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Lona Mary Alkhalaf, Sarah Barry, Dean Rea, Angelo Gallo, Daniel Griffiths, Jozef Lewandowski, Vilmos Fülöp, Gregory L Challis
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) catalyze various oxidative transformations in drug metabolism, xenobiotic degradation and natural product biosynthesis. Here we report biochemical, structural and theoretical studies of TxtC, an unusual bifunctional CYP in-volved in the biosynthesis of the EPA-approved herbicide thaxtomin A. TxtC was shown to hydroxylate two remote sites with-in the Phe residue of its diketopiperazine substrate thaxtomin D. The reactions follow a preferred order, with hydroxylation of the -carbon preceding functionalization of the phenyl group...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Haigang Chen, Zhe Zhang, Fei Tian, Linbao Zhang, Yitong Li, Wengui Cai, Xiaoping Jia
Phenanthrene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in continental shelf environment of China and is on the EPA's Priority Pollutant list. In this study, the effects of phenanthrene on marine algal growth rate were determined after 96-h exposure at pH 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0 in seawater of salinity 35. Two measuring techniques to assess growth inhibition were also compared using prompt fluorescence and microscopic cell count. The results showed that the toxicity of phenanthrene increased significantly (p < 0...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Javier Amézaga, Sara Arranz, Ander Urruticoechea, Gurutze Ugartemendia, Aitziber Larraioz, Maria Louka, Matxalen Uriarte, Carla Ferreri, Itziar Tueros
The fatty acid (FA) composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids of cancer patients can reflect tumor status, dietary intakes, and cancer type or therapy. However, the characteristic membrane profiles have so far not yet defined as a potential biomarker to monitor disease evolution. The present work provides the first evidence of cancer metabolic signatures affecting cell membranes that are independent of nutritional habits. From the Oncology Outpatient Unit of the Onkologikoa hospital, two groups of cancer patients ( n = 54) and healthy controls ( n = 37) were recruited, and mature RBCs membrane phospholipids were analyzed for FA profiling (GC-MS)...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Zaida Montero-Lobato, María Vázquez, Francisco Navarro, Juan Luis Fuentes, Elisabeth Bermejo, Inés Garbayo, Carlos Vílchez, María Cuaresma
Microalgae have been widely recognized as a valuable source of natural, bioactive molecules that can benefit human health. Some molecules of commercial value synthesized by the microalgal metabolism have been proven to display anti-inflammatory activity, including the carotenoids lutein and astaxanthin, the fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), and sulphated polysaccharides. These molecules can accumulate to a certain extent in a diversity of microalgae species. A production process could become commercially feasible if the productivity is high and the overall production process costs are minimized...
November 30, 2018: Marine Drugs
Claudia Kalbe, Antje Priepke, Gerd Nürnberg, Dirk Dannenberger
We investigated the effects of long-term microalgae supplementation (7% in a piglet diet and 5% in a fattening diet) on muscle microstructure and meat quality, including fatty acid composition in female Landrace pigs (n = 31). The major effects were muscle-specific increases in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, resulting in increased accumulation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Carcass traits and meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscle were not affected by the microalgae diet with the exception of reduced drip loss (p = 0...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Chenchen Wang, Xiaohe Qing, Mingli Yu, Quanxi Sun, Fengzhen Liu, Baoxiu Qi, Xinzheng Li
An important alternative source of fish oil is its production by plants through metabolic engineering. To produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) in peanut through the alternative Δ8-pathway, a plant expression vector containing five heterologous genes driven by the constitutive 35S promoter respectively, namely, ∆9-elongase (Isochrysis galbana), ∆8-desaturase (Euglena gracilis), ∆5-desaturase (Mortierella alpina), ∆15-desaturase (Arabidopsis thaliana) and ∆17-desaturase (Phytophthora infestans) were transferred into peanut through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Hong Fu, Mengqi Li, Ruimin Ni, Yangming Martin Lo
Two different fish oil preparations, namely triglycerides and ethyl esters containing, respectively, 30.02% and 74.38% of omega-3 fatty acids, were employed as the substrates for transesterification. Catalyzed by immobilized lipase using imidazolium-based ionic liquid systems, the total content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the resulting triglyceride reached 63.60% when 4% hydrophobic ionic liquid was used, which was 11.74% higher than that of the triglyceride produced in a solvent-free reaction system...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Yijun Yao, Fang Mao, Yuting Xiao, Jian Luo
At contaminated sites, indoor inhalation of volatile organic compounds from groundwater contamination, known as vapor intrusion (VI), is an important exposure pathway to determine groundwater cleanup level. Based on empirical analysis, US EPA concluded that there is a low probability for vapors from fuel hydrocarbons dissolved in groundwater to induce indoor concentrations that exceed risk-based standards, and recommended 6 feet vertical building-source separation distance as the risk screening tool for such cases...
