settings
#6
Jonathan D Sexton, Amanda M Wilson, Hannah P Sassi, Kelly A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Study objectives were to track the transfer of microbes on soft surfaces in health care environments and determine the efficiency of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered soft surface sanitizer in the health care environment. METHODS: Soft surfaces at 3 health care facilities were sampled for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli followed by a tracer study with a virus surrogate seeded onto volunteer hands and commonly touched surfaces...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915943/derivatization-enhanced-separation-and-sensitivity-of-long-chain-free-fatty-acids-application-to-asthma-using-targeted-and-non-targeted-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-approach
#7
Xiqing Bian, Baoqing Sun, Peiyan Zheng, Na Li, Jian-Lin Wu
Long chain-free fatty acids (LCFFAs) play pivotal roles in various physiological functions, like inflammation, insulin resistance, hypertension, immune cell behavior and other biological activities. However, the detection is obstructed by the low contents, structural diversity, high structural similarity, and matrix interference. Herein, a fast cholamine-derivatization, within 1 min at room temperature, coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach was developed to determine LCFFAs in complex samples...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915388/epa-and-dha-but-not-ala-have-antidepressant-effects-with-17%C3%AE-estradiol-injection-via-regulation-of-a-neurobiological-system-in-ovariectomized-rats
#8
Jeong-Eun Choi, Yongsoon Park
Our previous studies found that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and estrogen had synergistic antidepressant-like effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that three major n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), individually had antidepressant effects combined with 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (E) through a neurobiological pathway in ovariectomized rats. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0% n-3 PUFAs and 1% ALA, EPA and DHA relative to total energy intake for 12 weeks and were injected with corn oil or E every 4 days during the last 3 weeks...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913756/spatial-analysis-and-health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-concentration-in-drinking-water-resources
#9
Reza Ali Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad Miri, Mohamad Mehdi Dashti
The heavy metals available in drinking water can be considered as a threat to human health. Oncogenic risk of such metals is proven in several studies. Present study aimed to investigate concentration of the heavy metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 39 water supply wells and 5 water reservoirs within the cities Ardakan, Meibod, Abarkouh, Bafgh, and Bahabad. The spatial distribution of the concentration was carried out by the software ArcGIS. Such simulations as non-carcinogenic hazard and lifetime cancer risk were conducted for lead and nickel using Monte Carlo technique...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912100/influence-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-bovine-luteal-cell-plasma-membrane-dynamics
#10
Michele R Plewes, Patrick D Burns, Richard M Hyslop, B George Barisas
Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids which disrupt lipid microdomain structure and affect mobility of the prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptor in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of individual omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on 1) membrane fatty acid composition, 2) lipid microdomain structure, and 3) lateral mobility of the FP receptor in bovine luteal cells. Ovaries were collected from a local abattoir (n=5/experiment)...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903622/maternal-dietary-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-deprivation-does-not-exacerbate-post-weaning-reductions-in-arachidonic-acid-and-its-mediators-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#11
Shoug M Alashmali, Alex P Kitson, Lin Lin, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
OBJECTIVES: The present study examines how lowering maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (starting from pregnancy) compared to offspring (starting from post-weaning) affect the levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in phospholipids (PL) and lipid mediators in the hippocampus of mice. METHODS: Pregnant mice were randomly assigned to consume either a deprived or an adequate n-6 PUFA diet during pregnancy and lactation (maternal exposure). On postnatal day (PND) 21, half of the male pups were weaned onto the same diet as their dams, and the other half were switched to the other diet for 9 weeks (offspring exposure)...
September 13, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902987/understanding-reduction-kinetics-of-aqueous-vanadium-v-and-transformation-products-using-rotating-ring-disk-electrode
#12
Gongde Chen, Haizhou Liu
Vanadium(V) is an emerging contaminant in the most recent EPA's candidate contaminant list (CCL4). The redox chemistry of vanadium controls its occurrence in the aquatic environment, but the impact of vanadium(V) speciation on its redox properties remains largely unknown. This study developed electrochemical techniques with a rotating ring disk electrode to examine the reduction kinetics of four pH-dependent vanadium(V) species in the presence and absence of phosphate. Results showed that the reduction of VO2+, HxV4O12+x(4+x)- (V4) and HVO42- proceeded via a one-electron transfer, while the reduction of NaxHyV10O28(6-x-y)- (V10) underwent a two-electron transfer process...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901245/investigation-into-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-in-a-cranberry-bog-method-development-and-sampling-results
#13
Susan Genualdi, Nahyun Jeong, Lowri deJager, Timothy Begley
The contamination of groundwater and surface water from previous uses of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly products containing the contaminants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), has become a concern for drinking water and as a potential exposure route to the food supply. In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was asked to investigate a bog in Massachusetts where the surface water was believed to be contaminated with PFASs. As a result, a method was developed for the analysis of PFASs in cranberries, and water and fruit from the affected bog were evaluated...
