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plasmodium vivax malaria

Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Marcus V G Lacerda, Tran T Hien, Iván D Vélez, Chayadol Namaik-Larp, Cindy S Chu, Maria F Villegas, Fernando Val, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcelo A M Brito, Mônica R F Costa, Raul Chuquiyauri, Martín Casapía, Chau H Nguyen, Sandra Aruachan, Ratchadaporn Papwijitsil, François H Nosten, Germana Bancone, Brian Angus, Stephan Duparc, Graham Craig, Victoria M Rousell, Siôn W Jones, Elizabeth Hardaker, Donna D Clover, Lindsay Kendall, Khadeeja Mohamed, Gavin C K W Koh, Viviana M Wilches, John J Breton, Justin A Green
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine, a single-dose therapy for Plasmodium vivax malaria, has been associated with relapse prevention through the clearance of P. vivax parasitemia and hypnozoites, termed "radical cure." METHODS: We performed a phase 3, prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled trial to compare tafenoquine with primaquine in terms of safety and efficacy. The trial was conducted at seven hospitals or clinics in Peru, Brazil, Colombia, Vietnam, and Thailand and involved patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity and female patients with moderate G6PD enzyme deficiency; all patients had confirmed P...
January 17, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
Marcus V G Lacerda, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Srivicha Krudsood, Chanthap Lon, David L Saunders, Rezika Mohammed, Daniel Yilma, Dhelio Batista Pereira, Fe E J Espino, Reginaldo Z Mia, Raul Chuquiyauri, Fernando Val, Martín Casapía, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcelo A M Brito, Mônica R F Costa, Nillawan Buathong, Harald Noedl, Ermias Diro, Sisay Getie, Kalehiwot M Wubie, Alemseged Abdissa, Ahmed Zeynudin, Cherinet Abebe, Mauro S Tada, Françoise Brand, Hans-Peter Beck, Brian Angus, Stephan Duparc, Jörg-Peter Kleim, Lynda M Kellam, Victoria M Rousell, Siôn W Jones, Elizabeth Hardaker, Khadeeja Mohamed, Donna D Clover, Kim Fletcher, John J Breton, Cletus O Ugwuegbulam, Justin A Green, Gavin C K W Koh
BACKGROUND: Treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria requires the clearing of asexual parasites, but relapse can be prevented only if dormant hypnozoites are cleared from the liver (a treatment termed "radical cure"). Tafenoquine is a single-dose 8-aminoquinoline that has recently been registered for the radical cure of P. vivax. METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Ethiopia, Peru, Brazil, Cambodia, Thailand, and the Philippines...
January 17, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
J Kevin Baird, Melva Louisa, Rintis Noviyanti, Lenny Ekawati, Iqbal Elyazar, Decy Subekti, Krisin Chand, Anggi Gayatri, Instiaty, Saraswati Soebianto, Chelzie Crenna-Darusallam, Dwi Djoko, Bambang Dwi Hasto, Dubel Meriyenes, David Wesche, Erni J Nelwan, Inge Sutanto, Herawati Sudoyo, Rianto Setiabudy
Importance: Latent hepatic Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites provoke repeated clinical attacks called relapses. Only primaquine phosphate kills hypnozoites, and its therapeutic activity may depend on naturally polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 isotype (CYP2D6) activity. Objective: To examine the association of impaired CYP2D6 genotypes and CYP2D6 metabolic phenotypes with therapeutic failure of directly observed high-dose primaquine treatment for P vivax malaria relapse...
August 3, 2018: JAMA network open
Adilson José DePina, Alex Jailson Barbosa Andrade, Abdoulaye Kane Dia, António Lima Moreira, Ullardina Domingos Furtado, Helga Baptista, Ousmane Faye, Ibrahima Seck, El Hadji Amadou Niang
Background: Cabo Verde is a country that has been in the pre-elimination stage of malaria since the year 2000. The country is still reporting cases, particularly in the capital of Praia, where more than 50% of the national population live. This study aims to examine the spatial and temporal epidemiological profile of malaria across the country during the 2017 outbreak and to analyse the risk factors, which may have influenced the trend in malaria cases. Methods: Longitudinal data collected from all malaria cases in Cabo Verde for the year 2017 were used in this study...
2019: Tropical Medicine and Health
Swamy Rakesh Adapa, Rachel A Taylor, Chengqi Wang, Richard Thomson-Luque, Leah R Johnson, Rays H Y Jiang
BACKGROUND: The lack of a continuous long-term in vitro culture system for Plasmodium vivax severely limits our knowledge of pathophysiology of the most widespread malaria parasite. To gain direct understanding of P. vivax human infections, we used Next Generation Sequencing data mining to unravel parasite in vivo expression profiles for P. vivax, and P. falciparum as comparison. RESULTS: We performed cloud and local computing to extract parasite transcriptomes from publicly available raw data of human blood samples...
