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Short chained fatty acids

Attilio Pingitore, Edward S Chambers, Thomas Hill, Inmaculada Ruz Maldonado, Bo Liu, Gavin Bewick, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Gareth A Wallis, Catriona Tedford, Ramón Castañera González, Guo Cai Huang, Pratik Choudhary, Gary Frost, Shanta J Persaud
AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Julie Reygner, Lydia Lichtenberger, Ghada Elmhiri, Samir Dou, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Larbi Rhazi, Flore Depeint, Veronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water)...
2016: PloS One
Chaudhari Archana Somabhai, Ruma Raghuvanshi, G Nareshkumar
AIMS: To assess protective efficacy of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on metabolic effects induced by chronic consumption of dietary fructose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EcN was genetically modified with fructose dehydrogenase (fdh) gene for conversion of fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose and mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (mtlK) gene for conversion to mannitol, a prebiotic. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with 20% fructose in drinking water for two months...
2016: PloS One
Sree Vamsee Chintapalli, Srinivas Jayanthi, Prema L Mallipeddi, Ravi Kumar Gundampati, Suresh Kumar Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy, Damian B van Rossum, Andriy Anishkin, Sean H Adams
Previous research has indicated that long-chain fatty acids can bind myoglobin (Mb) in an oxygen dependent manner. This suggests that Oxy-Mb may play an important role in fuel delivery in Mb-rich muscle fibers (e.g., type I fibers and cardiomyocytes), and raises the possibility that Mb also serves as an acylcarnitine binding protein. We report for the first time the putative interaction and affinity characteristics for different chain lengths of both fatty acids and acylcarnitines with Oxy-Mb using molecular dynamic simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Irina G Tikhonova
Five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified to be activated by free fatty acids (FFA). Among them, FFA1 (GPR40) and FFA4 (GPR120) bind long-chain fatty acids, FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41) bind short-chain fatty acids and GPR84 binds medium-chain fatty acids. Free fatty acid receptors have now emerged as potential targets for the treatment of diabetes, obesity and immune diseases. The recent progress in crystallography of GPCRs has now enabled the elucidation of the structure of FFA1 and provided reliable templates for homology modelling of other FFA receptors...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Cong Tang, Stefan Offermanns
The short-chain fatty acid receptors FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41) are activated by acetate, propionate, and butyrate. These ligands are produced by bacteria in the gut. In addition, the body itself can in particular produce acetate, and acetate plasma levels have been shown to be increased, e.g., in diabetic patients or during periods of starvation. FFA2 and FFA3 are both expressed by enteroendocrine cells and pancreatic β-cells. In addition, FFA2 is found on immune cells and adipocytes, whereas FFA3 is expressed by some peripheral neurons...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Graeme Milligan, Daniele Bolognini, Eugenia Sergeev
A large number of reviews and commentaries have highlighted the potential role of the short-chain fatty acid receptors GPR41 (FFA3) and, particularly, GPR43 (FFA2) as an interface between the intestinal microbiota and metabolic and inflammatory disorders. However, short-chain fatty acids have very modest potency and display limited selectivity between these two receptors, and studies on receptor knockout mice have resulted in non-uniform conclusions; therefore, selective and high-potency/high-affinity synthetic ligands are required to further explore the contribution of these receptors to health and disease...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Mandi M Hopkins, Kathryn E Meier
The effects of fatty acids on cancer cells have been studied for decades. The roles of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and of microbiome-generated short-chain butyric acid, have been of particular interest over the years. However, the roles of free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in mediating effects of fatty acids in tumor cells have only recently been examined. In reviewing the literature, the data obtained to date indicate that the long-chain FFARs (FFA1 and FFA4) play different roles than the short-chain FFARs (FFA2 and FFA3)...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
XianJun Yuan, AiYou Wen, Seare T Desta, ZhiHao Dong, Tao Shao
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of 4 chemical compounds with antimicrobial property on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage. RESULTS: Potassium diformate and formic acid rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jian-Qiang Tan, Da-Yu Chen, Zhe-Tao Li, Ji-Wei Huang, Ti-Zhen Yan, Ren Cai
Medium- and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid β-oxidation. Gene mutation prevents medium- and short-chain fatty acids from entry into mitochondria for oxidation, which leads to multiple organ dysfunction. In this study, serum acylcarnitines and the organic acid profile in urea were analyzed in two children whose clinical symptoms were hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Moreover, gene mutations in the two children and their parents were evaluated. One of the patients was a 3-day-old male who was admitted to the hospital due to neonatal asphyxia, sucking weakness, and sleepiness...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Chun Chen, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