September 13, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900447/disinfection-byproducts-in-drinking-water-and-evaluation-of-potential-health-risks-of-long-term-exposure-in-nigeria
#14
Nsikak U Benson, Oyeronke A Akintokun, Adebusayo E Adedapo
Levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water from water treatment plants (WTPs) in Nigeria were studied using a gas chromatograph (GC Agilent 7890A with autosampler Agilent 7683B) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The mean concentrations of the trihalomethanes ranged from zero in raw water samples to 950 μg/L in treated water samples. Average concentration values of THMs in primary and secondary disinfection samples exceeded the standard maximum contaminant levels. Results for the average THMs concentrations followed the order TCM > BDCM > DBCM > TBM...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#15
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898857/production-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-by-high-cell-density-cultivation-of-the-marine-oleaginous-diatom-fistulifera-solaris
#16
Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Takashi Yabuuchi, Yoshiaki Maeda, Daisuke Nojima, Mitsufumi Matsumoto, Tomoko Yoshino
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have attracted attention owing to their health benefits for humans, as well as their importance in aquaculture and animal husbandry. Establishing a sustainable PUFA supply based on fish oils has been difficult due to their increasing demand. Therefore, alternative sources of PUFAs are required. In this research, we examined the potential of the marine oleaginous diatom Fistulifera solaris as an alternative producer of PUFAs. Optimization of culture conditions was carried out for high cell density cultivation, and a maximal biomass productivity of 1...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895670/health-risk-assessment-and-dietary-exposure-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-lead-and-cadmium-from-bread-consumed-in-nigeria
#17
Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Zelinjo Nkeiruka Igweze, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
Objective: A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Material and Methods: Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892376/modifications-to-epa-method-3060a-to-improve-extraction-of-cr-vi-from-chromium-ore-processing-residue-contaminated-soils
#18
Christopher T Mills, Carleton R Bern, Ruth E Wolf, Andrea L Foster, Jean M Morrison, William M Benzel
It has been shown that EPA Method 3060A does not adequately extract Cr(VI) from chromium ore processing residue (COPR). We modified various parameters of EPA 3060A toward understanding the transformation of COPR minerals in the alkaline extraction and improving extraction of Cr(VI) from NIST SRM 2701, a standard COPR-contaminated soil. Aluminum and Si were the major elements dissolved from NIST 2701, and their concentrations in solution were correlated with Cr(VI). The extraction fluid leached additional Al and Si from the method-prescribed borosilicate glass vessels which appeared to suppress the release of Cr(VI)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892009/nrf2-activation-by-5-lipoxygenase-metabolites-in-human-umbilical-vascular-endothelial-cells
#19
Nozomi Nagahora, Hidetoshi Yamada, Sayaka Kikuchi, Mayuka Hakozaki, Akira Yano
5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) are major metabolites produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) from arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Effects of hydroxides on endothelial cells are unclear, although 5-LOX is known to increase at arteriosclerotic lesions. To investigate the effects of hydroxides on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the cells were treated with 50 μM each of AA, EPA, 5-HETE, and 5-HEPE. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HETE and 5-HEPE, rather than with AA and EPA, increased the nuclear translocation of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 and cystine/glutamate transporter regulated by Nrf2...
September 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890453/risk-communication-in-epa-s-controlled-inhalation-exposure-studies-and-in-support
#20
David Resnik
On March 28, 2017, the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) released a much-anticipated report on the Environmental Protection Agency's controlled human inhalation exposure studies. This essay reviews the ethical controversies that led to the genesis of the report, summarizes its key findings, and comments on its approach to informing human subjects about the risks of inhalation exposure studies. NASEM's report makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the scientific and ethical issues involved in conducting human inhalation exposure studies...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
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