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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533325/physiologic-regulation-of-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-involves-connexin-36-containing-gap-junctions
#1
Varinder K Lall, Gareth Bruce, Larysa Voytenko, Mark Drinkhill, Kerstin Wellershaus, Klaus Willecke, Jim Deuchars, Susan A Deuchars
Chronically elevated sympathetic nervous activity underlies many cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms contributing to sympathetic nervous system output may reveal new avenues of treatment. The contribution of the gap junctional protein connexin 36 (Cx36) to the regulation of sympathetic activity and thus blood pressure and heart rate was determined using a mouse with specific genetic deletion of Cx36. Ablation of the Cx36 protein was confirmed in sympathetic preganglionic neurons of Cx36 knockout (KO) mice...
May 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510599/selective-inhibition-of-brain-endothelial-rho-kinase-2-provides-optimal-protection-of-an-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-from-tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-and-plasmin
#2
Be'eri Niego, Natasha Lee, Pia Larsson, T Michael De Silva, Amanda E-Ling Au, Fiona McCutcheon, Robert L Medcalf
Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibition, broadly utilised in cardiovascular disease, may protect the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during thrombolysis from rt-PA-induced damage. While the use of nonselective ROCK inhibitors like fasudil together with rt-PA may be hindered by possible hypotensive side-effects and inadequate capacity to block detrimental rt-PA activity in brain endothelial cells (BECs), selective ROCK-2 inhibition may overcome these limitations. Here, we examined ROCK-2 expression in major brain cells and compared the ability of fasudil and KD025, a selective ROCK-2 inhibitor, to attenuate rt-PA-induced BBB impairment in an in vitro human model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495795/the-desmoplakin-intermediate-filament-linkage-regulates-cell-mechanics
#3
Joshua A Broussard, Ruiguo Yang, Changjin Huang, S Shiva P Nathamgari, Allison M Beese, Lisa M Godsel, Sherry Lee, Fan Zhou, Nathan J Sniadecki, Kathleen J Green, Horacio D Espinosa
The translation of mechanical forces into biochemical signals plays a central role in guiding normal physiological processes during tissue development and homeostasis. Interfering with this process contributes to cardiovascular disease, cancer progression, and inherited disorders. The actin-based cytoskeleton and its associated adherens junctions are well-established contributors to mechanosensing and transduction machinery; however, the role of the desmosome/intermediate filament network is poorly understood in this context...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485540/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-modulates-ve-cadherin-expression-to-affect-human-vascular-endothelial-barrier-function
#4
Rui Zhang, Jianjun Ge
Published data indicate that the protease-activated receptor (PAR) 2 is involved in the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases; the underlying mechanism is to be further investigated. Ve-cadherin is a critical molecule in maintaining the endothelial barrier integrity. This study aims to investigate the role of PAR2 activation in compromising the cardiac endothelial barrier function. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Huvec cells) were cultured into monolayers using as an in vitro model of barrier function...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458438/chronic-lithium-intoxication-varying-electrocardiogram-manifestations
#5
Raja Naga Mahesh Maddala, A J Ashwal, M Sudhakar Rao, R Padmakumar
Lithium is a commonly used drug in psychiatric practice. It is used in the treatment of depression and bipolar disorder. It has a narrow therapeutic index with documented adverse effects even near therapeutic levels. It has myriad of manifestations at toxic levels. The cardiovascular effects range from relatively benign ST-T wave changes to fatal arrhythmias. We describe a case of lithium toxicity which presented as a junctional rhythm and later showed a variety of manifestations such as complete heart block, atrial fibrillation, sinus bradycardia, and finally reverted to sinus rhythm at par with serum lithium levels...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457700/human-connexin40-mutations-slow-conduction-and-increase-propensity-for-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Ajita Kanthan, Peter Fahmy, Renuka Rao, Jim Pouliopoulos, Ian E Alexander, Stuart P Thomas, Eddy Kizana
BACKGROUND: Patch clamping studies using non-cardiomyocytes revealed that the human connexin40 mutations P88S, G38D, and A96S are associated with reduced gap junction conductances compared to wild type connexin40 (wtCx40). Their effects within myocytes however are unclear. We aimed to characterise P88S, G38D, and A96S after expression in rat hearts and primary cardiomyocyte cultures. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rat atria were transduced with a lentivector containing a transgene encoding wtCx40, P88S, G38D, A96S, or eGFP (n=6 per transgene)...