This study investigated the in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from Morus alba L., the contribution of its carbohydrates to the fermentation, and the effect on the composition of gut microbiota. Over 48 h of fermentation, the pH value in the fecal culture decreased from 7.12 to 6.14, and the total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased. After 48 h of fermentation, 45.36 ± 1.36% of the total carbohydrates in the polysaccharide, including 35...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Tania Fernández-Navarro, Nuria Salazar, Isabel Gutiérrez-Díaz, Borja Sánchez, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Abelardo Margolles, Miguel Gueimonde, Sonia González
PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) formation by intestinal bacteria is regulated by many different factors, among which dietary fibre is currently receiving most attention. However, since fibre-rich foods are usually good dietary sources of phenolic compounds, which are also known to affect the microbiota, authors hypothesize that the regular intake of these bioactive compounds could be associated with a modulation of faecal SCFA production by the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: In this work, food intake was recorded by means of a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
C Kourmentza, M Kornaros
Mixed microbial cultures that undergo successful enrichment, following eco-biotechnological approaches, to form a community dominant in polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) forming bacteria, represent an attractive economic alternative towards the production of those biopolymers. In the present study, an enriched mixed culture was investigated for the production of PHA at different initial pH values under non-controlled conditions in order to minimize process control and operational costs. Short-chain fatty acids were provided as PHA precursors and they were tested as sole carbon sources and as mixtures under nitrogen deficiency...
October 6, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Ruey-Chee Weng
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. 144 weaned piglets were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L), soybean oil (S) and coconut oil (C) and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning...
October 5, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Jennifer Popko, Cornelia Herrfurth, Kirstin Feussner, Till Ischebeck, Tim Iven, Richard Haslam, Mary Hamilton, Olga Sayanova, Jonathan Napier, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Ivo Feussner
Oleaginous microalgae are considered as a promising resource for the production of biofuels. Especially diatoms arouse interest as biofuel producers since they are most productive in carbon fixation and very flexible to environmental changes in the nature. Naturally, triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in algae only occurs under stress conditions like nitrogen-limitation. We focused on Phaeodactylum strain Pt4 (UTEX 646), because of its ability to grow in medium with low salinity and therefore being suited when saline water is less available or for wastewater cultivation strategies...
2016: PloS One
Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation [FAO]). We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 wk training and weight loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Hitoshi Nakayama, Hidetake Kurihara, Yasu S Morita, Taroh Kinoshita, Laura Mauri, Alessandro Prinetti, Sandro Sonnino, Noriko Yokoyama, Hideoki Ogawa, Kenji Takamori, Kazuhisa Iwabuchi
Pathogenic mycobacteria use virulence factors, including mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), to survive in host phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils. We assessed the roles of lactosylceramide (LacCer, CDw17)-enriched lipid rafts in the phagocytosis of mycobacteria by human neutrophils and in the intracellular fate of phagocytosed mycobacteria. We showed that the association of the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn with C24 fatty acid chain-containing LacCer was essential for the phagocytosis of mycobacteria by neutrophils...
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
Laure B Bindels, Isabelle Leclercq
Gut micro-organisms are recognized as crucial regulators of host immunity and the microbiota has been implicated in several inflammatory, immune, inflammatory or even psychiatric disorders. Therefore the analysis of the complex interactions between gut microbiota and the host is currently under intense investigation. Most of our knowledge stems from the study of animal models while translational research and data in humans are necessary to move the field forward and to evolve to diagnostic and therapeutic application...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Ahmad Arouri, Kira E Lauritsen, Henriette L Nielsen, Ole G Mouritsen
Because of the amphipathicity and conical molecular shape of fatty acids, they can efficiently incorporate into lipid membranes and disturb membrane integrity, chain packing, and lateral pressure profile. These phenomena affect both model membranes as well as biological membranes. We investigated the feasibility of exploiting fatty acids as permeability enhancers in drug delivery systems for enhancing drug release from liposomal carriers and drug uptake by target cells. Saturated fatty acids, with acyl chain length from C8 to C20, were tested using model drug delivery liposomes of 1,2- dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line as a model cell...
October 7, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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