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plasmodium vivax malaria

Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Gillon Ilombe, Justin Masumu, Junior Matangila, Joël Imponge, Emile Manzambi, Francis Wastenga, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Jean-Pierre Van Geetruyden, Jean Jacques Muyembe
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the highest malaria mortality is due to Plasmodium falciparum infection. However, other species of Plasmodium (Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi) can also cause malaria. Therefore, accurate identification of malaria species is crucial for patient management and epidemiological surveillance. This study aimed to determine the different Plasmodium species causing malaria in children under 5 years old in two provinces (Kinshasa and North Kivu) of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)...
September 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
James E Frampton
Tafenoquine (Krintafel™, Arakoda™), an orally-active 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarial drug, is a long-acting analogue of primaquine with activity against pre-erythrocytic (liver) and erythrocytic (asexual) forms as well as gametocytes of Plasmodium species that include Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) and Plasmodium falciparum. It has been developed by GlaxoSmithKline (formerly SmithKline Beecham) for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria and by 60 Degrees Pharmaceuticals for the prophylaxis of malaria. The exact mechanism(s) of action underlying the anti-Plasmodium activity of tafenoquine are unknown, although it may exert its effect by inhibiting haematin polymerization and, additionally, by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the apoptotic-like death of the organism...
September 18, 2018: Drugs
Pedro Berzosa, Aida de Lucio, María Romay-Barja, Zaida Herrador, Vicenta González, Luz García, Amalia Fernández-Martínez, Maria Santana-Morales, Policarpo Ncogo, Basilio Valladares, Matilde Riloha, Agustín Benito
BACKGROUND: Malaria in Equatorial Guinea remains a major public health problem. The country is a holo-endemic area with a year-round transmission pattern. In 2016, the prevalence of malaria was 12.09% and malaria caused 15% of deaths among children under 5 years. In the Continental Region, 95.2% of malaria infections were Plasmodium falciparum, 9.5% Plasmodium vivax, and eight cases mixed infection in 2011. The main strategy for malaria control is quick and accurate diagnosis followed by effective treatment...
September 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kinley Wangdi, Sara E Canavati, Thang Duc Ngo, Long Khanh Tran, Thu Minh Nguyen, Duong Thanh Tran, Nicholas J Martin, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Viet Nam has made tremendous progress towards reducing mortality and morbidity associated with malaria in recent years. Despite the success in malaria control, there has been a recent increase in cases in some provinces. In order to understand the changing malaria dynamics in Viet Nam and measure progress towards elimination, the aim of this study was to describe and quantify spatial and temporal trends of malaria by species at district level across the country. METHODS: Malaria case reports at the Viet Nam National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology were reviewed for the period of January 2009 to December 2015...
September 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
Mónica L Rojas-Peña, Meixue Duan, Dalia Arafat, Lina Rengifo, Socrates Herrera, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Greg Gibson
To evaluate whether recovery from complicated malaria follows a common trajectory in terms of immunological mechanism or, rather, is highly individualized for each patient, we performed longitudinal gene expression profiling of whole blood. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was performed on blood samples obtained from eight patients on four consecutive days between hospital admission and discharge. Six patients were infected with Plasmodium falciparum , and two with Plasmodium vivax; one patient was a pregnant woman infected with P...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Flora Satiko Kano, Aracele Maria de Souza, Leticia de Menezes Torres, Marcelo Azevedo Costa, Flávia Alessandra Souza-Silva, Bruno Antônio Marinho Sanchez, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes, Irene Silva Soares, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Luzia Helena Carvalho, Tais Nobrega Sousa
Malaria has provided a major selective pressure and has modulated the genetic diversity of the human genome. The variants of the Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene have probably been selected by malaria parasites, particularly the FY*O allele, which is fixed in sub-Saharan Africa and confers resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. Here, we showed the influence of genomic ancestry on the distribution of DARC genotypes in a highly admixed Brazilian population and confirmed the decreased susceptibility of the FY*A/FY*O genotype to clinical P...
September 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miles B Markus
Information provided in recent, related papers has wide-ranging implications concerning, inter alia, the transmission of malaria, drug treatment, and eradication of the disease. Additionally, the research results represent support for the idea that recurrences of Plasmodium vivax malaria can arise from both liver hypnozoites and extravascular merozoites in bone marrow.
