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plasmodium vivax malaria

Jemila Mint Deida, Yacoub Ould Khalef, Emal Mint Semane, Mohamed Salem Ould Ahmedou Salem, Hervé Bogreau, Leonardo Basco, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Rachida Tahar
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the predominant malaria species in northern Mauritania. Molecular data on P. vivax isolates circulating in West Africa are scarce. The present study analysed molecular markers associated with resistance to antifolates (Pvdhfr and Pvdhps), chloroquine (Pvmdr1), and artemisinin (Pvk12) in P. vivax isolates collected in two cities located in the Saharan zone of Mauritania. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from P. vivax-infected patients recruited for chloroquine therapeutic efficacy study in 2013 and febrile patients spontaneously consulting health facilities in Nouakchott and Atar in 2015-2016...
November 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
Sara Avalos, Rosa E Mejia, Engels Banegas, Cesar Salinas, Lester Gutierrez, Marcela Fajardo, Suzeth Galo, Alejandra Pinto, Angel Mejia, Gustavo Fontecha
BACKGROUND: The incidence of malaria in the Americas has decreased markedly in recent years. Honduras and the other countries of Mesoamerica and the island of Hispaniola have set the goal of eliminating native malaria by the year 2020. To achieve this goal, Honduras has recently approved national regulations to expand the possibilities of a shortened double dose primaquine (PQ) treatment for vivax malaria. Considering this new shortened anti-malarial treatment, the high frequency of G6PDd genotypes in Honduras, and the lack of routinely assessment of the G6PD deficiency status, this study aimed at investigating the potential association between the intake of PQ and haemolysis in malaria-infected G6PDd subjects...
November 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
Hiren Anghan, Prayas Sethi, Manish Soneja, Sandeep Mahajan, Naveet Wig
Introduction: Critically ill severe malaria constitutes one of the major hospital admissions in Indian setting. Clinical studies identifying the factors associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in malaria are lacking. This study aimed to identify these factors. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center of North India. All adult patients with severe malaria were studied during 2012-2014. Results: The study included 79 patients and AKI was observed in 36 patients...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Ihn Kyung Jang, Abby Tyler, Chris Lyman, Maria Kahn, Michael Kalnoky, John C Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Harriet Adrama, Maxwell Murphy, Mallika Imwong, Clare L Ling, Stephane Proux, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Melissa Rist, Annette M Seilie, Amelia Hanron, Glenda Daza, Ming Chang, Smita Das, Rebecca Barney, Andrew Rashid, Jordi Landier, David S Boyle, Sean C Murphy, James S McCarthy, François Nosten, Bryan Greenhouse, Gonzalo J Domingo
INTRODUCTION: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect primarily Plasmodium (P.) falciparum antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and the malaria-conserved antigen lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) for P. vivax and other malaria species. The performance of RDTs and their utility is dependent on circulating antigen concentration distributions in infected individuals in a malaria endemic population and the limit-of-detection of the RDT for the antigens. A multiplexed immunoassay for the quantification of HRP2, P...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
José Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Lilia González-Cerón, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro, Concepción Mesa-Valle
Malaria causes high levels of morbidity and mortality in human beings worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about half a million people die of this disease each year. Malaria is caused by six species of parasites belonging to the Plasmodium genus: P. falciparum, P. knowlesi, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale curtisi, and P. ovale wallikeri. Currently, malaria is being kept under control with varying levels of elimination success in different countries. The development of new molecular tools as well as the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and novel bioinformatic approaches has improved our knowledge of malarial epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, vaccine development, and surveillance strategies...
November 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Luis L Fonseca, Chester J Joyner, Celia L Saney, Alberto Moreno, John W Barnwell, Mary R Galinski, Eberhard O Voit
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major mosquito transmitted, blood-borne parasitic disease that afflicts humans. The disease causes anaemia and other clinical complications, which can lead to death. Plasmodium vivax is known for its reticulocyte host cell specificity, but many gaps in disease details remain. Much less is known about the closely related species, Plasmodium cynomolgi, although it is naturally acquired and causes zoonotic malaria. Here, a computational model is developed based on longitudinal analyses of P...
November 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jonathan Berman, Tracey Brown, Geoffrey Dow, Stephen Toovey
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine was recently approved for Plasmodium vivax radical cure (KRINTAFEL™) and malaria prevention (ARAKODA™). METHODS: A review of the non-clinical and clinical literature was conducted to assess whether tafenoquine (and primaquine) exhibit the same neurologic lesions and associated clinical signs as earlier 8-aminoquinolines, as has been alleged in recent opinion pieces. RESULTS: Plasmocid, pamaquine and pentaquine damage specific neuro-anatomical structures in Rhesus monkeys and humans leading to corresponding deficits in neurologic function...
