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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931622/connexins-in-cardiovascular-and-neurovascular-health-and-disease-pharmacological-implications
#1
REVIEW
Luc Leybaert, Paul D Lampe, Stefan Dhein, Brenda R Kwak, Peter Ferdinandy, Eric C Beyer, Dale W Laird, Christian C Naus, Colin R Green, Rainer Schulz
Connexins are ubiquitous channel forming proteins that assemble as plasma membrane hemichannels and as intercellular gap junction channels that directly connect cells. In the heart, gap junction channels electrically connect myocytes and specialized conductive tissues to coordinate the atrial and ventricular contraction/relaxation cycles and pump function. In blood vessels, these channels facilitate long-distance endothelial cell communication, synchronize smooth muscle cell contraction, and support endothelial-smooth muscle cell communication...
October 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923269/dpp-4-inhibition-protects-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-from-hypoxia-induced-vascular-barrier-impairment
#2
Naoko Hashimoto, Kento Ikuma, Yui Konno, Masanori Hirose, Hiroyuki Tadokoro, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Yoshio Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Takano
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are relatively new class of anti-diabetic drugs. Some protective effects of DPP-4 on cardiovascular disease have been described independently from glucose-lowering effect. However, the detailed mechanisms by which DPP-4 inhibitors exert on endothelial cells remain elusive. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of DPP-4 inhibitor on endothelial barrier function. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and exposed to hypoxia in the presence or absence of Diprotin A, a DPP-4 inhibitor...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912179/classification-epidemiology-and-global-burden-of-cardiomyopathies
#3
REVIEW
William J McKenna, Barry J Maron, Gaetano Thiene
In the past 25 years, major advances were achieved in the nosography of cardiomyopathies, influencing the definition and taxonomy of this important chapter of cardiovascular disease. Nearly, 50% of patients dying suddenly in childhood or adolescence or undergoing cardiac transplantation are affected by cardiomyopathies. Novel cardiomyopathies have been discovered (arrhythmogenic, restrictive, and noncompacted) and added to update the World Health Organization classification. Myocarditis has also been named inflammatory cardiomyopathy...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901235/low-dose-computed-tomographic-imaging-of-partial-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection-in-children
#4
Aysel Türkvatan, Hasan Tahsin Tola, Neşe Kutlutürk, Alper Güzeltaş, Yakup Ergül
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to determine lobar distribution, drainage sites, and associated cardiovascular anomalies of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in pediatric patients using low-dose multidetector computed tomographic angiography. METHODS: Sixty-one cases (27 female, mean age: 4.7 years) with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection diagnosed by multidetector computed tomographic angiography were included in this study. In all patients, multidetector computed tomographic angiography examinations were performed using dual-source 256-slice scanner without sedation...
September 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859294/ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-delta-promotes-intracellular-lipid-accumulation-in-m1-macrophages-of-vascular-lesions
#5
Hong-Yue Lai, Ling-Wei Hsu, Hsin-Hwa Tsai, Yu-Chih Lo, Shang-Hsun Yang, Ping-Yen Liu, Ju-Ming Wang
Aims: Lipid homeostasis is reprogrammed in the presence of inflammation, which results in excessive lipid accumulation in macrophages, and leads to the formation of lipid-laden foam cells. We aimed to link an inflammation-responsive transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) with polarized macrophages and dissect its contribution to lipid accumulation. Methods and results: We found that CEBPD protein colocalized with macrophages in human and mouse (C57BL/6, Apoe-/-) atherosclerotic plaques and that Cebpd deficiency in bone marrow cells suppressed atherosclerotic lesions in hyperlipidemic Apoe-/- mice...
September 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843154/numerical-analysis-of-wall-shear-stress-in-ascending-aorta-before-tearing-in-type-a-aortic-dissection
#6
Qingzhuo Chi, Ying He, Yong Luan, Kairong Qin, Lizhong Mu
Although the incidence of many cardiovascular diseases has declined as medical treatments have improved, the prevalence of aortic dissection (AD) has increased. Compared to type B dissections, type A dissections are more severe, and most patients with type A dissections require surgical treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between the wall shear stress (WSS) on the aortic endothelium and the frequent tearing positions using computational fluid dynamics. Five type A dissection cases and two normal aortas were included in the study...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835570/amp-activated-protein-kinase-a-therapeutic-target-in-intestinal-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Xiaofei Sun, Mei-Jun Zhu
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a highly conserved energy sensor, has a crucial role in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as in cancer and metabolic disorders. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that AMPK activation enhances paracellular junctions, nutrient transporters, autophagy and apoptosis, and suppresses inflammation and carcinogenesis in the intestine, indicating an essential role of AMPK in intestinal health. AMPK inactivation is an aetiological factor in intestinal dysfunctions...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833533/the-thoracic-duct-and-the-fontan-patient
#8
Cassandra Sung, John L Bass, James M Berry, Charles W Shepard, Bruce Lindgren, Lazaros K Kochilas
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound imaging of adults with heart failure and increased central venous pressure (CVP) has shown significant thoracic duct (TD) dilation from impedance in lymphatic drainage. Elevated CVP and abnormal lymphatic drainage are implicated in severe Fontan complications, including protein losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis (PB). Systematic studies of TD and lymphatic circulation in children are limited, and their cervical TD normative values have not been established...
