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cv junction

Zsófia Hoyk, Melinda E Tóth, Nikolett Lénárt, Dóra Nagy, Brigitta Dukay, Alexandra Csefová, Ágnes Zvara, György Seprényi, András Kincses, Fruzsina R Walter, Szilvia Veszelka, Judit Vígh, Beáta Barabási, András Harazin, Ágnes Kittel, László G Puskás, Botond Penke, László Vígh, Mária A Deli, Miklós Sántha
Hypertriglyceridemia is not only a serious risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, but it is linked to neurodegeneration, too. Previously, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing the human APOB-100 protein, a mouse model of human atherosclerosis. In this model we observed high plasma levels of triglycerides, oxidative stress, tau hyperphosphorylation, synaptic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, increased neural apoptosis and neurodegeneration. Neurovascular dysfunction is recognized as a key factor in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, but the cellular and molecular events linking cerebrovascular pathology and neurodegeneration are not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shuang Leng, Ru-San Tan, Xiaodan Zhao, John C Allen, Angela S Koh, Liang Zhong
BACKGROUND: Abnormal left atrial (LA) function is a marker of cardiac dysfunction and adverse cardiovascular outcome, but is difficult to assess, and hence not, routinely quantified. We aimed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a fast method to measure long-axis LA strain and strain rate (SR) with standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) compared to conventional feature tracking (FT) derived longitudinal strain. METHODS: We studied 50 normal controls, 30 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and 100 heart failure (HF) patients, including 40 with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), 30 mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and 30 preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Wei-Ta Chen, Wei-Tse Hsu, Meng-Hua Yen, Chun A Changou, Chia-Li Han, Yu-Ju Chen, Ji-Yen Cheng, Tzu-Hao Chang, Oscar Kuang-Sheng Lee, Jennifer Hui-Chun Ho
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is mechanosensitive and the respond to mechanical force is pattern specific. We previously reported that oscillatory shear stress at 0.5 ± 4 dyne/cm2 guided MSCs polarity vertical to net flow direction before apolaric stage at 30 min resulting in phosphorylation of β-catenin and inhibition of Wnt signaling. This time, we explored laminar shear stress (LS) at 0.5 dyne/cm2 polarized MSCs by guiding F-actin orientation parallel to the flow direction before apolarity at 30 min accompanied with activation of Wnt signaling...
October 23, 2018: Biomaterials
Dawei Lian, Huiqi Yuan, Xiongzhang Yin, Yanjiao Wu, Rongrong He, Yi Huang, Yang Chen
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that vascular complications are closely related to diabetes mellitus; in particular, inflammatory-mediated endothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role in diabetes-induced cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, exploring effective methods to suppress endothelial dysfunction via inhibition of inflammatory responses is imperative. Puerarin (Pu), a flavonoid common in Pueraria, has been widely and successfully used to treat cardiovascular diseases in China for many years...
October 11, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Yan Wang, Tianshu Wu, Lingyue Zou, Lilin Xiong, Ting Zhang, Lu Kong, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
Epidemiological studies and experimental research have illustrated that PM2.5 has an association with cardiovascular adverse events. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proposed to take part in diverse diseases. To comprehensively gain insight into the molecular toxicity of PM2.5, expression patterns are analyzed in EA.hy926 cell line through RNAs microarray. A total of 356 lncRNA transcripts are dysregulated in 2.5 μg/cm2 group, and there are 1283 lncRNAs differentially expressed in 10 μg/cm2 group...
October 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Jesus F Bermejo-Martin, Marta Martín-Fernandez, Cristina López-Mestanza, Patricia Duque, Raquel Almansa
Acute vascular endothelial dysfunction is a central event in the pathogenesis of sepsis, increasing vascular permeability, promoting activation of the coagulation cascade, tissue edema and compromising perfusion of vital organs. Aging and chronic diseases (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, or cancer) are recognized risk factors for sepsis. In this article we review the features of endothelial dysfunction shared by sepsis, aging and the chronic conditions preceding this disease...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Marc Vila Cuenca, Evelina Ferrantelli, Elisa Meinster, Stephan M Pouw, Igor Kovačević, Renee X de Menezes, Hans W Niessen, Robert H J Beelen, Peter L Hordijk, Marc G Vervloet
Background Dysfunctional endothelium may contribute to the development of cardiovascular complications in chronic kidney disease ( CKD ). Supplementation with active vitamin D has been proposed to have vasoprotective potential in CKD , not only by direct effects on the endothelium but also by an increment of α-Klotho. Here, we explored the capacity of the active vitamin D analogue paricalcitol to protect against uremia-induced endothelial damage and the extent to which this was dependent on increased α-Klotho concentrations...