September 10, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Manickam Yogavel, Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Abhishek Jamwal, Swati Gupta, Amit Sharma
Malaria parasite erythrocytic stages comprise of repeated bursts of parasites via cyclical invasion of host erythrocytes using dedicated receptor-ligand interactions. A family of erythrocyte-binding proteins from Plasmodium knowlesi ( Pk ) and Plasmodium vivax ( Pv ) attach to human Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) via their Duffy binding-like domains (DBLs) for invasion. Here we provide a novel, testable and overarching interaction model that rationalizes even contradictory pieces of evidence that have so far existed in the literature on Pk / Pv -DBL/DARC binding determinants...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Chayanut Suansomjit, Wang Nguitragool, Jeeraphat Sirichaisinthop, Saradee Warit, Montip Tiensuwan, Sureemas Buates
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic infections with sub-microscopic Plasmodium serve as a silent reservoir of disease, critical to sustaining a low level of remanent malaria in the population. These infections must be effectively identified and targeted for elimination. The sensitivity of light microscopy, the traditional method used for diagnosing Plasmodium infections, is frequently insufficient for detecting asymptomatic infections due to the low density of parasitaemia. The objective of this study was to explore the current prevalence of asymptomatic sub-microscopic Plasmodium carriages to evaluate the parasite reservoir amongst residents from 7 hamlets in Tak Province in northwestern Thailand using a highly sensitive molecular method...
September 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Yoelis Yepes-Pérez, Carolina López, Carlos Fernando Suárez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites from the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum and P. vivax are responsible for 90% of all clinical cases); it is widely distributed throughout the world's tropical and subtropical regions. The P. vivax Pv12 protein is involved in invasion, is expressed on merozoite surface and has been recognised by antibodies from individuals exposed to the disease. In this study, B- and T-cell epitopes from Pv12 were predicted and characterised to advance in the design of a peptide-based vaccine against malaria...
2018: PloS One
A Akhlaq, N K Ghanchi, B Usmani, R Shahzad, A Rahim, M Wasay, M A Beg
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains an endemic disease in Pakistan with an estimated healthcare burden of 1.6 million cases annually, with Plasmodium vivax accounting for 67% of reported cases. P. vivax is the most common species causing malaria outside of Africa, with approximately 13.8 million reported cases worldwide. METHOD: We report a series of P. vivax cases with cerebral involvement that presented at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. RESULTS: The majority of the patients presented with high-grade fever accompanied by projectile vomiting and abnormal behaviour, seizures, shock and unconsciousness...
September 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Daniel Getacher Feleke, Daniel Gebretsadik, Angesom Gebreweld
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the major public health problems worldwide. In Ethiopia, there is a significant decline in disease burden; however, the overall trend of malaria prevalence is not studied or well-documented in different localities. Hence, the initiation of this study was to analyse the 5-year trends of malaria prevalence in Ataye, North Shoa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective laboratory record review was conducted in Ataye Hospital, North-Shoa, Ethiopia...
September 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Gonzalo J Domingo, Nicole Advani, Ari W Satyagraha, Carol H Sibley, Elizabeth Rowley, Michael Kalnoky, Jessica Cohen, Michael Parker, Maureen Kelley
Glucose-6-phosphate dehyrdgoenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked genetic trait, with an associated enzyme phenotype, whereby males are either G6PD deficient or normal, but females exhibit a broader range of G6PD deficiencies, ranging from severe deficiency to normal. Heterozygous females typically have intermediate G6PD activity. G6PD deficiency has implications for the safe treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria. Individuals with this deficiency are at greater risk of serious adverse events following treatment with the only curative class of anti-malarials, 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine...
September 3, 2018: International Health
Rosalind E Howes, Thierry Franchard, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, Brune Ramiranirina, Melinda Zikursh, Estee Y Cramer, Daniel J Tisch, Su Y Kang, Stephanie Ramboarina, Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Peter A Zimmerman
Community prevalence of infection is a widely used, standardized metric for evaluating malaria endemicity. Conventional methods for measuring prevalence include light microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), but their detection thresholds are inadequate for diagnosing low-density infections. The significance of submicroscopic malaria infections is poorly understood in Madagascar, a country of heterogeneous malaria epidemiology. A cross-sectional community survey in the western foothills of Madagascar during the March 2014 transmission season found malaria infection to be predominantly submicroscopic and asymptomatic...