November 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
Anne Kessler, Anna Maria van Eijk, Limalemla Jamir, Catherine Walton, Jane M Carlton, Sandra Albert
BACKGROUND: Meghalaya, one of eight states in the northeastern region of India, has been reported to carry a high malaria burden. However, malaria surveillance, epidemiology, and vector studies are sparse, and no reviews combining these topics with malaria prevention and control strategies have been published in recent years. Furthermore, no analysis of surveillance data has been published documenting the changes in epidemiology following the first distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) statewide in 2016...
November 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ilsa L Haeusler, Xin Hui S Chan, Philippe J Guérin, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: Several quinoline and structurally related antimalarial drugs are associated with cardiovascular side effects, particularly hypotension and electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation. A prolonged QT interval is a sensitive but not specific risk marker for the development of Torsade de Pointes-a potentially lethal polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The increasing use of quinoline and structurally related antimalarials in mass treatments to eliminate malaria rapidly highlights the need to review their cardiovascular safety profiles...
November 7, 2018: BMC Medicine
Joseph Pryce, Marty Richardson, Christian Lengeler
BACKGROUND: A previous version of this Cochrane Review identified that insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are effective at reducing child mortality, parasite prevalence, and uncomplicated and severe malaria episodes. Insecticide-treated nets have since become a core intervention for malaria control and have contributed greatly to the dramatic decline in disease incidence and malaria-related deaths seen since the turn of the millennium. However, this time period has also seen a rise in resistance to pyrethroids (the insecticide used in ITNs), raising questions over whether the evidence from trials conducted before resistance became widespread can be applied to estimate the impact of ITNs on malaria transmission today...
November 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Najara C Bittencourt, Juliana A Leite, Ana Beatriz I E Silva, Tamirys S Pimenta, João Luiz Silva-Filho, Gustavo C Cassiano, Stefanie C P Lopes, Joao C K Dos-Santos, Catarina Bourgard, Helder I Nakaya, Ana Maria Revorêdo da Silva Ventura, Marcus V G Lacerda, Marcelo U Ferreira, Ricardo L D Machado, Letusa Albrecht, Fabio T M Costa
BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of malaria antigens often results in allele variant-specific immunity, imposing a great challenge to vaccine development. Rhoptry Neck Protein 2 (PvRON2) is a blood-stage antigen that plays a key role during the erythrocyte invasion of Plasmodium vivax. This study investigates the genetic diversity of PvRON2 and the naturally acquired immune response to P. vivax isolates. RESULTS: Here, the genetic diversity of PvRON21828-2080 and the naturally acquired humoral immune response against PvRON21828-2080 in infected and non-infected individuals from a vivax malaria endemic area in Brazil was reported...
October 31, 2018: Malaria Journal
I Sinha, C J Woodrow
Malaria parasite genomes have a range of codon biases, with Plasmodium falciparum one of the most AT-biased genomes known. We examined the make up of synonymous coding sites and stop codons in the core genomes of representative malaria parasites, showing first that local DNA context influences codon bias similarly across P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. berghei, with suppression of CpG dinucleotides and enhancement of CpC dinucleotides, both within and aross codons. Intense asexual phase gene expression in P...
October 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yanis Tamzali, Sophie Demeret, Elie Haddad, Hélène Guillot, Eric Caumes, Stéphane Jauréguiberry
BACKGROUND: Post-malaria neurological syndrome (PMNS) is a debated entity, defined by neurological complications following a post-malaria symptom-free period and a negative blood smear. Four cases of PMNS are hereby reported and a review the literature performed to clarify the nosological framework of this syndrome. METHODS: A French teaching hospital infectious diseases database was investigated for all PMNS cases occurring between 1999 and 2016 and the PubMed database for cases reported by other institutions after 1997...
October 26, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ashenafi Assefa, Ahmed Ali, Wakgari Deressa, Wendimagegn Tsegaye, Getachew Abebe, Heven Sime, Amha Kebede, Daddi Jima, Moges Kassa, Tesfay Abreha, Hiwot Teka, Hiwot Solomon, Joseph Malone, Ya Ping Shi, Zhiyong Zhou, Richard Reithinger, Jimee Hwang
BACKGROUND: Building on the declining trend of malaria in Ethiopia, the Federal Ministry of Health aims to eliminate malaria by 2030. As Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are co-endemic in Ethiopia, the use of primaquine is indicated for both transmission interruption and radical cure, respectively. However, the limited knowledge of the local prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and its associated variants has hindered the use of primaquine. METHODS: Some 11,138 dried blood spot (DBS) samples were collected in 2011 as part of a national, household Malaria Indicator Survey, a multi-stage nationally representative survey of all malaria-endemic areas of Ethiopia...