November 20, 2018: Water Research
Wenyan Wang, Xuhui Zhuang, Heyuan Sun, Lina Dong, Zongliang Liu, Guangying Du, Liang Ye, Jingwei Tian
1.S-EPA is a sulfur-substitution analogue of epacadostat (EPA), an effective small molecule indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase1 (IDO) inhibitor. By in vitro and in vivo experiments, pharmacokinetic differences of two closely related analogs, S-EPA and EPA was investigated in this study. 2.Liver microsomes clearance experiments showed S-EPA had comparable metabolic stability with EPA in rat and human liver microsomes. The whole blood distribution experiments showed the distribution ratio of S-EPA in blood cells to plasma in mice, rats, dogs and monkey was 1...
December 3, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
R G Silva, J Szabo, V Namboodiri, E R Krishnan, J Rodriguez, A Zeigler
Development of greener water treatment technologies is important for the production of safe drinking water and water security applications, such as decontamination. Chlorine assisted disinfection is common and economical, but can generate disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that may be of health concern. DBPs are formed due to the reaction of chlorine with naturally occurring organic and inorganic substances in water. Currently, various innovative technologies are being developed as alternative approaches for preventing DBPs during water treatment...
June 2018: Water science & technology, water supply
Hsing-Hsiang Huang, Gloria Helfand, Kevin Bolon, Robert Beach, Mandy Sha, Amanda Smith
A variety of fuel-saving technologies have been implemented in light-duty vehicles since 2012 under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) and Department of Transportation (DOT)'s light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy standards. Questions have arisen whether there are hidden costs that have not been included in the net benefit calculations as a result of adoption of the new technologies. In this paper, we replicate and expand results from Helfand et al. (2016). We define hidden costs of the new technologies as problems with operational characteristics such as acceleration, handling, ride comfort, noise, braking feel, and vibration, not all of which are easily measured by objective criteria...
December 2018: Transportation Research. Part D, Transport and Environment
Hao Hu, Jia-Yun Li, Xin-Rong Pan, Fang Zhang, Lin-Lin Ma, Hua-Jie Wang, Raymond Jianxiong Zeng
This study investigated the effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) stress on the production of DHA or EPA and total fatty acids (TFAs) in the marine microalga Tisochrysis lutea and the freshwater microalga Monodus subterraneus. Five N or P starvation/limitation conditions (N sufficient and P limited, N sufficient and P starved, N starved and P sufficient, N starved and P limited, and N and P starved) and one N and P sufficient condition (control) were studied. The results demonstrated that the proportion of DHA or EPA among TFAs and production in the microalgae suspensions decreased (57%, 73% for N stress and 18%, 51% for P stress, respectively) under N or P stress in both microalgae compared with the N and P sufficient group...
November 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peng Wang, Kun Yao, Jiaxin Fu, Yongxin Chang, Bai Li, Kuoxi Xu
Two novel fluorescent probes, 2‑(2'‑hydroxyphenyl)‑4‑(2'‑hydroxymethyl‑8‑quinolinamino)methyloxazole (L1), and 2‑(2'‑hydroxyphenyl)‑4‑(2'‑methyl‑8‑quinolinamino)methyloxazole (L2), exhibited colorimetric and "turn off" fluorometric response to Cu2+ ion in DMSO/H2 O solution (v/v = 1/1, 0.01 M, Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.20) and the corresponding detection limit were found to be 2.14 × 10-8 and 2.70 × 10-8  M, which were much lower than drinking water permission concentrations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U...
