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Galactooligosaccharide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121496/properties-of-two-fungal-endo-%C3%AE-1-3-galactanases-and-their-synergistic-action-with-an-exo-%C3%AE-1-3-galactanase-in-degrading-arabinogalactan-proteins
#1
Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Kaori Yaguchi, Satoshi Kaneko, Yoichi Tsumuraya, Toshihisa Kotake
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are plant proteoglycans, which are widely encountered in the plant kingdom, usually localized on the cell surface. The carbohydrate moieties of AGPs consist of β-1,3-galactan main chains and β-1,6-galactan side chains, to which other auxiliary sugars are attached. To date, FvEn3GAL isolated from Flammulina velutipes is the sole β-1,3-galactanase acting on β-1,3-galactan in an endo-manner. Here we cloned two homologous genes, designated Af3G and NcEn3GAL, possibly encoding endo-β-1,3-galactanase from Aspergillus flavus and Neurospora crassa, respectively...
October 25, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032473/oligosaccharide-biotechnology-an-approach-of-prebiotic-revolution-on-the-industry
#2
REVIEW
Mario Cezar Rodrigues Mano, Iramaia Angélica Neri-Numa, Juliana Bueno da Silva, Bruno Nicolau Paulino, Marina Gabriel Pessoa, Gláucia Maria Pastore
Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12...
October 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030034/a-novel-polyacrylamide-based-silica-stationary-phase-for-the-separation-of-carbohydrates-using-alcohols-as-the-weak-eluent-in-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography
#3
Jianfeng Cai, Lingping Cheng, Jianchao Zhao, Qing Fu, Yu Jin, Yanxiong Ke, Xinmiao Liang
A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase was prepared by a two-step synthesis method, immobilizing polyacrylamide on silica sphere particles. The stationary phase (named PA, 5μm dia) was evaluated using a mixture of carbohydrates in HILIC mode and the column efficiency reached 121,000Nm(-1). The retention behavior of carbohydrates on PA stationary phase was investigated with three different organic solvents (acetonitrile, ethanol and methanol) employed as the weak eluent. The strongest hydrophilicity of PA stationary phase was observed in both acetonitrile and methanol as the weak eluent, when compared with another two amide stationary phases...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948579/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-ncdc-298-with-fos-in-combination-on-viability-and-toxin-production-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#4
Santosh Anand, Surajit Mandal, Sudhir Kumar Tomar
The present study was to investigate the utilization of prebiotics by Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 298 and its synergistic adversary effect on both population and production of heat-labile (LT) toxin in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). To select suitable prebiotic in order to enhance functionality, its utilization and the prebiotic activity score was examined. Antivirulence effect on ETEC was inspected by its inactivation rate and heat-labile toxin production in presence of different synbiotic combination...
September 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924143/fructooligosaccharide-fos-and-galactooligosaccharide-gos-increase-bifidobacterium-but-reduce-butyrate-producing-bacteria-with-adverse-glycemic-metabolism-in-healthy-young-population
#5
Feitong Liu, Pan Li, Muxuan Chen, Yuemei Luo, M Prabhakar, Huimin Zheng, Yan He, Qi Qi, Haoyu Long, Yi Zhang, Huafang Sheng, Hongwei Zhou
The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16 g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920844/identification-of-genes-involved-in-galactooligosaccharide-utilization-in-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-yit-4014t
#6
Hidetsugu Sotoya, Akira Shigehisa, Taeko Hara, Hoshitaka Matsumoto, Hiroshi Hatano, Takahiro Matsuki
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are mixed oligosaccharides that are mainly composed of galactosyllactoses (GLs), which include 3'-GL, 4'-GL, and 6'-GL. Data from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that GOS selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Previously, we identified the gene locus responsible for 4'-GL utilization, but the selective routes of uptake and catabolism of 3'- and 6'-GL remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used differential transcriptomics to identify the utilization pathways of these GLs within the Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4014T strain...
September 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917489/the-effects-of-single-or-combined-administration-of-galactooligosaccharide-and-pediococcus-acidilactici-on-cutaneous-mucus-immune-parameters-humoral-immune-responses-and-immune-related-genes-expression-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-fingerlings
#7
Maryam Modanloo, Siyavash Soltanian, Mostafa Akhlaghi, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of single or combined administration of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and Pediococcus acidilactici on cutaneous mucus immune parameters, humoral immune responses and immune related genes expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks as follows: non-supplemented (Control), prebiotic diet (10 g/kg GOS), probiotic diet (1 g/kg [0.9 × 10(7) CFU] lyophilized P. acidilactici) and synbiotic diet (10 GOS in combination with 1 g/kg [0...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894632/dietary-incorporation-of-whey-protein-isolate-and-galactooligosaccharides-exhibits-improvement-in-glucose-homeostasis-and-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#8
Praveen Kumar Kavadi, Ramesh Pothuraju, Jayasimha Chagalamarri, Gaurav Bhakri, Aswani Mallepogu, Raj Kumar Sharma
BACKGROUND: This study was planned to investigate the effectiveness of the whey protein isolate (WPI) of high purity and a galactooligosaccharides (GOS) preparation on glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD) (45.47% energy from fat) fed conditions in C57BL/6J mice. METHODS: Fasting blood glucose level, serum insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were measured; also, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined in different treatment groups...