October 26, 2018: Malaria Journal
W M K T De A W Gunasekera, R G Premaratne, O V D S J Weerasena, W S Premawansa, S M Handunnetti, S D Fernando
The utility of CareStartTM Malaria Pf/PAN (HRP2/pLDH) Ag Combo Test, in detecting non-endemic clinical malaria cases was evaluated in Sri Lanka, a country in prevention of re-establishment of malaria following elimination. RDT, microscopy and nested PCR were performed for 350 suspected malaria patients recruited prospectively. There were 173 PCR confirmed malaria patients and 177 PCR negative subjects. Plasmodium falciparum amounted to 48% of infections with 44% P. vivax, 6% P. ovale and 2% P. malariae. Performance characteristics of RDTs and microscopy were compared with nested PCR...
October 24, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Avinash N Mukkala, Jason Kwan, Rachel Lau, David Harris, Dylan Kain, Andrea K Boggild
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Modern advances in malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) technology have increased demand for low-cost, easy-to-use assays in areas endemic for malaria. Substantial developments in diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, improvements in non-falciparum RDTs, and novel biotechnological innovations are gradually aligning the performance of RDTs with reference-level diagnostics including PCR and expert microscopy gold standards. RECENT FINDINGS: Trends have emerged in recent malaria RDT literature: (1) improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs for Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis, making them comparable to expert microscopic examination; (2) reduced false-positive and false-negative reactions with novel antibody development; (3) improved sensitivity and specificity capabilities of Plasmodium vivax-specific RDTs; (4) developing RDTs for co-endemic mixed infection differentiation; (5) significant improvements of RDTs for Plasmodium knowlesi; (6) a global push towards assessing and confronting the growing concerns of widespread pfhrp2 gene deletions; and (7) original innovation in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) biotechnological RDT-like platforms that demonstrate promising performance characteristics for P...
October 23, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Sampa Pal, Pooja Bansil, Germana Bancone, Sevan Hrutkay, Maria Kahn, Gornpan Gornsawun, Pimsupah Penpitchaporn, Cindy S Chu, François Nosten, Gonzalo J Domingo
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a common genetic blood condition, can result in kernicterus at birth, and later in life as severe hemolysis on exposure to certain infections, foods, and drugs. The unavailability of point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency is a barrier to routine curative treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine. Two quantitative reference tests (Trinity Biotech, Bray, Ireland and Pointe Scientific, MI; Cat No. G7583) and the point-of-care STANDARD™ G6PD test (SD Biosensor, South Korea) were evaluated...
October 22, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gu Ya-Ping, Zhu Guo-Ding, Zhang Chao, Xu Sui, Yang Meng-Meng, Zhou Hua-Yun, Cao Jun
OBJECTIVE: To understand the quality of production of blood slides and laboratory personnel's ability to microscopically examine Plasmodium at Jiangsu Province clinic inspection stations at all levels, so as to provide the evidence for the construction of malaria diagnostic laboratories and the evaluation of malaria elimination effect. METHODS: After the reexamination of the negative blood slides of the examination stations of the malaria center in each county (district), the negative blood slides of the outpatient inspection station in the district and all the positive blood slides of the direct report of the network from 2011 to 2017, the staining and cleanliness of the blood smears, microscopic examination results and the coincidence rate of positive blood species were comprehensively analyzed...
August 9, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Jeanne Perpétue Vincent, Kanako Komaki-Yasuda, Moritoshi Iwagami, Satoru Kawai, Shigeyuki Kano
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most important parasitic infectious diseases for which almost half of the world's population is at risk. Although several diagnostic methods are now available to detect the infection, more sensitive and applicable tests are still required in the field. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method is a DNA amplification tool in which the DNA amplification can be achieved by incubation at a stable temperature. A malaria detection kit based on this methodology has already been commercialized and is being used in some countries...
October 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
Trupti Trivedi, Poonam Bajaj, Nivedita Moulick, Namita Padwal
Background: While global incidence of malaria has fallen in last decade, it continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity in acutely ill febrile patients. Many patients with complicated malaria require ICU care. In past it was believed that vivax is a benign form of malaria, but now all complications of malaria are reported in vivax. . Aims and Objectives: To find out proportion of patients with plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum malaria requiring treatment in Medical ICU...
April 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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