November 16, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Anderson de Oliveira Souza, Carlos Antônio Couto-Lima, Carlos Henrique Rocha Catalão, Nilton Nascimento Santos-Júnior, Júlia Fernanda Dos Santos, Maria Jose Alves da Rocha, Luciane Carla Alberici
Several studies have shown the protective effects of dietary enrichment of omega-3 (ω-3) long-chain fatty acids in several animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigate if eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids (ω-3) protect against neurodegeneration mediated by the exposure to a widely used herbicide Paraquat (PQ) (1,1'-dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium dichloride), focusing on mitochondrial metabolism using Drosophila melanogaster as a model. Dietary ingestion of PQ for 3 days resulted in the loss of citrate synthase content, respiratory capacity impairment and exacerbated H2 O2 production per mitochondrial unit related to complex I dysfunction, and high lactate accumulation in fly heads...
November 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Anirut Pipatprapa, Hsiang-Hsi Huang, Ching-Hsu Huang
The concept of green manufacturing is emerging as a means of enhancing a firm's competitiveness through intelligent systems and process improvement to eliminate adverse effects on the environment. However, environmental performance (EPA) is challenging from the decision-making perspective because of difficulty determining and prioritising the proper factors that have significant effect on a firm's EPA. This study was conducted with the objective of enhancing the effectiveness of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to assess EPA by integrating exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factory analysis to validate suitable criteria and sub-criteria...
November 29, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Don Thiwanka Wijeratne, Siddhartha Srivastava, Barry Chan, Wilma Hopman, Benjamin Thomson
Background: Competency Based Medical Education (CBME) designates physical examination competency as an Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA). Considerable concern persists regarding the increased time burden CBME may place on educators. We developed a novel physical examination curriculum that shifted the burden of physical examination case preparation and performance assessment from faculty to residents. Our first objective was to determine if participation led to sustainable improvements in physical examination skills...
November 2018: Canadian Medical Education Journal
Susan Steinemann, Aimee Gardner, Tess Aulet, Shimae Fitzgibbons, Andre Campbell, Robert Acton
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that medical experts would concur the American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education Medical Student Simulation-based Surgical Skills Curriculum ("ACS/ASE Curriculum") could be used to teach and assess Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs). METHODS: A "crosswalk" was created between ACS/ASE Curriculum modules and eight EPAs. Medical education experts participated in a Delphi process regarding feasibility of using the modules for teaching and assessing EPAs...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Nils G Løvsletten, Siril S Bakke, Eili T Kase, D Margriet Ouwens, G Hege Thoresen, Arild C Rustan
It has previously been shown that pretreatment of differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) promoted increased uptake of fatty acids and increased triacylglycerol accumulation, compared to pretreatment with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA). The aim of the present study was to examine whether EPA could affect substrate cycling in human skeletal muscle cells by altering lipolysis rate of intracellular TAG and re-esterification of fatty acids. Fatty acid metabolism was studied in human myotubes using a mixture of fatty acids, consisting of radiolabelled oleic acid as tracer (14C-OA) together with EPA or PA...
2018: PloS One
Mohita Sharma, Ramanpreet Kaur, Kuldeep Kaushik, Naveen Kaushal
Ulcerative colitis (UC), a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is an immune-modulated disorder characterized by chronic and recurring inflammatory episodes. Oxidative stress and COX pathway of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis is indispensable to pathogenesis of UC. Any imbalance between PGs can compromise the mucosal homeostasis, leading to mucosal damage and chronic inflammation. However, blocking these PGs using classical Cox inhibitors such as Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can instead aggravate signs of IBD...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Johnathan A Napier, Rolf-Erik Olsen, Douglas R Tocher
There is considerable interest in new sources of omega-3 long-chain (here defined as fatty acids ≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), commonly known as omega-3 fish oils, to supplement the limited supplies of oceanic fish oil (Tocher, 2015). These alternative sources include extraction of other diverse marine organisms (e.g. krill, plankton etc.), algal fermentation, and the genetic engineering of microbes such as yeasts...
November 28, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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