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cv junction

Jonathan P Cranford, Thomas J O'Hara, Christopher T Villongco, Omar M Hafez, Robert C Blake, Joseph Loscalzo, Jean-Luc Fattebert, David F Richards, Xiaohua Zhang, James N Glosli, Andrew D McCulloch, David E Krummen, Felice C Lightstone, Sergio E Wong
Patient-specific models of the ventricular myocardium, combined with the computational power to run rapid simulations, are approaching the level where they could be used for personalized cardiovascular medicine. A major remaining challenge is determining model parameters from available patient data, especially for models of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs): the sites of initial ventricular electrical activation. There are no non-invasive methods for localizing PMJs in patients, and the relationship between the standard clinical ECG and PMJ model parameters is underexplored...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Narayanam Anantha Sai Kiran, Veldurti Ananta Kiran Kumar, Laxminadh Sivaraju, Valluri Anil Kumar, Chintakunta Rajesh Reddy, Amit Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Aberrant medial retropharyngeal prevertebral course of internal carotid arteries (ICAs) is extremely uncommon. In oropharyngeal surgeries like trans oral odontoidectomy (TOO) this unrecognized aberrant retropharyngeal course of ICAs can result in devastating complications secondary to inadvertent injury of ICAs. Authors describe this aberrant course of ICAs in a patient with craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomaly with dysmorphic C1 lateral mass on one side and discuss in detail various management issues in this complex case...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Xingfu Huang, Yanjia Chen, Junhui Xiao, Zheng Huang, Liwei He, Dingli Xu, Jian Peng
OBJECTIVE: Although differentially expressed circRNAs have been proposed to be closely associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the roles of circRNAs remain unclear in endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which is a subcategory of EMT. Herein, we characterized the expression and potential function of circRNAs during TGF-ß1-induced EndMT in rat coronary artery endothelial cells (CAEC). METHODS: High-throughput RNA sequencing was performed for unbiasedly profiling the expression of circRNAs...
March 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Nuno M Coelho, Christopher A McCulloch
The preservation of tissue and organ architecture and function depends on tightly regulated interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). These interactions are maintained in a dynamic equilibrium that balances intracellular, myosin-generated tension with extracellular resistance conferred by the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix. Disturbances of this equilibrium can lead to the development of fibrotic lesions that are associated with a wide repertoire of high prevalence diseases including obstructive cardiovascular diseases, muscular dystrophy and cancer...
March 7, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Seungbum Kim, Ruby Goel, Ashok Kumar, Yanfei Qi, Gil Lobaton, Koji Hosaka, Mohammed Mohammed, Eileen M Handberg, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Recent evidence indicates a link between gut pathology and microbiome with hypertension in animal models. However, whether this association exists in humans is unknown. Thus, our objectives in this study were to test the hypotheses that high blood pressure patients have distinct gut microbiomes and that gut epithelial barrier function markers and microbiome composition could predict systolic blood pressure. Fecal samples, analyzed by shotgun metagenomics, displayed taxonomic and functional changes, including altered butyrate production between patients with high blood pressure and reference subjects...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Cosimo Bleve, Valeria Bucci, Maria Luisa Conighi, Francesco Battaglino, Lorenzo Costa, Lorella Fasoli, Elisa Zolpi, Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza
Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is a congenital defect of the urinary tract that occurs in 0.25% of the general population. Laparoscopic Vascular Hitch (LVH) according to Hellstrom-Chapman represent an alternative approach in treatment of extrinsic hydronephrosis by crossing vessels (CV) in pediatric age. In our Department from 2006 to 2016, 36 children with extrinsic-Uretero-Pelvic-Junction (UPJ)-Obstruction (UPJO) underwent laparoscopic vessels transposition. Over the last 4years, we have treated three patients with extrinsic hydronephrosis in HSK; two males and one female respectively of 6, 7 and 8years...
