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cv junction

Araceli Boraita, Maria-Eugenia Heras, Francisco Morales, Manuel Marina-Breysse, Alicia Canda, Manuel Rabadan, Maria-Isabel Barriopedro, Amai Varela, Alejandro de la Rosa, José Tuñón
BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m(2) and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Junwei Xu, Lu Lu, Jing Lu, Jihui Xia, Hongjin Lu, Lin Yang, Wensheng Xia, Shihai Shen
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that CD200 fusion protein (CD200Fc), a CD200R1 agonist may attenuate inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases and neuro-degeneration. While, little is known about the function of CD200Fc in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced mouse Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells (mCMECs). The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of CD200Fc on CSE-induced vascular endothelial barrier (VEB) dysfunction and inflammatory responses, which is a highly clinically relevant model of smoking related cardiovascular diseases...
October 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Khadijeh Alishah, Sedigheh Asad, Khosro Khajeh, Neda Akbari
Uric acid, a side product of nucleotide metabolism, should be cleared from blood stream since its accumulation can cause cardiovascular diseases and gout. Uricase (urate oxidase) converts uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate, but it is absent in human and other higher apes. Yet, the recombinant form of uricase, Rasburicase, is now commercially available to cure tumor lysis syndrome by lowering serum uric acid level. Developing new methods to efficiently purify pharmaceutical proteins like uricase has attracted researchers' attention...
November 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Jingyan Han, Robert M Weisbrod, Di Shao, Yosuke Watanabe, Xiaoyan Yin, Markus M Bachschmid, Francesca Seta, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger, Reiko Matsui, Mengwei Zang, Naomi M Hamburg, Richard A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is implicated in increased vascular permeability associated with metabolic disorders, but the underlying redox mechanism is poorly defined. S-glutathionylation, a stable adduct of glutathione with protein sulfhydryl, is a reversible oxidative modification of protein and is emerging as an important redox signaling paradigm in cardiovascular physiopathology. The present study determines the role of protein S-glutathionylation in metabolic stress-induced endothelial cell permeability...
September 11, 2016: Redox Biology
Lei Wang, Yang Chen, Xiang Li, Youzhi Zhang, Erich Gulbins, Yang Zhang
Obesity is an important risk factor for exacerbating chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. High serum level of saturated free fatty acids such as palmitate is an important contributor for obesity-induced diseases. Here, we examined the contribution of inflammasome activation in vascular cells to free fatty acid-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular injury in obesity. Our findings demonstrated that high fat diet-induced impairment of vascular integrity and enhanced vascular permeability in the myocardium in mice were significantly attenuated by Nlrp3 gene deletion...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Martina Monti, Erika Terzuoli, Marina Ziche, Lucia Morbidelli
Cardiovascular diseases as atherosclerosis are associated to an inflammatory state of the vessel wall which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction, and adherence and activation of circulating inflammatory cells. Hydrogen sulfide, a novel cardiovascular protective gaseous mediator, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity. We have recently demonstrated that the SH containing ACE inhibitor zofenoprilat, the active metabolite of zofenopril, controls the angiogenic features of vascular endothelium through H2S enzymatic production by cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE)...
September 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Eric T Rush, Ling Li, Jennifer L Goodwin, Rose M Kreikemeier, Mary Craft, David A Danford, Shelby Kutty
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to investigate cardiovascular abnormalities in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). METHODS: Two hundred children (100 OI, 100 matched volunteers) were prospectively studied. Aortic and left ventricular (LV) measurements were performed using transthoracic echocardiography. Patients were typed according to modified phenotypical Sillence classification as published in the Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal disorders: 2015 Revision...
September 19, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
T Egan Benova, B Szeiffova Bacova, C Viczenczova, E Diez, M Barancik, N Tribulova
Gap junction connexin channels are important determinants of myocardial conduction and synchronization that is crucial for coordinated heart function. One of the main risk factors for cardiovascular events that results in heart attack, congestive heart failure, stroke as well as sudden arrhythmic death is hypertension. Mislocalization and/or dysfunction of specific connexin-43 channels due to hypertension-induced myocardial remodeling have been implicated in the occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias and heart failure in both, humans as well as experimental animals...
September 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Francine Marques, Nina Eikelis, Richard Bayles, Nora Straznicky, Dagmara Hering, Murray Esler, Geoffrey Head, Markus Schlaich, Gavin Lambert
OBJECTIVE: Noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves is removed from the neuroeffector junction via the action of the noradrenaline transporter (NET). NET impairment is evident in several clinically important conditions including essential hypertension, major depressive disorder, panic disorder and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Only in rare instances, however, do coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to account for a defect in NET. The aim of this study was to determine whether rs7194256 (C/T), a SNP in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the NET gene, is associated with diseases associated with NET dysfunction, and to elucidate the mechanism involved...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nikhil R Kalva, Madhusudhan R Tokala, Sonu Dhillon, Watcoun-Nchinda Pisoh, Saqib Walayat, Vishwas Vanar, Srinivas R Puli
Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also called "black esophagus," is a condition characterized by circumferential necrosis of the esophagus with universal distal involvement and variable proximal extension with clear demarcation at the gastroesophageal junction. It is an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is recognized with distinct and striking mucosal findings on endoscopy. The patients are usually older and are critically ill with shared comorbidities, which include atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, and malnutrition...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Alireza Milani, Marzieh Basirnejad, Sepideh Shahbazi, Azam Bolhassani
Carotenoids and retinoids have several similarities in biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumor growth, and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can influence cell growth regulation, and modulate gene expression and immune response. Epidemiologic studies have shown the correlation of high carotenoid intake from food sources with reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular or eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves some approaches including gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), growth factor signaling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway, and inflammatory cytokines...