January 11, 2019: BMC Systems Biology
Young Yil Bahk, Jeonga Kim, Seong Kyu Ahn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Jong-Yil Chai, Tong-Soo Kim
Plasmodium vivax is more challenging to control and eliminate than P. falciparum due to its more asymptomatic infections with low parasite densities making diagnosis more difficult, in addition to its unique biological characteristics. The potential re-introduction of incidence cases, either through borders or via human migrations, is another major hurdle to sustained control and elimination. The Republic of Korea has experienced re-emergence of vivax malaria in 1993 but is one of the 32 malaria-eliminating countries to-date...
December 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Young Yil Bahk, Hyeong-Woo Lee, Byoung-Kuk Na, Jeonga Kim, Kyoung Jin, Yeong Seon Hong, Tong-Soo Kim
Historically, Plasmodium vivax malaria has been one of the most highly endemic parasitic diseases in the Korean Peninsula. Until the 1970s, vivax malaria was rarely directly lethal and was controlled through the Korean Government Program administered by the National Malaria Eradication Service in association with the World Health Organization's Global Malaria Eradication Program. Vivax malaria has re-emerged in 1993 near the Demilitarized Zone between South and North Korea and has since become an endemic infectious disease that now poses a serious public health threat through local transmission in the Republic of Korea...
December 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
James G Beeson, Liriye Kurtovic, Carlota Dobaño, D Herbert Opi, Jo-Anne Chan, Gaoqian Feng, Michael F Good, Linda Reiling, Michelle J Boyle
Although there has been major recent progress in malaria vaccine development, substantial challenges remain for achieving highly efficacious and durable vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. Greater knowledge of mechanisms and key targets of immunity are needed to accomplish this goal, together with new strategies for generating potent, long-lasting, functional immunity against multiple antigens. Implementation considerations in endemic areas will ultimately affect vaccine effectiveness, so innovations to simplify and enhance delivery are also needed...
January 9, 2019: Science Translational Medicine
Joseph Pryce, Paul Hine
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum) malaria. Concerns about artemisinin resistance have led to global initiatives to develop new partner drugs to protect artemisinin derivatives in ACT. Pyronaridine-artesunate is a novel ACT. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of pyronaridine-artesunate compared to alternative ACTs for treating people with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria, and to evaluate the safety of pyronaridine-artesunate and other pyronaridine treatments compared to alternative treatments...
January 8, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Meresa Shiferaw, Megbaru Alemu, Kiros Tedla, Desalegn Tadesse, Sena Bayissa, Gessessew Bugssa
Background: A significant segment of the world's population is at risk of contracting malaria infection at any one time. In Ethiopia, sustained control efforts have been made in the past decade to fight malaria. Yet, it remains as the major cause of morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic problems in the country. The intensified control of malaria can further be augmented by analyzing health facility based malaria data. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of malaria infection in Northwest Ethiopia...
September 2018: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Akili K Kalinga, Deus S Ishengoma, Reginald Kavishe, Lucky Temu, Christopher Mswanya, Charles Mwanziva, Erick J Mgina, Sarah Chiduo, Lucas Mahikwano, Saidi Mgata, Lalaine Anova, George Amoo, Eyako Wurapa, Brian Vesely, Edwin Kamau, Mark Hickman, Norman Waters, Mara Kreishman-Deitrick, Robert Paris, Colin Ohrt
INTRODUCTION: Internal and external quality control (QC) of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is important to increase reliability of RDTs currently used to diagnose malaria. However, cross-checking of used RDTs as part of quality assurance can rarely be done by off-site personnel because there is no guarantee of retaining visible test lines after manufacturers' recommended reading time. Therefore, this study examined the potential of using Fionet™ technology for remote RDT quality monitoring at seven clinics, identifying reasons for making RDT processing and interpretation errors, and taking corrective actions for improvement of diagnosis and consequently improved management of febrile patients...
2018: PloS One
Robert J Commons, Julie A Simpson, Kamala Thriemer, Mohammad S Hossain, Nicholas M Douglas, Georgina S Humphreys, Carol H Sibley, Philippe J Guerin, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: A 14-day course of primaquine is used for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria only. We quantified the risk of P vivax parasitaemia after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum with commonly used antimalarial drugs to assess the potential benefits of radical cure for all patients with uncomplicated malaria in co-endemic regions. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for prospective clinical studies in any language, published between Jan 1, 1960, and Jan 5, 2018, assessing drug efficacy in patients with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria in countries co-endemic for P vivax...
January 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Md Atique Ahmed, Ki-Back Chu, Fu-Shi Quan
Introduction: The zoonotic malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has currently become the most dominant form of infection in humans in Malaysia and is an emerging infectious disease in most Southeast Asian countries. The P41 is a merozoite surface protein belonging to the 6-cysteine family and is a well-characterized vaccine candidate in P. vivax and P. falciparum ; however, no study has been done in the orthologous gene of P. knowlesi . This study investigates the level of polymorphism, haplotypes and natural selection of pk41 genes in clinical isolates from Malaysia...
