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Galactooligosaccharide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418214/colonic-gas-homeostasis-mechanisms-of-adaptation-following-host-g904-galactooligosaccharide-use-in-humans
#1
M Mego, A Accarino, G Tzortzis, J Vulevic, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: We have shown that a galactooligosaccharide prebiotic administration (HOST-G904) initially increased intestinal gas production and this increase declined back to baseline after 2 week administration. Our aim was to determine the mechanism of microbiota adaptation; i.e., to determine whether the net reduction is due to decreased overall production or increased gas consumption. METHODS: In 10 healthy subjects, intestinal gas production and intraluminal disposal was measured before, at the beginning and after 2 week of HOST-G904 prebiotic administration...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362090/effects-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharides-from-chickpeas-on-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#2
Zhuqing Dai, Wanyong Lyu, Minhao Xie, Qingxia Yuan, Hong Ye, Bing Hu, Li Zhou, Xiaoxiong Zeng
The gut microbiota has the ability to modulate host energy homeostasis, which may regulate metabolic disorders. Functional oligosaccharide may positively regulate the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, effects of α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) from chickpea on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome and gut bacterial dysbiosis were investigated. After 6 weeks of intervention, HFD led to significant increases in levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycated serum protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of mice compared to normal-chow-fed mice...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361909/rational-mutagenesis-by-engineering-disulphide-bonds-improves-kluyveromyces-lactis-beta-galactosidase-for-high-temperature-industrial-applications
#3
Agustín Rico-Díaz, María-Efigenia Álvarez-Cao, Juan-José Escuder-Rodríguez, María-Isabel González-Siso, M Esperanza Cerdán, Manuel Becerra
Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase (Kl-β-Gal) is one of the most important enzymes in the dairy industry. The poor stability of this enzyme limits its use in the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and other applications requiring high operational temperature. To obtain thermoresistant variants, a rational mutagenesis strategy by introducing disulphide bonds in the interface between the enzyme subunits was used. Two improved mutants, R116C/T270C and R116C/T270C/G818C, had increased half-lives at 45 °C compared to Kl-β-Gal (2...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256083/editorial-metabolic-adaptation-of-colonic-microbiota-to-galactooligosaccharides-good-news-for-prebiotics-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
EDITORIAL
H M Staudacher, S R Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193420/reaction-kinetics-and-galactooligosaccharide-product-profiles-of-the-%C3%AE-galactosidases-from-bacillus-circulans-kluyveromyces-lactis-and-aspergillus-oryzae
#5
Huifang Yin, Jelle B Bultema, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
β-Galactosidase enzymes are used in the dairy industry to convert lactose into galactooligosaccharides (GOS) that are added to infant formula to mimic the molecular sizes and prebiotic functions of human milk oligosaccharides. Here we report a detailed analysis of the clearly different GOS profiles of the commercial β-galactosidases from Bacillus circulans, Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae. Also the GOS yields of these enzymes differed, varying from 48.3% (B. circulans) to 34.9% (K. lactis), and 19...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092444/engineering-of-the-bacillus-circulans-%C3%AE-galactosidase-product-specificity
#6
Huifang Yin, Tjaard Pijning, Xiangfeng Meng, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
Microbial β-galactosidase enzymes are widely used as biocatalysts in industry to produce prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. GOS mixtures are used as beneficial additives in infant formula to mimic the prebiotic effects of human milk oligosaccharides (hMOS). The structural variety in GOS mixtures is significantly lower than in hMOS. Since this structural complexity is considered as the basis for the multiple biological functions of hMOS, it is important to broaden the variety of GOS structures...
February 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091546/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharides-activate-mucin-and-pectic-galactan-utilization-pathways-in-the-human-gut-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#7
Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Marieke Mulder, Sander van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078750/metabolic-adaptation-of-colonic-microbiota-to-galactooligosaccharides-a-proof-of-concept-study
#8
M Mego, C Manichanh, A Accarino, D Campos, M Pozuelo, E Varela, J Vulevic, G Tzortzis, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics have been shown to reduce abdominal symptoms in patients with functional gut disorders, despite that they are fermented by colonic bacteria and may induce gas-related symptoms. AIM: To investigate changes in the metabolic activity of gut microbiota induced by a recognised prebiotic. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 20) were given a prebiotic (2.8 g/day HOST-G904, HOST Therabiomics, Jersey, Channel Islands) for 3 weeks...