September 4, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Lauren Anton, Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Ann DeVine, Guillermo Barila, Laura Heiser, Amy G Brown, Michal A Elovitz
Cervicovaginal (CV) microbiota is associated with vaginal health and disease in non-pregnant women. Recent studies in pregnant women suggest that specific CV microbes are associated with preterm birth (PTB). While the associations between CV microbiota and adverse outcomes have been demonstrated, the mechanisms regulating the associations remain unclear. As the CV space contains an epithelial barrier, we postulate that CV microbiota can alter the epithelial barrier function. We investigated the biological, molecular, and epigenetic effects of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners , and Gardnerella vaginalis on the cervical epithelial barrier function and determined whether L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pratap Karki, Angelo Meliton, Albert Sitikov, Yufeng Tian, Tomomi Ohmura, Anna A Birukova
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution remains a major public health concern, as it has been linked to significant increase in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Lung endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of cardiovascular events of lung exposure to PM. However, the role of PM in acute lung injury (ALI) exacerbation and delayed recovery remains incompletely understood. This study tested a hypothesis that PM augments lung injury and EC barrier dysfunction via microtubule-dependent mechanisms...
October 16, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Rayana A P Maciel, Regiane S Cunha, Valentina Busato, Célia R C Franco, Paulo C Gregório, Carla J R Dolenga, Lia S Nakao, Ziad A Massy, Agnès Boullier, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Andréa E M Stinghen
Endothelial dysfunction in uremia can result in cell-to-cell junction loss and increased permeability, contributing to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development. This study evaluated the impact of the uremic milieu on endothelial morphology and cell junction's proteins. We evaluated (i) serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers in a cohort of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and the expression of VE-cadherin and Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) junction proteins on endothelial cells (ECs) of arteries removed from CKD patients during renal transplant; (ii) ECs morphology in vitro under different uremic conditions, and (iii) the impact of uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) as well as of total uremic serum on VE-cadherin and ZO-1 gene and protein expression in cultured ECs...
October 7, 2018: Toxins
Lijun Wang, Xiangmin Meng, Guoping Li, Qiulian Zhou, Junjie Xiao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a group of circular RNA molecules with a 3',5'-phosphodiester bond at the junction site, are generated by back-splicing of precursor mRNAs. Most of the circular RNAs originate from the exon region of the encoded protein, and some are derived from intron regions, antisense transcripts, or long noncoding RNAs. Circular RNAs are abundantly in eukaryotic transcriptome and participate in various biological processes. It is closely associated with various diseases such as tumors, diabetes, nervous system diseases, and cardiovascular diseases...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Daniel T Hoagland, Webster Santos, Steven Poelzing, Robert G Gourdie
Cardiovascular disease remains the single largest cause of natural death in the United States, with a significant cause of mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Presently, options for treating and preventing myocardial electrical dysfunction, including sudden cardiac death, are limited. Recent studies have indicated that conduction of electrical activation in the heart may have an ephaptic component, wherein intercellular coupling occurs via electrochemical signaling across narrow extracellular clefts between cardiomyocytes...
September 18, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Edoardo Sciatti, Rossana Orabona, Federico Prefumo, Enrico Vizzardi, Ivano Bonadei, Adriana Valcamonico, Marco Metra, Tiziana Frusca
OBJECTIVE: To compare the elastic properties of the ascending aorta and ventricular-arterial coupling (VAC) in women with a previous pregnancy complicated by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome, women who experienced preeclampsia, and healthy controls. METHODS: Women with a history of preeclampsia (n = 60) or HELLP syndrome (n = 49) and matched healthy controls (n = 60) underwent transthoracic echocardiography at 6 months to 4 years after delivery...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Piotr Biega, Grzegorz Guzik, Tomasz Pitera
BACKGROUND: Cancer metastases to the upper section of the cervical spine are found in a low percentage of patients. Their conservative treatment consists in radio- and chemotherapy as well as immobilisation in an orthopaedic collar. Surgery is the treatment of choice in patients with lesions causing spinal instability or compressing neural structures. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of surgical treatment conducted in patients with metastases located in the upper section of the cervical spine...
