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Ronalda Silva de Araújo, Bruna Aguiar, Milena Dropa, Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato, Marcelo de Souza Lauretto, Ana Tereza Galvani, José Antônio Padula, Glavur Rogério Matté, Maria Helena Matté
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are associated with cases of water and foodborne outbreaks in the world. This study included 50 samples of surface raw water collected from two watersheds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolation of (oo)cysts was performed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's methods 1623 and genotypic characterization and quantification were carried out by Nested PCR and qPCR assays based on 18S rRNA and gdh genes, respectively. U.S. EPA 1623 method showed the presence of (oo)cysts in 40% ([Formula: see text] = 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Komal Basra, Madeleine K Scammell, Eugene B Benson, Wendy Heiger-Bernays
Existing regulations seek to protect the public from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food, water, and soil. Exposure to PCBs in ambient air has recently been given explicit consideration in the human health risk assessments that form the basis of risk management decisions at contaminated sites. The objective of this paper is to examine how ambient air exposure to PCBs is regulated and monitored at five contaminated sites in the United States. We reviewed online accessible materials (including Environmental Protection Agency-site specific websites, data repositories, and other agency websites)...
January 1, 2018: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
Ji Hye Kang, Cheal Kim
Chemosensor 1 was synthesized by the reaction of octopamine with 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. Sensor 1 determined iron with an obvious color change from pale yellow to brown in nearly-pure water. The detection limits (0.55 and 0.25 μM) for Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively, were far lower than the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) guideline concentration for drinking water (5.37 μM). In addition, 1 could be employed to quantify iron in environmental water samples. Moreover, sensor 1 exhibited different fluorescence emissions in response to zinc (green) and cadmium (blue)...
March 20, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Kristina H Jackson, William S Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid (FA) profiles in different blood compartments are reflections of both diet and metabolism, and some FA levels are related to disease risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Perhaps the most studied FA-disease relationship is between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite null results from recent large omega-3 FA supplementation trials, new research continues to support past studies showing that blood levels of EPA + DHA are inversely related to risk for total mortality and fatal CVD events...
March 20, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Hiroki Murakami, Takashi Nobusawa, Koichi Hori, Mie Shimojima, Hiroyuki Ohta
Diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) is a non-phosphorus, polar glycerolipid that is regarded as analogous to the phosphatidylcholine in bacteria, fungi, algae, and basal land plants. In some species of algae, including the stramenopile microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica, DGTS contains an abundance of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which is relatively scarce in phosphatidylcholine, implying that DGTS has a unique physiological role. In this study, we addressed the role of DGTS in N. oceanica. We identified two DGTS biosynthetic enzymes that have distinct domain configurations compared to previously identified DGTS synthases...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
Michel Lagarde, Michel Guichardant, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac, Catherine Calzada, Evelyne Véricel
The oxygenation metabolism of arachidonic acid (ArA) has been early described in blood platelets, in particular with its conversion into the potent labile thromboxane A2 that induces platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cells contraction. In addition, the primary prostaglandins D2 and E2 have been mainly reported as inhibitors of platelet function. The platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) product, i.e. the hydroperoxide 12-HpETE, appears to stimulate platelet ArA metabolism at the level of its release from membrane phospholipids through phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1) activities, the first enzymes in prostanoid production cascade...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Danica E DeGroot, Adam Swank, Russell S Thomas, Mark Strynar, Mi-Young Lee, Paul L Carmichael, Steven O Simmons
The US EPA's ToxCast program is designed to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints using a variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. However, existing HTS assays have limited or no xenobiotic metabolism which could lead to false positive (chemical is detoxified in vivo) as well as false negative results (chemical is bioactivated in vivo) and thus potential mischaracterization of chemical hazard. To address this challenge, the ten most prevalent human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were introduced into a human cell line (HEK293T) with low endogenous metabolic capacity...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Beibei Wang, Chunye Lin, Xuan Zhang, Xiaoli Duan, Dongqun Xu, Hongguang Cheng, Qin Wang, Xitao Liu, Jin Ma, Junwei Ma, Fengchang Wu
Soil ingestion by people is an important route of exposure to environmental contaminants. Studies on soil ingestion using tracer mass-balance method are mainly for young children and adults, scarcely for teenagers. In such case, the soil ingestion rate for teenagers recommended by regulators is generally identical to that of adults based on one activity pattern modeling study. However, teenagers are expected to have different soil ingestion exposure via ingestion pathway due to different activity patterns and exposure scenarios...