August 22, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810961/resuscitation-of-hypotensive-traumatic-brain-injured-animals-with-spray-dried-plasma-does-not-adversely-alter-physiology-and-improves-blood-brain-barrier-function
#9
Steven McDaniel, Stephanie Golla, Anthony N Moore, Joe DaCorta, Arthur Bode, Shibani Pati, Pramod K Dash, Jing Zhao
INTRODUCTION: According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center and the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, the number of soldiers who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has risen dramatically over the past decade. Studies have shown that brain damage can be exacerbated if blood loss occurs (often occurring in polytrauma). As blood supply is critical for brain function and survival, TBI patients must be properly resuscitated to maintain blood volume, blood pressure, and cerebral perfusion...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807364/initial-results-of-the-oesophageal-and-gastric-cancer-registry-from-the-comunidad-valenciana
#10
Javier Escrig, Fernando Mingol, Roberto Martí, José Puche, Ramón Trullenque, José Antonio Barreras, Francisco Asencio, Javier Aguiló, José Manuel Navarro, Carmen Alberich, Dolores Salas, Francisco Javier Lacueva
AIMS: To evaluate the initial results of the oesophagogastric cancer registry developed for the Sociedad Valenciana de Cirugía and the Health Department of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen of the 24 public hospitals belonging to the Comunidad Valenciana participated. All patients with diagnosis of oesophageal or gastric carcinomas operated from January 2013 to December 2014 were evaluated. Demographic, clinical and pathological data were analysed...
August 11, 2017: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795012/chronic-kidney-disease-and-sports-participation-by-children-and-adolescents
#11
REVIEW
Vimal Master Sankar Raj, Dilip R Patel, Lakshmi Ramachandran
Individuals suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) deal with major morbidity and mortality including poor exercise tolerance. A variety of factors including anemia, poor muscle mass, cardiovascular changes and limited physical activity contribute to exercise intolerance. Studies suggest that early initiation of aerobic and resistance training improves the muscle function, ability to tolerate exercise and quality of life in CKD patients. A thorough medical examination and exercise testing are recommended before initiating an exercise regimen in individuals with CKD...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760826/commensal-microbiota-induced-microrna-modulates-intestinal-epithelial-permeability-through-the-small-gtpase-arf4
#12
Kazuaki Nakata, Yutaka Sugi, Hikari Narabayashi, Tetsuro Kobayakawa, Yusuke Nakanishi, Masato Tsuda, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Kyoko Takahashi
The intestinal tract contains many commensal bacteria that modulate various physiological host functions. Dysbiosis of commensal bacteria triggers dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier, leading to the induction or aggravation of intestinal inflammation. To elucidate whether microRNA plays a role in commensal microbiome-dependent intestinal epithelial barrier regulation, we compared transcripts in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from conventional and germ-free mice and found that commensal bacteria induced the expression of miR-21-5p in IECs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744072/multimodality-imaging-spectrum-of-complications-of-horseshoe-kidney
#13
Hardik U Shah, Vijayanadh Ojili
Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 400-600 individuals. The most common type is fusion at the lower poles seen in greater than 90% of the cases, with the rest depicting fusion at the upper poles, resulting in an inverted horseshoe kidney. Embryologically, there are two theories hypothesizing the genesis of horseshoe kidney - mechanical fusion theory and teratogenic event theory. As an entity, horseshoe kidney is an association of two anatomic anomalies, namely, ectopia and malrotation...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742116/sutureless-microvascular-anastomosis-assisted-by-an-expandable-shape-memory-alloy-stent
#14
Noriko Saegusa, Shunji Sarukawa, Kunihiro Ohta, Kensuke Takamatsu, Mitsuhiro Watanabe, Takashi Sugino, Masahiro Nakagawa, Yasuto Akiyama, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Kazuo Kishi, Keita Inoue
Vascular anastomosis is the highlight of cardiovascular, transplant, and reconstructive surgery, which has long been performed by hand using a needle and suture. However, anastomotic thrombosis occurs in approximately 0.5-10% of cases, which can cause serious complications. To improve the surgical outcomes, attempts to develop devices for vascular anastomosis have been made, but they have had limitations in handling, cost, patency rate, and strength at the anastomotic site. Recently, indwelling metal stents have been greatly improved with precise laser metalwork through programming technology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690765/novel-therapeutic-effects-of-leonurine-on-ischemic-stroke-new-mechanisms-of-bbb-integrity