March 21, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440499/effects-of-tanshinone-iia-on-the-regulation-of-renal-proximal-tubular-fibrosis
#7
Luoyuan Cao, Baoying Huang, Xianguo Fu, Jing Yang, Yinghua Lin, Feng Lin
The development of diabetes mellitus, along with its complications, is a chronic inflammatory response process. Chronic kidney diseases are characterized by renal fibrosis, and fibrosis is an important pathway for end‑stage renal failure. According to previous studies, high glucose (HG) has been demonstrated to be the most important fibrogenesis‑inducing agent. Tanshinone IIA is one of the main components isolated from Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Although tanshinone IIA has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the possible role of tanshinone IIA in fibrosis regulation remains to be elucidated and requires investigation...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439518/diabetes-adult-neurogenesis-and-brain-remodeling-new-insights-from-rodent-and-zebrafish-models
#8
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, David Couret, Anaïs Hoarau, Olivier Meilhac, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Nicolas Diotel
The prevalence of diabetes rapidly increased during the last decades in association with important changes in lifestyle. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are well-known for inducing deleterious effects on physiologic processes, increasing for instance cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and foot ulceration. Interestingly, diabetes also impairs brain morphology and functions such as (1) decreased neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation and cell survival), (2) decreased brain volumes, (3) increased blood-brain barrier leakage, (4) increased cognitive impairments, as well as (5) increased stroke incidence and worse neurologic outcomes following stroke...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400842/tongxinluo-regulates-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-and-alleviates-endothelial-cell-monolayer-hyperpermeability-via-erk-1-2-signaling-pathway-in-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-induced-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#9
Chengcheng Chang, Hongli Liu, Cong Wei, Liping Chang, Junqing Liang, Hongying Bei, Hongrong Li, Shen Liu, Yiling Wu
Vascular hyperpermeability resulting from distortion of endothelial junctions is associated with a number of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial tight junction regulates the paracellular permeability of macromolecules, a function of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) monolayers that can be regulated by oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL). However, the understanding of drug regulation of vascular hyperpermeability is so far limited. This study thus aimed to investigate the role of Tongxinluo (TXL) in the maintenance of the vascular endothelial paracellular permeability...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400371/retinal-microvascular-network-geometry-and-cognitive-abilities-in-community-dwelling-older-people-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936-study
#10
Sarah McGrory, Adele M Taylor, Mirna Kirin, Janie Corley, Alison Pattie, Simon R Cox, Baljean Dhillon, Joanna M Wardlaw, Fergus N Doubal, John M Starr, Emanuele Trucco, Thomas J MacGillivray, Ian J Deary
AIM: To examine the relationship between retinal vascular morphology and cognitive abilities in a narrow-age cohort of community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Digital retinal images taken at age ∼73 years from 683 participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) were analysed with Singapore I Vessel Assessment (SIVA) software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine cross-sectional associations between retinal vascular parameters and general cognitive ability (g), memory, processing speed, visuospatial ability, crystallised cognitive ability and change in IQ from childhood to older age...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398069/comparison-of-mucosal-markers-of-hiv-susceptibility-in-healthy-premenopausal-versus-postmenopausal-women
#11
Andrea Ries Thurman, Nazita Yousefieh, Neelima Chandra, Thomas Dudley Kimble, Susana Asin, Christiane Rollenhagen, Sharon Anderson, Betsy Herold, Jamie L Freiermuth, Brian S Starkman, Pedro Mesquita, Nicola Richardson-Harman, Tina Duong Cunningham, Sharon L Hillier, Lorna Rabe, Jill L Schwartz, Gustavo Doncel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize cervicovaginal (CV) mucosal factors modulating susceptibility to HIV acquisition in healthy premenopausal (PRE) and postmenopausal (POST) women before and after treatment with estradiol. METHODS: We compared CV mucosal epithelial histology and immune cells, vaginal microbiota, antimicrobial activity of, and soluble mucosal protein concentrations in the CV fluid lavage (CVL), and p24 antigen production after ex vivo infection of ectocervical tissues with HIV-1BaL among PRE women (n = 20) in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and POST women (n = 17) at baseline and after approximately 1 month of treatment with 0...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356735/inhibition-of-gap-junction-intercellular-communication-is-involved-in-silica-nanoparticles-induced-h9c2-cardiomyocytes-apoptosis-via-the-mitochondrial-pathway
#12
Zhong-Jun Du, Guan-Qun Cui, Juan Zhang, Xiao-Mei Liu, Zhi-Hu Zhang, Qiang Jia, Jack C Ng, Cheng Peng, Cun-Xiang Bo, Hua Shao
Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between cardiomyocytes is essential for synchronous heart contraction and relies on connexin-containing channels. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a major component involved in GJIC in heart tissue, and its abnormal expression is closely associated with various cardiac diseases. Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are known to induce cardiovascular toxicity. However, the mechanisms through which GJIC plays a role in cardiomyocytes apoptosis induced by SNPs remain unknown. The aim of the present study is to determine whether SNPs-decreased GJIC promotes apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes cell line (H9c2 cells) via the mitochondrial pathway using CCK-8 Kit, scrape-loading dye transfer technique, Annexin V/PI double-staining assays, and Western blot analysis...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349183/resveratrol-protects-the-loss-of-connexin-43-induced-by-ethanol-exposure-in-neonatal-mouse-cardiomyocytes
#13
Su Tu, Fu-Tao Cao, Xiao-Chun Fan, Cheng-Jian Yang
Excessive alcohol consumption provides risk to cardiomyopathy with unknown mechanisms. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol, is widely reported for its cardiovascular benefits, while its effect on alcohol-induced impairments in cardiomyocytes largely remains unknown. Effects of resveratrol on the cardiomyocytes under ethanol insult were studied in vitro. Ethanol exposure in mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes increased cell death and induced a specific loss of tight junction protein, connexin 43. In spite of adverse effects at higher concentrations, resveratrol at 10 μM improved cell viability of cardiomyocytes in the presence of a deleterious dose of ethanol...