July 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840678/-pathomechanism-and-treatment-of-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-interventional-effects-of-chinese-herbal-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Wen-Bei Han, Ying-Lu Liu, Yi-Gang Wan, Wei Sun, Yue Tu, Jing-Jing Yang, Wei Wu, Wei-Ming He, Jian Yao
The gut microbiota dysbiosis is one of the risk factors in the progression from the advanced chronic kidney disease(CKD)to uremia, characterized by the reduction of probiotics and the increase of opportunistic pathogens including urease-related microbes, endotoxin-related microbes and toxin-related microbes, which can produce uremic toxins. According to the core point of "the gut-kidney axis" theory and "the chronic kidney disease-colonic axis" concept, the gut microbiota dysbiosis aggravates renal damage by accumulating uremic toxins and inducing the systemic micro-inflammation...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821142/manufacture-of-requeij%C3%A3-o-cremoso-processed-cheese-with-galactooligosaccharide
#10
P C Belsito, M V S Ferreira, L P Cappato, R N Cavalcanti, V A S Vidal, T C Pimentel, E A Esmerino, C F Balthazar, R P C Neto, M I B Tavares, P B Zacarchenco, M Q Freitas, M C Silva, R S L Raices, G M Pastore, M A R Pollonio, A G Cruz
The addition of galactooligosaccharide, (GOS, 0, 1.5, 3 or 4g/100g) on the quality parameters of requeijão cremoso was investigated. Chemical characteristics (pH, moisture, fat and protein), color (L*, a*, b*), water mobility by TD- nuclear magnetic resonance, rheology (flow curve and oscillatory tests), microstructure and sensory acceptance (consumer test) were evaluated. The addition of GOS provided a denser and compact structure and reduced number and size of fat globules. Increased GOS level (3 and 4g/100g) improved the softness and spreadability (decrease of G', G″ and apparent viscosity and an increase of tan δ and melting index) and impacted positively on the aroma and taste of the requeijão cremoso...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793770/assessment-of-in-vitro-digestibility-of-dietary-carbohydrates-using-rat-small-intestinal-extract
#11
Alvaro Ferreira-Lazarte, Agustín Olano, Mar Villamiel, F Javier Moreno
There are few studies on the assessment of digestibility of nondigestible carbohydrates, despite their increasingly important role in human health. In vitro digestibility of a range of dietary carbohydrates classified as digestible (maltose, sucrose, and lactose), well-recognized (lactulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and two types of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) differing in the predominant glycosidic linkage), and potential (lactosucrose and GOS from lactulose, OsLu) prebiotics using a rat small intestinal extract (RSIE) under physiological conditions of temperature and pH is described...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718519/cookies-elaborated-with-oat-and-common-bean-flours-improved-serum-markers-in-diabetic-rats
#12
Iza F Pérez-Ramírez, Laura J Becerril-Ocampo, Rosalía Reynoso-Camacho, Mayra Denise Herrera, S Horacio Guzmán-Maldonado, Raquel K Cruz-Bravo
BACKGROUND: Common beans have been associated to anti-diabetic effects, due to its high content of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, its consumption has decreased worldwide. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the development of novel functional foods elaborated with common beans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of oat-bean flour cookies, and to analyze its bioactive composition, using commercial oat-wheat cookies for comparative purposes. RESULTS: Oat-bean cookies (1...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652150/biochemical-characterization-of-a-novel-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-paenibacillus-barengoltzii-suitable-for-lactose-hydrolysis-and-galactooligosaccharides-synthesis
#13
Yu Liu, Zhou Chen, Zhengqiang Jiang, Qiaojuan Yan, Shaoqing Yang
A β-galactosidase gene (PbBGal2A) was cloned from Paenibacillus barengoltzii and expressed in Escherichia coli. The in silico analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PbBGal2A shared the highest identity of 40% with the characterized glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 2 β-galactosidase from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The recombinant β-galactosidase (PbBGal2A) was purified with a molecular mass of 124.2kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH and temperature of PbBGal2A were determined to be pH 7...