December 13, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Nicola Wilck, Lajos Markó, András Balogh, Kristin Kräker, Florian Herse, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, István A Szijártó, Maik Gollasch, Nadine Reichhart, Olaf Strauss, Arnd Heuser, Damian Brockschnieder, Axel Kretschmer, Ralf Lesche, Florian Sohler, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Peter Sandner, Friedrich C Luft, Dominik N Müller, Ralf Dechend, Nadine Haase
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) can arise from cardiac and vascular remodeling processes following long-lasting hypertension. Efficacy of common HF therapeutics is unsatisfactory in HFpEF. Evidence suggests that stimulators of the nitric oxide-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) could be of use here. We aimed to characterize the complex cardiovascular effects of NOsGC stimulation using NO-independent stimulator BAY 41-8543 in a double-transgenic rat (dTGR) model of HFpEF. We show a drastically improved survival rate of treated dTGR...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Jiaqi Liao, Tao Hong, Jinxian Xu, Erming Zeng, Bin Tang, Wentao Lai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Moyamoya disease has a high incidence of cerebral vascular accident in children and adolescents, which can endanger the physical and mental health of children and adults seriously. However, the etiology and the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease remain unclear. Connexin43 (Cx43) is a predominant intercellular gap junction protein that plays an important role in the normal function of arteries and the development of several cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to preliminarily investigate pathological changes and the expression of Cx43 in cerebral arteries of patients with moyamoya disease...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Bracy A Fertig, George S Baillie
cAMP is the archetypal and ubiquitous second messenger utilised for the fine control of many cardiovascular cell signalling systems. The ability of cAMP to elicit cell surface receptor-specific responses relies on its compartmentalisation by cAMP hydrolysing enzymes known as phosphodiesterases. One family of these enzymes, PDE4, is particularly important in the cardiovascular system, where it has been extensively studied and shown to orchestrate complex, localised signalling that underpins many crucial functions of the heart...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
T Vandecasteele, W Van Den Broeck, H Tay, L Couck, G van Loon, P Cornillie
The myocardial sleeve of the porcine and equine pulmonary veins were histologically investigated and reconstructed three dimensionally. Moreover, the localization of neuron cell bodies at the veno-atrial junction and alongside the myocardial sleeve was light microscopically visualized to depict the organization of nerve, myocardial and fat tissue. Finally, the presence of telocytes inside the equine pulmonary veins was demonstrated by use of transmission electron microscopy. These structures are thought to play a role in the induction of atrial fibrillation, which is frequently seen in horses, while pigs are often used as a cardiovascular model in this context...
January 3, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Jan Trøst Jørgensen, Karsten Bork Nielsen, Jens Mollerup, Anna Jepsen, Ning Go
Background: The gene mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (MET) is a proto-oncogene that encodes a transmembrane receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity known as Met or cMet. MET is found to be amplified in several human cancers including gastroesophageal cancer. Methods: Here we report the MET amplification prevalence data from 159 consecutive tumor specimens from patients with gastric (G), gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and esophageal (E) adenocarcinoma, using a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, MET/CEN-7 IQFISH Probe Mix [an investigational use only (IUO) assay]...
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Min Zhang, Fu-Xing Li, Xing-Yuan Liu, Jing-Yi Hou, Shi-Hong Ni, Juan Wang, Cui-Mei Zhao, Wei Zhang, Ye Kong, Ri-Tai Huang, Song Xue, Yi-Qing Yang
Conotruncal defects (CTDs) account for ~30% of all types of congenital heart disease and contribute to increased morbidity and mortality rates. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic risk factors are involved in the pathogenesis of CTDs. Mutations in a number of genes, including the TBX1 gene that codes for a T-box transcription factor essential for normal cardiovascular development, may contribute to the development of CTD. CTDs are genetically heterogeneous and the genetic defects responsible for CTDs in the majority of patients remain unknown...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kinga Jaworska, Tomasz Huc, Emilia Samborowska, Leszek Dobrowolski, Klaudia Bielinska, Maciej Gawlak, Marcin Ufnal
An increased blood trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has emerged as a marker of cardiovascular mortality, however, the mechanisms of the increase are not clear. We evaluated if hypertension was associated with changes in the colon permeability to trimethylamine (TMA), a TMAO precursor. We did experiments on male, 24-26-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and SHR treated with enalapril, an antihypertensive drug (SHR-E). To check the colon permeability and liver TMA clearance, blood was collected from the portal vein and hepatic veins confluence, at baseline and after the intracolonic administration of TMA...