March 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Takuto Suito, Kohjiro Nagao, Masataka Hatano, Kenichi Kohashi, Aiko Tanabe, Hiromichi Ozaki, Jun Kawamoto, Tatsuo Kurihara, Tetsuo Mioka, Kazuma Tanaka, Yuji Hara, Masato Umeda
It is commonly observed that freshwater fish contain lower amounts of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), than marine fish species. In this study, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of phospholipids (PLs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) from Gymnogobius isaza, a freshwater goby endemic to Lake Biwa inhabiting the lake bottom, and Gymnogobius urotaenia, a related goby that inhabits the shore of Lake Biwa...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Amy E Kalkbrenner, Gayle C Windham, Cheng Zheng, Rob McConnell, Nora L Lee, James J Schauer, Brian Thayer, Juhi Pandey, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported associations of perinatal exposure to air toxics, including some metals and volatile organic compounds, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to further explore associations of perinatal air toxics with ASD and associated quantitative traits in high-risk multiplex families. METHODS: We included participants of a U.S. family-based study [the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE)] who were born between 1994 and 2007 and had address information...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Lito M Amit, Young-Woong Song
Body surface area (BSA) is an important parameter in the conduct of human exposure studies and in clinical processes in children. The aim of this paper was to compare seven BSA formulas and to find out which of these formulas is appropriate for use with Korean children. Body surface area was calculated according to age, age-group and BMI-group using the height and weight data of Korean children (n = 4899) ages 1 to 18 from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2014). We used the formulas of Banerjee and Bhattacharya (1961), Fujimoto and Watanabe (1969), US EPA (1985), Gehan and George (1970), Boyd (1935), Haycock et al (1978) and Mosteller (1987)...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Mohamadreza Masoudinejad, Mansour Ghaderpoori, Ahmad Zarei, Jamal Nasehifar, Alireza Malekzadeh, Jalil Nasiri, Afshin Ghaderpoury
Due to the great possibility of water contamination of many rivers by human activities in Iran, the study of water quality is crucial for water resource protection and human health. High level of phosphorous is the main reason for eutrophication of freshwater systems. The main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of phosphorus in the rivers feeding into Taham dam in Zanjan, using GIS software. 40 sampling stations were selected along Taham and Ghalharod Rivers with respect to sewage discharge points and feeding characteristics of water entering to Taham dam...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Cheryl I Anderson, Marc D Basson, Muhammad Ali, Alan T Davis, Robert L Osmer, Michael K McLeod, Pam S Haan, Robert G Molnar, Andi N Peshkepija, John C Hardaway, Karen A Chojnacki, Christopher C Pfeifer, Jeffrey M Gauvin, Mark W Jones, M Ashraf Mansour
BACKGROUND: It is increasingly important for faculty to teach deliberately and provide timely, detailed and formative feedback on surgical trainee performance. We initiated a multicenter study to improve resident evaluative processes and enhance teaching and learning behaviors while engaging residents in their education. METHODS: Faculty from seven U.S. postgraduate training programs rated resident operative performances using the perioperative briefing, intraoperative teaching, debriefing model (BID) and rated patient visits/academic performances using the entrustable professional activities (EPAs) model via a web-based platform...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
M Kim, M Kim, H J Yoo, A Lee, S Jeong, J H Lee
We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal interaction effects between the minor allele of FADS1 rs174547 and overweight on n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Plasma PUFA levels were measured via GC-MS, and arterial stiffness was determined as brachial-ankle PWV (ba-PWV) at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 3 years. The FADS1 rs174547 T > C genotype was analyzed. At 3-years of follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking and drinking, there were interaction effects between the FADS1 rs174547 T > C genotype and baseline BMI on the changes (from baseline) in plasma arachidonic acid (AA) levels, in the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/AA ratio, and in ba-PWV (p for interaction = 0...