March 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060791/effects-of-infant-formula-supplemented-with-prebiotics-compared-with-synbiotics-on-growth-up-to-the-age-of-12-months-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Hania Szajewska, Marek Ruszczyński, Henryk Szymański, Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko, Anna Piwowarczyk, Preben Bødstrup Rasmussen, Mette Bach Kristensen, Christina E West, Olle Hernell
BACKGROUND: Growth is an essential outcome measure for evaluating the safety of infant formulas (IF). We investigated the effects of consumption of IF supplemented with prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides, FOS, and galactooligosaccharides, GOS) compared with synbiotics (FOS/GOS and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei strain F19) on the growth of healthy infants. METHODS: 182 full-term infants who were weaned completely from breast milk to IF at 28 days of age were randomly assigned to receive prebiotic- or synbiotic-supplemented, otherwise identical, IF until 6 months of age (intervention period)...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049818/impact-of-short-chain-galactooligosaccharides-on-the-gut-microbiome-of-lactose-intolerant-individuals
#10
M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Andrew J Ritter, Dennis Savaiano, Andrea Monteagudo-Mera, Carlton Anderson, Scott T Magness, Todd R Klaenhammer
Directed modulation of the colonic bacteria to metabolize lactose effectively is a potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. A randomized, double-blind, multisite placebo-controlled trial conducted in human subjects demonstrated that administration of a highly purified (>95%) short-chain galactooligosaccharide (GOS), designated "RP-G28," significantly improved clinical outcomes for lactose digestion and tolerance. In these individuals, stool samples were collected pretreatment (day 0), after GOS treatment (day 36), and 30 d after GOS feeding stopped and consumption of dairy products was encouraged (day 66)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002487/long-term-transcriptomic-effects-of-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-delivered-in-ovo-in-broiler-chickens
#11
Anna Slawinska, Arkadiusz Plowiec, Maria Siwek, Marcin Jaroszewski, Marek Bednarczyk
In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics in chickens allows for the development of intestinal microflora prior to hatching, which boosts their robustness. The goal of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile of the spleen (S), cecal tonsils (CT), and large intestine (LI) of adult chickens injected with prebiotics and synbiotics in ovo. On day 12 of embryo development, incubating eggs were injected with prebiotics: inulin alone (P1) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB2955 (S1), galactooligosaccharides (GOS) alone (P2) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909555/effect-of-dual-type-oligosaccharides-on-constipation-in-loperamide-treated-rats
#12
Sung Hee Han, Ki Bae Hong, Eun Young Kim, So Hyun Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856622/in-vitro-fermentation-of-b-gos-impact-on-faecal-bacterial-populations-and-metabolic-activity-in-autistic-and-non-autistic-children
#14
Roberta Grimaldi, Drinalda Cela, Jonathan R Swann, Jelena Vulevic, Glenn R Gibson, George Tzortzis, Adele Costabile
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system...
February 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775655/effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-administration-and-intake-of-a-combination-of-yogurt-and-galactooligosaccharides-on-bone-and-mineral-metabolism-in-rats
#15
Satoshi Takasugi, Miho Shioyama, Masami Kitade, Masashi Nagata, Taketo Yamaji
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), the most potent acid-suppressing drug, administration and intake of a combination of yogurt and galactooligosaccharides (YG) on bone and mineral metabolism in adult rats. Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a control group fed the control diet with vehicle administration, a PPI group fed the control diet with PPI administration and a YG + PPI group fed the YG diet with PPI administration. All of the groups received their respective experimental diets and daily subcutaneous injection of the vehicle or PPI for 12 weeks...
October 21, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763700/early-life-diets-with-prebiotics-and-bioactive-milk-fractions-attenuate-the-impact-of-stress-on-learned-helplessness-behaviours-and-alter-gene-expression-within-neural-circuits-important-for-stress-resistance
#16
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E W Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health-promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviours such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioural and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720150/changes-in-the-intestinal-bacterial-community-short-chain-fatty-acid-profile-and-intestinal-development-of-preweaned-holstein-calves-1-effects-of-prebiotic-supplementation-depend-on-site-and-age
#17
J J Castro, A Gomez, B A White, H J Mangian, J R Loften, J K Drackley
Digestive disorders are common during the first few weeks of life of newborn calves. Prebiotics are nondigestible but fermentable oligosaccharides that modulate growth and activity of beneficial microbial populations, which can result in enhanced gut health and function. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) have demonstrated such prebiotic potential. In this study, the effect of GOS supplementation on intestinal bacterial community composition and fermentation profiles; intestinal health, development, and function; and growth was evaluated in dairy calves fed for high rates of growth...
December 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715472/a-novel-process-for-the-production-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-gos-using-consortium-of-microbes
#18
R Saravanan, Shajahan Shubethar, S Narayanan, Manish Jain, Shankar Lade, Deepak Jadhav, P Maheswaran, Uday K Avalakki, Ashok Kumar Dubey
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are nondigestible dietary fibers which have a beneficial effect on human health by promoting the growth of probiotic bacteria in the gut. In addition, other health benefits have been reported from oligosaccharides consumption such as stimulation of intestinal mobility, colon cancer prevention, mineral absorption as well as protection against certain pathogenic bacterial infections. The goal of this research was to develop an efficient biotransformation system using a consortium of microbes for the production of ≥85% pure GOS and reusing the cell biomass in repeated cycles of biotransformation...
March 16, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699701/oligosaccharides-a-boon-from-nature-s-desk
#19
REVIEW
Seema A Belorkar, A K Gupta
This article reviews the varied sources of oligosaccharides available in nature as silent health promoting, integral ingredients of plants as well as animal products like honey and milk. The article focuses on exotic and unfamiliar oligosaccharides like Galactooligosaccharides, Lactulose derived Galactooligosaccharides, Xylooligosaccharides, Arabinooligosaccharides and algae derived Marine oligosaccharides along with the most acknowledged prebiotic fructooligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides are named as on the grounds of the monomeric units forming oligomers with functional properties...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664196/in-ovo-validation-model-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-commercial-prebiotics-on-broiler-performance-and-oxidative-stability-of-meat
#20
Giuseppe Maiorano, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Siria Tavaniello, Cinzia Abiuso, Joanna Bogucka, Marek Bednarczyk
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of in ovo injection of 2 different prebiotics, DiNovo (DN; Laminaria spp., extract containing laminarin and fucoidan) and Bi(2)tos (BI; non-digestive trans-galactooligosaccharides from milk lactose digested with Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171), on growth, slaughter traits, intramuscular fat percentage (IF) and muscle fiber diameter, and lipid oxidation of meat in chickens reared under commercial conditions, following an in ovo trial protocol. On d 12 of embryonic incubation, 350,560 Ross 308 eggs were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups and automatically injected in ovo with: physiological saline (control group), BI at dose of 3...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
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