November 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581334/heat-tolerances-of-salmonella-cronobacter-sakazakii-and-pediococcus-acidilactici-inoculated-into-galactooligosaccharide
#14
Jihyun Bang, Moonkak Choi, Haeseok Jeong, Sangseob Lee, Yoonbin Kim, Jee-Hoon Ryu, Hoikyung Kim
Food-grade galactooligosaccharide (GOS) with low water activity (aw of ca. 0.7) is used as an ingredient in various foods. We evaluated heat tolerances of Salmonella, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pediococcus acidilactici at temperatures (70 to 85°C) used during the saturation process of GOS by comparing decimal reduction time (D-values) and thermal resistance constants (z-values). To determine the D- and z-values, GOS containing Salmonella (5.1 to 5.8 log CFU/g) or C. sakazakii (5.3 to 5.9 log CFU/g) was heat treated at 70, 77...
July 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571115/improvement-of-covalent-immobilization-procedure-of-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-kluyveromyces-lactis-for-galactooligosaccharides-production-modelling-and-kinetic-study
#15
Flor González-Cataño, Luz Tovar-Castro, Eduardo Castaño-Tostado, Carlos Regalado-Gonzalez, Blanca García-Almendarez, Anaberta Cardador-Martínez, Silvia Amaya-Llano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538097/biochemical-characterization-of-the-functional-roles-of-residues-in-the-active-site-of-the-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-bacillus-circulans-atcc-31382
#16
Huifang Yin, Tjaard Pijning, Xiangfeng Meng, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
The β-galactosidase enzyme from Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 BgaD is widely used in the food industry to produce prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS). Recently, the crystal structure of a C-terminally truncated version of the enzyme (BgaD-D) has been elucidated. The roles of active site amino acid residues in β-galactosidase enzyme reaction and product specificity have remained unknown. On the basis of a structural alignment of the β-galactosidase enzymes BgaD-D from B. circulans and BgaA from Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the complex of BgaA with LacNAc, we identified eight active site amino acid residues (Arg185, Asp481, Lys487, Tyr511, Trp570, Trp593, Glu601, and Phe616) in BgaD-D...
June 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535609/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharide-using-bifidobacterial-%C3%AE-galactosidase-purified-from-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#17
So Young Oh, So Youn Youn, Myung Soo Park, Hyoung-Geun Kim, Nam-In Baek, Zhipeng Li, Geun Eog Ji
Galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) are known to be selectively utilized by Bifidobacterium, which can bring about healthy changes of the composition of intestinal microflora. In this study, β-GOS were synthesized using bifidobacterial β-galactosidase (G1) purified from recombinant E. coli with a high GOS yield and with high productivity and enhanced bifidogenic activity. The purified recombinant G1 showed maximum production of β-GOSs at pH 8.5 and 45°C. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the major peaks of the produced β-GOSs showed MW of 527 and 689, indicating the synthesis of β-GOSs at degrees of polymerization (DP) of 3 and DP4, respectively...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490677/dietary-human-milk-oligosaccharides-but-not-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-increase-circulating-natural-killer-cell-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-memory-t-cell-populations-in-noninfected-and-rotavirus-infected-neonatal-piglets
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sarah S Comstock, Min Li, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Theresa B Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon M Donovan
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs.Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity.Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and free sialic acid), or formula with 3...
June 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466641/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharide-metabolism-by-probiotic-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria
#19
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, JoMay Chow, Michael J Miller
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are bifidogenic and lactogenic prebiotics; however, GOS utilization is strain-dependent. In this study, commercially available bifidobacteria and lactobacilli probiotic strains were evaluated for growth in the presence of GOS. Several bifidobacteria and lactobacilli grew on GOS; however, the specific GOS oligomers utilized for growth differed. A subset of probiotic bifidobacteria and lactobacilli revealed three different GOS utilization profiles delineated by the degrees of polymerization (DP) of GOS: (1) utilization of 2 DP GOS, (2) utilization of ≤3 DP GOS, and (3) utilization of all DP GOS...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418214/colonic-gas-homeostasis-mechanisms-of-adaptation-following-host-g904-galactooligosaccharide-use-in-humans
#20
M Mego, A Accarino, G Tzortzis, J Vulevic, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: We have shown that a galactooligosaccharide prebiotic administration (HOST-G904) initially increased intestinal gas production and this increase declined back to baseline after 2 week administration. Our aim was to determine the mechanism of microbiota adaptation; i.e., to determine whether the net reduction is due to decreased overall production or increased gas consumption. METHODS: In 10 healthy subjects, intestinal gas production and intraluminal disposal was measured before, at the beginning and after 2 week of HOST-G904 prebiotic administration...
September 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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