2017: PloS One
Paolo Salvi, Andrea Grillo, Susan Marelli, Lan Gao, Lucia Salvi, Maurizio Viecca, Anna Maria Di Blasio, Renzo Carretta, Alessandro Pini, Gianfranco Parati
OBJECTIVE: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by aortic root dilation and dissection and an abnormal fibrillin-1 synthesis. In this observational study, we evaluated aortic stiffness in MFS and its association with ascending aorta diameters and fibrillin-1 genotype. METHODS: A total of 116 Marfan adult patients without history of cardiovascular surgery, and 144 age, sex, blood pressure and heart rate matched controls were enrolled...
January 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Zhen-Huan Lv, Trinh Anh Phuong, Shi-Jie Jin, Xiao-Xue Li, Ming Xu
Recent studies have demonstrated that NLRP3 inflammasome complex acts as pivotal elements to initiate inflammatory responses and plays an important role in the dysfunction of cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, simvastatin prevents vascular endothelial dysfunction from inflammasome invasion contributing to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, Whether or not the simvastatin improves vascular endothelial barrier function through inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome pathway remains unknown. Here, we explored the role and mechanisms of simvastatin in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome which are involved in vascular endothelial hyperpermeability causing by the disruption of tight junction protein ZO-1 and adherens junction protein VE-Cadherin, an early initiation of cardiovascular complication...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
Jake Russell, Eugene F Du Toit, Jason N Peart, Hemal H Patel, John P Headrick
Cardiovascular disease, predominantly ischemic heart disease (IHD), is the leading cause of death in diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to eliciting cardiomyopathy, DM induces a 'wicked triumvirate': (i) increasing the risk and incidence of IHD and myocardial ischemia; (ii) decreasing myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury; and (iii) inhibiting or eliminating responses to cardioprotective stimuli. Changes in ischemic tolerance and cardioprotective signaling may contribute to substantially higher mortality and morbidity following ischemic insult in DM patients...
December 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Adelina Curaj, Zhuojun Wu, Anne Rix, Oliver Gresch, Marieke Sternkopf, Setareh Alampour-Rajabi, Twan Lammers, Marc van Zandvoort, Christian Weber, Rory R Koenen, Elisa A Liehn, Fabian Kiessling
OBJECTIVE: The junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is physiologically located in interendothelial tight junctions and focally redistributes to the luminal surface of blood vessels under abnormal shear and flow conditions accompanying atherosclerotic lesion development. Therefore, JAM-A was evaluated as a target for molecularly targeted ultrasound imaging of transient endothelial dysfunction under acute blood flow variations. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Flow-dependent endothelial dysfunction was induced in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (n=43) by carotid partial ligation...
January 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Zhiyuan Jiang, Baojing Lin, Tangwei Liu, Shiyun Qin, Shan Huang, Shuang Shao, Shuo Li, Rongjie Huang, Jiangnan Huang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased volume of visceral adipose tissue is associated with worsening of cardiovascular disease risk factors that contribute to aortic dilatation. We investigated the effects of visceral fat index (VFI) and VFI/percentage body fat (PBF) ratio on proximal aortic size and proximal aortic dilatation (PAD), to assess whether excess visceral fat deposition is an independent risk factor for PAD. METHODS: 738 participants aged 35 years or more were included in this cross-sectional survey...
November 11, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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