September 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Grace I Olasehinde, Uche C Oyeka, Margaret I Oniha, Olabode A Onile-Ere, Olayemi O Ayepola, Adesola A Ajayi, Louis O Egwari
The World Heal Organization (WHO) has identified malaria diagnosis as being pivotal to eradicating the disease by 2030 as stipulated in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The data presented here was obtained from outpatients of a hospital in the South Western Region of Nigeria from November 2016 to May 2017. The data contains malaria incidence amongst asymptomatic and symptomatic outpatients in the period under review. Malaria incidence was obtained using two diagnostic test kits, Bioline SD (HRP-2) and ACON (HRP-2/Aldolase) alongside Microscopy as gold standard...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Yi Cao, Robert J Hart, Geetha P Bansal, Nirbhay Kumar
Sexual-stage proteins have a distinct function in the mosquito vector during transmission and also represent targets for the development of malaria transmission-blocking vaccine. P48/45, a leading vaccine candidate, is critical for male gamete fertility and shows >50% similarity across various species of Plasmodium We evaluated functional conservation of P48/45 in Plasmodium vivax and P. berghei with the motivation to establish transgenic P. berghei strains expressing P. vivax P48/45 (Pvs48/45) in an in vivo assay to evaluate the transmission-blocking activity of antibodies elicited by Pvs48/45...
September 4, 2018: MBio
Kavitha Saravu, Chaitanya Tellapragada, Shrivathsa Kulavalli, Wilbin Xavier, Shashikiran Umakanth, Gouthami Brahmarouphu, Navyasree Kola Srinivas, Jagadish Puralae Channabasavaiah, Anzil Bava, Abdul Vahab Saadi, Vasudev Guddattu, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Krishnamurthy Bhat
BACKGROUND: Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria requires treatment with a blood schizonticide and a hypnozoitocide (primaquine) to eradicate the dormant liver stages. There has been uncertainty about the operational effectiveness and optimum dosing of the currently recommended 14-day primaquine (PQ) course. METHODS: A two centre, randomized, open-label, two arm study was conducted in South India. Patients were randomized to receive either high dose (0.5 mg base/kg body weight) or conventional dose (0...
September 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Natalie E Hofmann, Maria Gruenberg, Elma Nate, Alice Ura, Daniela Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Mary Salib, Ivo Mueller, Thomas A Smith, Moses Laman, Leanne J Robinson, Ingrid Felger
BACKGROUND: Submicroscopic malaria infections contribute to transmission in exposed populations but their extent is underestimated even by standard molecular diagnostics. Sophisticated sampling and ultra-sensitive molecular methods can maximise test sensitivity but are not feasible in routine surveillance. Here we investigate the gains achievable by using increasingly sensitive methods with the aim to understand what diagnostic sensitivity is necessary to guide malaria interventions. METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from participants in a cross-sectional survey in two coastal medium-endemic villages in Madang province, Papua New Guinea...
August 28, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Kris Vernelen, Barbara Barbé, Philippe Gillet, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Bernard China, Jan Jacobs
INTRODUCTION: In non-endemic settings, expertise in malaria microscopy is limited and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are an adjunct to malaria diagnosis. AIM: We performed an External Quality Assessment (EQA) on reading and interpretation of malaria RDTs in a non-endemic setting. METHODS: Participants were medical laboratories in Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg using malaria RDTs; they received (i) 10 high-resolution photographs presenting test line combinations of RDTs with interpretations listed in a multiple choice format and (ii) a questionnaire about their practices of malaria diagnosis...
2018: PloS One
Prabhanjan P Gai, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Konrad Siegert, Jakob Wedam, Archith Boloor, Suyamindra S Kulkarni, Rashmi Rasalkar, Arun Kumar, Animesh Jain, Chakrapani Mahabala, Pramod Gai, Shantaram Baliga, Rajeshwari Devi, Damodara Shenoy
BACKGROUND: Severe and fatal vivax malaria is increasingly reported from India. In Mangaluru, southern India, malaria is focused in urban areas and associated with importation by migrant workers. In Wenlock Hospital, the largest governmental hospital, the clinical, parasitological and biochemical characteristics of malaria patients were assessed. METHODS: During the peak malaria season in 2015 (June to December), outpatients were interviewed and clinically assessed...
August 29, 2018: Malaria Journal
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