2018: PeerJ
Chayasin Mansanguan, Weerapong Phumratanaprapin
We report a case of Plasmodium vivax and murine typhus coinfection in a 30-year-old woman who presented with intermittent, high-grade fever. Her peripheral blood smear showed ring-form trophozoites of P. vivax , with an initial murine typhus serological test being negative. Although the P. vivax infection was successfully treated, she still had intermittent, high-grade fever, developed dyspnoea and bilateral interstitial pneumonitis shown in the chest X-ray. Thus, coinfection was suspected, and empirical antibiotics were given...
December 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Huang Xiao-Mei, Lü Lai-Fu, Wang Wei-Ming, Zhu Shi-Ying, Huang Li-Zhong, Jiang Liang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of malaria elimination monitoring in Liyang City, so as to provide the evidence for formulating control strategies and measures of malaria elimination. METHODS: The monitoring data about the epidemic situation, blood tests of feverish patients and epidemiology investigation of individual malaria patients in Liyang City from 2010 to 2016 were collected and analyzed by the descriptive epidemiology method. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2016, there were 67 malaria cases in total...
May 22, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Zhu Ze-Lin, Hao Yu-Wan, Tian Tian, Xue Chui-Zhao, Tu Hong, Han Shuai, Cao Chun-Li, Li Shi-Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the professional theory, prevention and control practice, experimental diagnosis and other technical skills of parasitic diseases among technicians of all levels of disease control and prevention institutions, so as to provide the evidence for strengthening the capacity building of Chinese professional personnel. METHODS: According to the method of recommendation at all levels, the subjects from disease control and prevention institutions at province, prefecture or county levels were chosen to assess the theory of parasitic diseases and test operation skills by using the method of answering the questions together with on-site operations in China...
October 26, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Paul R Gilson, William Nguyen, William A Poole, Jose E Teixeira, Jennifer K Thompson, Kaiyuan Guo, Rebecca J Stewart, Trent D Ashton, Karen L White, Laura M Sanz, Francisco-Javier Gamo, Susan A Charman, Sergio Wittlin, James Duffy, Christopher J Tonkin, Wai-Hong Tham, Brendan S Crabb, Brian M Cooke, Christopher D Huston, Alan F Cowman, Brad E Sleebs
A series of 4-amino 2-anilinoquinazolines optimized for activity against the most lethal malaria parasite of humans, Plasmodium falciparum , were evaluated for activity against other human Plasmodium parasites and related apicomplexans that infect humans and animals. Four of the most promising compounds from the 4-amino 2-anilinoquinazoline series were equally as effective against the asexual blood stages of the zoonotic P. knowlesi suggesting they could also be effective against the closely related P. vivax , another important human pathogen...
December 17, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rajika L Dewasurendra, Anna Jeffreys, Sharmini A Gunawardena, Naduviladath V Chandrasekharan, Kirk Rockett, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Nadira D Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against the merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19 ) and the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) of the malaria parasite (Plasmodium vivax) are proven to be important in protection against clinical disease. Differences in the production/maintenance of antibodies may be due to many factors including host genetics. This paper discusses the association of 4 anti-malarial antibodies with selected host genetic markers. METHODS: Blood was collected from individuals (n = 242) with a history of malaria within past 15 years for DNA and serum...
December 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
Snigdha Singh, Vinoth Rajendran, Jiang He, Amit Kumar Singh, Angela O Achieng, Vandana Kumari, Akansha Pant, Armiyaw S Nasamu, Mansi Pandit, Jyoti Singh, Afshana Quadiri, Nikesh Gupta, Poonam Singh, Prahlad C Ghosh, Brajendra Kumar Singh, Latha Narayanan, Prakasha Kempaiah, Ramesh Chandra, Ben M Dunn, Kailash C Pandey, Daniel E Goldberg, Agam P Singh, Brijesh Rathi
The eradication of malaria remains challenging due to the complex life cycle of Plasmodium and the rapid emergence of drug-resistant forms of P. falciparum and P. vivax. New, effective and inexpensive antimalarials against multiple life stages of the parasite are urgently needed to combat the spread of malaria. Here, we synthesized a set of novel hydroxyethylamines and investigated their activities in vitro and in vivo. All the compounds tested had an inhibitory effect on the blood stage of P. falciparum at sub-micromolar concentrations, with the best showing 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of around 500 nM against drug-resistant P...
December 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Win Han Oo, Julia C Cutts, Paul A Agius, Kyaw Zayar Aung, Poe Poe Aung, Aung Thi, Nyi Nyi Zaw, Htin Kyaw Thu, Wai Yan Min Htay, Ricardo Ataide, Katherine O'Flaherty, Ai Pao Yawn, Aung Paing Soe, James G Beeson, Brendan Crabb, Naanki Pasricha, Freya J I Fowkes
BACKGROUND: To combat emerging drug resistance in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) the World Health Organization and GMS countries have committed to eliminating malaria in the region by 2030. The overall approach includes providing universal access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria, and sustainable preventive measures, including vector control. Topical repellents are an intervention that can be used to target residual malaria transmission not covered by long lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying...
December 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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