September 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Gary Tse, Jie Ming Yeo, Vivian Tse, Joseph Kwan, Bing Sun
In the current study, arrhythmogenic effects of the gap junction inhibitor heptanol (0.05 mM) were examined in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. Monophasic action potential recordings were obtained from the left ventricular epicardium during right ventricular pacing. Regular activity was observed both prior and subsequent to application of heptanol in all of the 12 hearts studied during 8 Hz pacing. By contrast, induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) was observed after heptanol treatment in 6/12 hearts using a S1S2 protocol (Fisher's exact test; P<0...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yun Tao, Yisong Xiong, Huimin Wang, Shaopeng Chu, Renqian Zhong, Jianxin Wang, Guihua Wang, Xiumei Ren, Juan Yu
BACKGROUND: The fatality rate for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has increased in recent years and higher levels of triglyceride have been shown to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic CVD. Dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs) is also a key factor of CVD. APOC3 is an important molecule in lipid metabolism that is closely associated with hyperlipidemia and an increased risk of developing CVD. But the direct effects of APOC3 on ECs were still unknown. This study was aimed at determining the effects of APOC3 on inflammation, chemotaxis and exudation in ECs...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
David Sedmera, Jan Neckar, Jiri Benes, Jana Pospisilova, Jiri Petrak, Kamil Sedlacek, Vojtech Melenovsky
Volume overload leads to development of eccentric cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In our previous report, we have shown myocyte hypertrophy with no fibrosis and decrease in gap junctional coupling via connexin43 in a rat model of aorto-caval fistula at 21 weeks. Here we set to analyze the electrophysiological and protein expression changes in the left ventricle and correlate them with phenotypic severity based upon ventricles to body weight ratio. ECG analysis showed increased amplitude and duration of the P wave, prolongation of PR and QRS interval, ST segment elevation and decreased T wave amplitude in the fistula group...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Litten Bertelsen, Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Lars Køber, Ketil Haugan, Søren Højberg, Carsten Thomsen, Niels Vejlstrup
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the gold standard of cardiac volumetric measurements. Flow in the aortic root is often measured at the sinotubular junction, even though placing the slice just above valve level may be more precise. It is unknown how much flow measurements vary at different levels in the aortic root and which level corresponds best to left ventricle volumetry. METHODS: All patients were older than 70 years presenting with at least one of the following diagnoses: diabetes, hypertension, prior stroke and/or heart failure...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Phuc H Pham, Nguyen T K Vo, Elizabeth J H Tan, Spencer Russell, Ginny Jones, John S Lumsden, Niels C Bols
As diseases and abnormalities of the heart can interfere with the aquaculture of Atlantic salmon, the heart was investigated as a source of cell lines that could be used to study the cellular basis of these conditions. An Atlantic salmon heart endothelial cell line, ASHe, was developed and characterized for growth properties, endothelial cell characteristics, and responsiveness to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). AHSe cells stained negative for senescence associated ß-galactosidase and grew well in 10 and 20% FBS/L15 at high cell density, but not in L15 medium supplemented with calf serum...
September 1, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Rihyeon Kim, Whal Lee, Eun-Ah Park, Jin Young Yoo, Jin Wook Chung
BACKGROUND: Understanding the anatomy of the lower extremity veins is essential for successful varicose vein treatment. Computed tomography (CT) venography may be used to obtain a comprehensive overview and detailed information regarding this. PURPOSE: To describe anatomic variations of the lower extremity venous system in patients with varicose veins, using three-dimensional (3D) CT venography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 810 limbs in 405 patients with suspected varicose veins were prospectively referred to undertake CT venography and included in our study population retrospectively...
August 26, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Xiaoming Wang, Xiaohong Zhao, Ting Feng, Gang Jin, Zhenjiang Li
Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries in the glomeruli. Endothelial dysfunction is an early sign of diabetic cardiovascular disease and may contribute to progressive diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to diabetic nephropathy. Rutin has beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy, but the exact mechanisms of its protective effect remain elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the role of pretreatment with rutin in an in vitro model of hyperglycemia-induced barrier dysfunction in human renal glomerular endothelial cells...
September 2016: Planta Medica
Shuai Yuan, Sibile Pardue, Xinggui Shen, J Steven Alexander, A Wayne Orr, Christopher G Kevil
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. In addition to free H2S, H2S can be oxidized to polysulfide which can be biologically active. Since the impact of H2S on endothelial solute barrier function is not known, we sought to determine whether H2S and its various metabolites affect endothelial permeability. In vitro permeability was evaluated using albumin flux and transendothelial electrical resistance. Different H2S donors were used to examine the effects of exogenous H2S...
August 11, 2016: Redox Biology
Ming Zhao, Hang-Huan Jia, Man Xu, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Long-Zhu Liu, Wei-Jin Zang
Calcium overload is one of the important mechanisms of cardiovascular disease. Endoplasmic reticulum is an important organelle which regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis by uptake, storage and mobilization of calcium. So it plays a critical role in regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum, which is widely distributed in cytoplasm, has a large number of membrane junction sites. Recent studies have reported that these junction sites are distributed on plasma membrane and organelle membranes (mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, etc...
August 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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