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Galactooligosaccharide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581334/heat-tolerances-of-salmonella-cronobacter-sakazakii-and-pediococcus-acidilactici-inoculated-into-galactooligosaccharide
#1
Jihyun Bang, Moonkak Choi, Haeseok Jeong, Sangseob Lee, Yoonbin Kim, Jee-Hoon Ryu, Hoikyung Kim
Food-grade galactooligosaccharide (GOS) with low water activity (aw of ca. 0.7) is used as an ingredient in various foods. We evaluated heat tolerances of Salmonella, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pediococcus acidilactici at temperatures (70 to 85°C) used during the saturation process of GOS by comparing decimal reduction time (D-values) and thermal resistance constants (z-values). To determine the D- and z-values, GOS containing Salmonella (5.1 to 5.8 log CFU/g) or C. sakazakii (5.3 to 5.9 log CFU/g) was heat treated at 70, 77...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571115/improvement-of-covalent-immobilization-procedure-of-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-kluyveromyces-lactis-for-galactooligosaccharides-production-modelling-and-kinetic-study
#2
Flor González-Cataño, Luz Tovar-Castro, Eduardo Castaño-Tostado, Carlos Regalado-Gonzalez, Blanca García-Almendarez, Anaberta Cardador-Martínez, Silvia Amaya-Llano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538097/biochemical-characterization-of-the-functional-roles-of-residues-in-the-active-site-of-the-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-bacillus-circulans-atcc-31382
#3
Huifang Yin, Tjaard Pijning, Xiangfeng Meng, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
The β-galactosidase enzyme from Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 BgaD is widely used in the food industry to produce prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS). Recently, the crystal structure of a C-terminally truncated version of the enzyme (BgaD-D) has been elucidated. The roles of active site amino acid residues in β-galactosidase enzyme reaction and product specificity have remained unknown. On the basis of a structural alignment of the β-galactosidase enzymes BgaD-D from B. circulans and BgaA from Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the complex of BgaA with LacNAc, we identified eight active site amino acid residues (Arg185, Asp481, Lys487, Tyr511, Trp570, Trp593, Glu601, and Phe616) in BgaD-D...
June 5, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535609/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharide-using-bifidobacterial-%C3%AE-galactosidase-purified-from-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#4
So Young Oh, So Youn Youn, Myung Soo Park, Hyoung Geun Kim, Nam In Baek, Zhi Peng Li, Geun Eog Ji
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are known to be selectively utilized by Bifidobacterium, which can bring about healthy changes of the composition of intestinal microflora. In this study, β-GOS are synthesized using bifidobacterial β-galactosidase(G1) purified from recombinant E. coli with a high GOS yield and with high productivity and enhanced bifidogenic activity. The purified recombinant G1 showed maximum production of β-GOS at pH 8.5 and 45°C. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of the major peaks of the produced β-GOS showed MW of 527 and 689, indicating the synthesis of β-GOS at degrees of polymerization (DP) of 3 and DP4, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490677/dietary-human-milk-oligosaccharides-but-not-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-increase-circulating-natural-killer-cell-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-memory-t-cell-populations-in-noninfected-and-rotavirus-infected-neonatal-piglets
#5
Sarah S Comstock, Min Li, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Theresa B Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon M Donovan
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs.Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity.Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and free sialic acid), or formula with 3...
June 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466641/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharide-metabolism-by-probiotic-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria
#6
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, JoMay Chow, Michael J Miller
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are bifidogenic and lactogenic prebiotics; however, GOS utilization is strain-dependent. In this study, commercially available bifidobacteria and lactobacilli probiotic strains were evaluated for growth in the presence of GOS. Several bifidobacteria and lactobacilli grew on GOS; however, the specific GOS oligomers utilized for growth differed. A subset of probiotic bifidobacteria and lactobacilli revealed three different GOS utilization profiles delineated by the degrees of polymerization (DP) of GOS: (1) utilization of 2 DP GOS, (2) utilization of ≤3 DP GOS, and (3) utilization of all DP GOS...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418214/colonic-gas-homeostasis-mechanisms-of-adaptation-following-host-g904-galactooligosaccharide-use-in-humans
#7
M Mego, A Accarino, G Tzortzis, J Vulevic, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: We have shown that a galactooligosaccharide prebiotic administration (HOST-G904) initially increased intestinal gas production and this increase declined back to baseline after 2 week administration. Our aim was to determine the mechanism of microbiota adaptation; i.e., to determine whether the net reduction is due to decreased overall production or increased gas consumption. METHODS: In 10 healthy subjects, intestinal gas production and intraluminal disposal was measured before, at the beginning and after 2 week of HOST-G904 prebiotic administration...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362090/effects-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharides-from-chickpeas-on-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#8
Zhuqing Dai, Wanyong Lyu, Minhao Xie, Qingxia Yuan, Hong Ye, Bing Hu, Li Zhou, Xiaoxiong Zeng
The gut microbiota has the ability to modulate host energy homeostasis, which may regulate metabolic disorders. Functional oligosaccharide may positively regulate the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, effects of α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) from chickpea on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome and gut bacterial dysbiosis were investigated. After 6 weeks of intervention, HFD led to significant increases in levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycated serum protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of mice compared to normal-chow-fed mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361909/rational-mutagenesis-by-engineering-disulphide-bonds-improves-kluyveromyces-lactis-beta-galactosidase-for-high-temperature-industrial-applications
#9
Agustín Rico-Díaz, María-Efigenia Álvarez-Cao, Juan-José Escuder-Rodríguez, María-Isabel González-Siso, M Esperanza Cerdán, Manuel Becerra
Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase (Kl-β-Gal) is one of the most important enzymes in the dairy industry. The poor stability of this enzyme limits its use in the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and other applications requiring high operational temperature. To obtain thermoresistant variants, a rational mutagenesis strategy by introducing disulphide bonds in the interface between the enzyme subunits was used. Two improved mutants, R116C/T270C and R116C/T270C/G818C, had increased half-lives at 45 °C compared to Kl-β-Gal (2...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256083/editorial-metabolic-adaptation-of-colonic-microbiota-to-galactooligosaccharides-good-news-for-prebiotics-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
EDITORIAL
H M Staudacher, S R Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193420/reaction-kinetics-and-galactooligosaccharide-product-profiles-of-the-%C3%AE-galactosidases-from-bacillus-circulans-kluyveromyces-lactis-and-aspergillus-oryzae
#11
Huifang Yin, Jelle B Bultema, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
β-Galactosidase enzymes are used in the dairy industry to convert lactose into galactooligosaccharides (GOS) that are added to infant formula to mimic the molecular sizes and prebiotic functions of human milk oligosaccharides. Here we report a detailed analysis of the clearly different GOS profiles of the commercial β-galactosidases from Bacillus circulans, Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae. Also the GOS yields of these enzymes differed, varying from 48.3% (B. circulans) to 34.9% (K. lactis), and 19...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092444/engineering-of-the-bacillus-circulans-%C3%AE-galactosidase-product-specificity
#12
Huifang Yin, Tjaard Pijning, Xiangfeng Meng, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
Microbial β-galactosidase enzymes are widely used as biocatalysts in industry to produce prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. GOS mixtures are used as beneficial additives in infant formula to mimic the prebiotic effects of human milk oligosaccharides (hMOS). The structural variety in GOS mixtures is significantly lower than in hMOS. Since this structural complexity is considered as the basis for the multiple biological functions of hMOS, it is important to broaden the variety of GOS structures...
February 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091546/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharides-activate-mucin-and-pectic-galactan-utilization-pathways-in-the-human-gut-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#13
Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Marieke Mulder, Sander van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078750/metabolic-adaptation-of-colonic-microbiota-to-galactooligosaccharides-a-proof-of-concept-study
#14
M Mego, C Manichanh, A Accarino, D Campos, M Pozuelo, E Varela, J Vulevic, G Tzortzis, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics have been shown to reduce abdominal symptoms in patients with functional gut disorders, despite that they are fermented by colonic bacteria and may induce gas-related symptoms. AIM: To investigate changes in the metabolic activity of gut microbiota induced by a recognised prebiotic. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 20) were given a prebiotic (2.8 g/day HOST-G904, HOST Therabiomics, Jersey, Channel Islands) for 3 weeks...
March 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060791/effects-of-infant-formula-supplemented-with-prebiotics-compared-with-synbiotics-on-growth-up-to-the-age-of-12-mo-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Hania Szajewska, Marek Ruszczyński, Henryk Szymański, Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko, Anna Piwowarczyk, Preben Bødstrup Rasmussen, Mette Bach Kristensen, Christina E West, Olle Hernell
BACKGROUND: Growth is an essential outcome measure for evaluating the safety of infant formulas (IF). We investigated the effects of consumption of IF supplemented with prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides, FOS, and galactooligosaccharides, GOS) compared with synbiotics (FOS/GOS and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei strain F19) on the growth of healthy infants. METHODS: 182 full-term infants who were weaned completely from breast milk to IF at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive prebiotic- or synbiotic-supplemented, otherwise identical, IF until 6 mo of age (intervention period)...
May 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049818/impact-of-short-chain-galactooligosaccharides-on-the-gut-microbiome-of-lactose-intolerant-individuals
#16
M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Andrew J Ritter, Dennis Savaiano, Andrea Monteagudo-Mera, Carlton Anderson, Scott T Magness, Todd R Klaenhammer
Directed modulation of the colonic bacteria to metabolize lactose effectively is a potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. A randomized, double-blind, multisite placebo-controlled trial conducted in human subjects demonstrated that administration of a highly purified (>95%) short-chain galactooligosaccharide (GOS), designated "RP-G28," significantly improved clinical outcomes for lactose digestion and tolerance. In these individuals, stool samples were collected pretreatment (day 0), after GOS treatment (day 36), and 30 d after GOS feeding stopped and consumption of dairy products was encouraged (day 66)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002487/long-term-transcriptomic-effects-of-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-delivered-in-ovo-in-broiler-chickens
#17
Anna Slawinska, Arkadiusz Plowiec, Maria Siwek, Marcin Jaroszewski, Marek Bednarczyk
In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics in chickens allows for the development of intestinal microflora prior to hatching, which boosts their robustness. The goal of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile of the spleen (S), cecal tonsils (CT), and large intestine (LI) of adult chickens injected with prebiotics and synbiotics in ovo. On day 12 of embryo development, incubating eggs were injected with prebiotics: inulin alone (P1) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB2955 (S1), galactooligosaccharides (GOS) alone (P2) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909555/effect-of-dual-type-oligosaccharides-on-constipation-in-loperamide-treated-rats
#18
Sung Hee Han, Ki Bae Hong, Eun Young Kim, So Hyun Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856622/in-vitro-fermentation-of-b-gos-impact-on-faecal-bacterial-populations-and-metabolic-activity-in-autistic-and-non-autistic-children
#20
Roberta Grimaldi, Drinalda Cela, Jonathan R Swann, Jelena Vulevic, Glenn R Gibson, George Tzortzis, Adele Costabile
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system...
February 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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