February 27, 2018: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
Xin Zhao, Yiming Ren, Yong Hu, Naiqiang Cui, Ximo Wang, Yunfeng Cui
BACKGROUND: The benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for treating cancer of the esophagus or the gastroesophageal junction remains controversial. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of these two management strategies. METHODS: The MEDLINE (PubMed), SinoMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible studies. We searched for the most relevant studies published until the end of September 2017...
2018: PloS One
Lyndsay A Wylie, Kevin P Mouillesseaux, Diana C Chong, Victoria L Bautch
The BMP pathway regulates developmental processes including angiogenesis, yet its signaling outputs are complex and context-dependent. Recently, we showed that SMAD6, an intracellular BMP inhibitor expressed in endothelial cells, decreases vessel sprouting and branching both in vitro and in zebrafish. Genetic deletion of SMAD6 in mice results in poorly characterized cardiovascular defects and lethality. Here, we analyzed the effects of SMAD6 loss on vascular function during murine development. SMAD6 was expressed in a subset of blood vessels throughout development, primarily in arteries, while expression outside of the vasculature was largely confined to developing cardiac valves with no obvious embryonic phenotype...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
Lei Qi, Tomasz Kolodziej, Zenon Rajfur, Cai Huang
There are two vertebrate talin genes, TLN1 and TLN2, which encode talin1 and talin2. Talin1 governs integrin activation, thus regulating focal adhesion (FA) assembly, cell migration and invasion, but the biological function of talin2 remains to be elucidated and not too long ago talin2 was presumed to function redundantly with talin1. Recent studies have shown distinct differences between talin2 and talin1. The promoter of TLN2 is different from that of TLN1 in their size and binding to different transcription factors...
2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Tomasz Plonek, Mikolaj Berezowski, Jacek Kurcz, Przemyslaw Podgorski, Marek Sąsiadek, Bartosz Rylski, Andrzej Mysiak, Marek Jasinski
BACKGROUND: The stress in the ascending aorta results from many biomechanical factors including the geometry of the vessel and its maximum dimensions, arterial blood pressure and longitudinal systolic stretching due to heart motion. The stretching of the ascending aorta resulting from the longitudinal displacement of the aortic annulus during the heart cycle has not been examined in the general population so far. The aim of the study is to evaluate this parameter using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in the general population in all age groups...
July 31, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Silvia Barbiero, Alberto Aimo, Vincenzo Castiglione, Alberto Giannoni, Giuseppe Vergaro, Claudio Passino, Michele Emdin
The hectic pace of contemporary life is a major source of acute and chronic stress, which may have a deleterious impact on body health . In the field of cardiovascular disease, acute emotional stress has been associated with coronary spasm and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, whereas the manifestations of chronic stress have been overlooked, and most underlying pathophysiology remains to be elucidated. Chronic stress affects the neuronal circuitry composed of cortico-limbic structures and the nuclei regulating autonomic function, eliciting a sympatho-vagal imbalance, characterised by adrenergic activation and vagal withdrawal...
September 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Alberto Milan, Daniela Degli Esposti, Massimo Salvetti, Raffaele Izzo, Antonella Moreo, Giacomo Pucci, Giulia Bruno, Ilenia Pareo, Angelo Parini, Anna Paini, Flora I Laurino, Paola Sormani, Raffaella Sgariglia, Eleonora Avenatti, Nicola De Luca
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ascending aortic dilatation and to evaluate the possible association between proximal aorta dilatation and structural or functional markers of cardiac organ damage in hypertensive patients. BACKGROUND: Dilatation of the sinus of valsalva (SoV) is a common finding in clinical practice and it is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: less is known about the dilatation prevalence of the subsequent portion, the proper ascending aorta and its relationship with cardiovascular organ damage...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
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