March 28, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338788/hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation-an-intimate-association-of-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-outcomes
#14
Mikhail S Dzeshka, Farhan Shahid, Alena Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained arrhythmia found in clinical practice. AF rarely exists as a single entity but rather as part of a diverse clinical spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, related to structural and electrical remodeling within the left atrium, leading to AF onset, perpetuation, and progression. Due to the high overall prevalence within the AF population arterial hypertension plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AF and its complications. Fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, gap junction remodeling, accumulation of collagen both in atrial and ventricular myocardium all accompany ageing-related structural remodeling with impact on electrical activity...
February 18, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337850/high-throughput-screening-of-vascular-endothelium-destructive-or-protective-microenvironments-cooperative-actions-of-extracellular-matrix-composition-stiffness-and-structure
#15
Yonghui Ding, Michael Floren, Wei Tan
Pathological modification of the subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) has closely been associated with endothelial activation and subsequent cardiovascular disease progression. To understand regulatory mechanisms of these matrix modifications, the majority of previous efforts have focused on the modulation of either chemical composition or matrix stiffness on 2D smooth surfaces without simultaneously probing their cooperative effects on endothelium function on in vivo like 3D fibrous matrices. To this end, a high-throughput, combinatorial microarray platform on 2D and 3D hydrogel settings to resemble the compositions, stiffness, and structure of healthy and diseased subendothelial ECM has been established, and further their respective and combined effects on endothelial attachment, proliferation, inflammation, and junctional integrity have been investigated...
March 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315297/paxillin-genes-and-actomyosin-contractility-regulate-myotome-morphogenesis-in-zebrafish
#16
Andrew E Jacob, Jeffrey D Amack, Christopher E Turner
Paxillin (Pxn) is a key adapter protein and signaling regulator at sites of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Here, we investigated the role of Pxn during vertebrate development using the zebrafish embryo as a model system. We have characterized two Pxn genes, pxna and pxnb, in zebrafish that are maternally supplied and expressed in multiple tissues. Gene editing and antisense gene knockdown approaches were used to uncover Pxn functions during zebrafish development. While mutation of either pxna or pxnb alone did not cause gross embryonic phenotypes, double mutants lacking maternally supplied pxna or pxnb displayed defects in cardiovascular, axial, and skeletal muscle development...
March 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295275/pannexin-hemichannels-a-novel-promising-therapy-target-for-oxidative-stress-related-diseases
#17
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Lanfang Li
Pannexins, which contain three subtypes: pannexin-1, -2, and -3, are vertebrate glycoproteins that form non-junctional plasma membrane intracellular hemichannels via oligomerization. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance of the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Studies have shown that elevated ROS levels are pivotal in the development of a variety of diseases. Recent studies indicate that the occurrence of these oxidative stress related diseases is associated with pannexin hemichannels...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283549/mild-hypothermia-preserves-myocardial-conduction-during-ischemia-by-maintaining-gap-junction-intracellular-communication-and-sodium-channel-function
#18
Michelle Mj Nassal, Xiaoping Wan, Zack Dale, Isabelle Deschenes, Lance D Wilson, Joseph Stephen Piktel
BACKGROUND: Acute cardiac ischemia induces conduction velocity (CV) slowing and conduction block, promoting reentrant arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Previously, we found that mild hypothermia (MH, 32°C) attenuates ischemia-induced conduction block and CV slowing in a canine model of early global ischemia. Acute ischemia impairs cellular excitability and the GJ protein connexin 43 (Cx43). We hypothesized that MH prevented ischemia-induced conduction block and CV slowing by preserving GJ expression and localization...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270596/cigarette-smoke-induced-urothelial-cell-damage-potential-role-of-platelet-activating-factor
#19
Shannon E Kispert, John Marentette, E Cristian Campian, T Scott Isbell, Hannah Kuenzel, Jane McHowat
Cigarette smoking is an environmental risk factor associated with a variety of pathologies including cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer development. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic inflammatory bladder disease with multiple etiological contributors and risk factors associated with its development, including cigarette smoking. Previously, we determined that cigarette smoking was associated with bladder wall accumulation of platelet activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator that facilitates transendothelial cell migration of inflammatory cells from the circulation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269194/atrioventricular-junction-avj-motion-tracking-a-software-tool-with-itk-vtk-qt
#20
Pengdong Xiao, Shuang Leng, Xiaodan Zhao, Hua Zou, Ru San Tan, Philip Wong, Liang Zhong
The quantitative measurement of the Atrioventricular Junction (AVJ) motion is an important index for ventricular functions of one cardiac cycle including systole and diastole. In this paper, a software tool that can conduct AVJ motion tracking from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented by using Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK), The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and Qt. The software tool is written in C++ by using Visual Studio Community 2013 integrated development environment (IDE) containing both an editor and a Microsoft complier...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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