March 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
I S M van der Wurff, C von Schacky, T Bergeland, R Leontjevas, M P Zeegers, P A Kirschner, R H M de Groot
PURPOSE: Depression is common in adolescents and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are suggested to be associated with depression. However, research in adolescents is limited. Furthermore, self-esteem has never been studied in relation to LCPUFA. The objective here was to determine associations of depression and self-esteem with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Omega-3 Index (O3I), n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (n-6 DPA, also called Osbond acid, ObA), n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in blood of adolescents attending lower general secondary education (LGSE)...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Jacek A Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D Glanville, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen, Lam T Nguyen
Nearly 55,000 outbreaks of animal disease were reported to the World Animal Health Information Database between 2005 and 2016. To suppress the spread of disease, large numbers of animal mortalities often must be disposed of quickly and are frequently buried on the farm where they were raised. While this method of emergency disposal is fast and relatively inexpensive, it also can have undesirable and lasting impacts (slow decay, concerns about groundwater contamination, pathogens re-emergence, and odor). Following the 2010 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the Republic of Korea's National Institute of Animal Science funded research on selected burial alternatives or modifications believed to have potential to reduce undesirable impacts of burial...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
Omer Said Toker, Nevzat Konar, Ibrahim Palabiyik, Haniyeh Rasouli Pirouzian, Sirin Oba, Derya Genc Polat, Ender Sinan Poyrazoglu, Osman Sagdic
In this study, dark chocolate enriched with EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) was developed using various forms and origins. Quality characteristics such as physical, thermo-gravimetric, rheological, textural and sensory properties of chocolates were investigated. The highest EPA/DHA stability was determined in samples prepared by free-flowing powder and microencapsulated forms of omega-3 fatty acids (FA). The L∗ and C∗ values varied from 32.16-33.37 and 7.45-8.09, respectively for the all samples...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Priti Sengupta, Aniruddha Ganguly, Adity Bose
The crucial role of chemosensor for the immediate recognition of environment pollutant motivates the researchers to develop variety of sensing protocols. Of various chemosensory protocols, the colour change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein report a colourimetric and commercially available absorption probe, sinapic acid (SA) that is completely ready to use for "on-site" visual determination of copper ions. The molecule, SA is well-known phenolic acid, often utilized for its antibacterial activity...
March 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Kaitlin Roke, Jodi Rattner, Paula Brauer, David M Mutch
PURPOSE: To assess awareness of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their possible health effects among young adults. METHODS: An online survey was deployed to young adults. Questionnaire development involved identification of topic areas by content experts and adaptation of questions from previous consumer surveys. Focus groups and cognitive interviews ensured face validity, feasibility, and clarity of survey questions. Degrees of awareness and self-reported consumption were assessed by descriptive statistics and associations by Cochran's Q tests, Pearson's χ2 tests, Z-tests, and logistic regression...
March 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Masha Shulkin, Laura Pimpin, David Bellinger, Sarah Kranz, Wafaie Fawzi, Christopher Duggan, Dariush Mozaffarian
Background: Epidemiologic studies link maternal seafood and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption with improved childhood cognitive development; trials show mixed results. Objective: We investigated effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on child cognitive and visual outcomes. Methods: We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA supplementation in mothers or infants (age ≤2 y) and evaluated standardized measures of cognitive or visual development up to age 18 y...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
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