#15
Qiu-Yan Zhang, Zhi-Jun Wang, De-Miao Sun, Ying Wang, Peng Xu, Wei-Jun Wu, Xin-Hua Liu, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Leonurine (also named SCM-198), a compound extracted from Herba leonuri, was effective on the prevention of various cardiovascular and brain diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible therapeutic potential of SCM-198 against ischemia reperfusion injury and underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat model, we found that treatment with SCM-198 could decrease infarct volume and improve neurological deficit by protecting against blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676412/identification-of-circular-rnas-with-host-gene-independent-expression-in-human-model-systems-for-cardiac-differentiation-and-disease
#16
D Siede, K Rapti, A A Gorska, H A Katus, J Altmüller, J N Boeckel, B Meder, C Maack, M Völkers, O J Müller, J Backs, C Dieterich
AIMS: Cardiovascular disease, one of the most common causes of death in western populations, is characterized by changes in RNA splicing and expression. Circular RNAs (circRNA) originate from back-splicing events, which link a downstream 5' splice site to an upstream 3' splice site. Several back-splicing junctions (BSJ) have been described in heart biopsies from human, rat and mouse hearts (Werfel et al., 2016; Jakobi et al., 2016 ). Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) to identify circRNA and host gene dynamics in cardiac development and disease...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647645/adding-dimension-to-cellular-mechanotransduction-advances-in-biomedical-engineering-of-multiaxial-cell-stretch-systems-and-their-application-to-cardiovascular-biomechanics-and-mechano-signaling
#17
REVIEW
O Friedrich, D Schneidereit, Y A Nikolaev, V Nikolova-Krstevski, S Schürmann, A Wirth-Hücking, A L Merten, D Fatkin, B Martinac
Hollow organs (e.g. heart) experience pressure-induced mechanical wall stress sensed by molecular mechano-biosensors, including mechanosensitive ion channels, to translate into intracellular signaling. For direct mechanistic studies, stretch devices to apply defined extensions to cells adhered to elastomeric membranes have stimulated mechanotransduction research. However, most engineered systems only exploit unilateral cellular stretch. In addition, it is often taken for granted that stretch applied by hardware translates 1:1 to the cell membrane...
June 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639275/statin-regulated-erk5-stimulates-tight-junction-formation-and-reduces-permeability-in-human-cardiac-endothelial-cells
#18
Emma L Wilkinson, James E Sidaway, Michael J Cross
The MEKK3/MEK5/ERK5 signaling axis is required for cardiovascular development in vivo. We analyzed the physiological role of ERK5 in cardiac endothelial cells and the consequence of activation of this kinase by the statin class of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitor drugs. We utilized human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) and altered ERK5 expression using siRNA mediated gene silencing or overexpression of constitutively active MEK5 and ERK5 to reveal a role for ERK5 in regulating endothelial tight junction formation and cell permeability...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617969/conditionally-targeted-deletion-of-psen1-leads-to-diastolic-heart-dysfunction
#19
Xiao-Wei Song, Qing-Ning Yuan, Ying Tang, Mi Cao, Ya-Feng Shen, Zhen-Yu Zeng, Chang-Hai Lei, SongHua Li, Xian-Xian Zhao, Yong-Ji Yang
Recently, PSEN1 has been reported to have mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy pedigrees. However, the function and mechanism of PSEN1 in cardiomyopathy remains unresolved. Here, we established 4 types of genetically modified mice to determine the function of PSEN1 in cardiac development and pathology. PSEN1 null mutation resulted in perinatal death, retardation of heart growth, ventricular dilatation, septum defects, and valvular thickening. PSEN1 knockout in adults led to decreased muscle fibers, widened sarcomere Z lines and reduced lengths of sarcomeres in cardiomyocytes...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614788/apelin-modulates-pathological-remodeling-of-lymphatic-endothelium-after-myocardial-infarction
#20
Florence Tatin, Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Anne-Claire Godet, Fransky Hantelys, Francoise Pujol, Florent Morfoisse, Denis Calise, Fanny Viars, Philippe Valet, Bernard Masri, Anne-Catherine Prats, Barbara Garmy-Susini
Lymphatic endothelium serves as a barrier to control fluid balance and immune cell trafficking to maintain tissue homeostasis. Long-term alteration of lymphatic vasculature promotes edema and fibrosis, which is an aggravating factor in the onset of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Apelin is a bioactive peptide that plays a central role in angiogenesis and cardiac contractility. Despite an established role of apelin in lymphangiogenesis, little is known about its function in the cardiac lymphatic endothelium...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
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