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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338788/hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation-an-intimate-association-of-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-outcomes
#1
Mikhail S Dzeshka, Farhan Shahid, Alena Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained arrhythmia found in clinical practice. AF rarely exists as a single entity but rather as part of a diverse clinical spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, related to structural and electrical remodeling within the left atrium, leading to AF onset, perpetuation, and progression. Due to the high overall prevalence within the AF population arterial hypertension plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AF and its complications. Fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, gap junction remodeling, accumulation of collagen both in atrial and ventricular myocardium all accompany ageing-related structural remodeling with impact on electrical activity...
February 18, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337850/high-throughput-screening-of-vascular-endothelium-destructive-or-protective-microenvironments-cooperative-actions-of-extracellular-matrix-composition-stiffness-and-structure
#2
Yonghui Ding, Michael Floren, Wei Tan
Pathological modification of the subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) has closely been associated with endothelial activation and subsequent cardiovascular disease progression. To understand regulatory mechanisms of these matrix modifications, the majority of previous efforts have focused on the modulation of either chemical composition or matrix stiffness on 2D smooth surfaces without simultaneously probing their cooperative effects on endothelium function on in vivo like 3D fibrous matrices. To this end, a high-throughput, combinatorial microarray platform on 2D and 3D hydrogel settings to resemble the compositions, stiffness, and structure of healthy and diseased subendothelial ECM has been established, and further their respective and combined effects on endothelial attachment, proliferation, inflammation, and junctional integrity have been investigated...
March 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315297/paxillin-genes-and-actomyosin-contractility-regulate-myotome-morphogenesis-in-zebrafish
#3
Andrew E Jacob, Jeffrey D Amack, Christopher E Turner
Paxillin (Pxn) is a key adapter protein and signaling regulator at sites of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Here, we investigated the role of Pxn during vertebrate development using the zebrafish embryo as a model system. We have characterized two Pxn genes, pxna and pxnb, in zebrafish that are maternally supplied and expressed in multiple tissues. Gene editing and antisense gene knockdown approaches were used to uncover Pxn functions during zebrafish development. While mutation of either pxna or pxnb alone did not cause gross embryonic phenotypes, double mutants lacking maternally supplied pxna or pxnb displayed defects in cardiovascular, axial, and skeletal muscle development...
March 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295275/pannexin-hemichannels-a-novel-promising-therapy-target-for-oxidative-stress-related-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Lanfang Li
Pannexins, which contain three subtypes: pannexin-1, pannexin-2 and pannexin-3, are vertebrate glycoproteins that form non-junctional plasma membrane intracellular hemichannels via oligomerization. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance of the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Studies have shown that elevated ROS levels are pivotal in the development of a variety of diseases. Recent studies indicate that the occurrence of these oxidative stress related diseases is associated with pannexin hemichannels...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283549/mild-hypothermia-preserves-myocardial-conduction-during-ischemia-by-maintaining-gap-junction-intracellular-communication-and-sodium-channel-function
#5
Michelle Mj Nassal, Xiaoping Wan, Zack Dale, Isabelle Deschenes, Lance D Wilson, Joseph Stephen Piktel
BACKGROUND: Acute cardiac ischemia induces conduction velocity (CV) slowing and conduction block, promoting reentrant arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Previously, we found that mild hypothermia (MH, 32°C) attenuates ischemia-induced conduction block and CV slowing in a canine model of early global ischemia. Acute ischemia impairs cellular excitability and the GJ protein connexin 43 (Cx43). We hypothesized that MH prevented ischemia-induced conduction block and CV slowing by preserving GJ expression and localization...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270596/cigarette-smoke-induced-urothelial-cell-damage-potential-role-of-platelet-activating-factor
#6
Shannon E Kispert, John Marentette, E Cristian Campian, T Scott Isbell, Hannah Kuenzel, Jane McHowat
Cigarette smoking is an environmental risk factor associated with a variety of pathologies including cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer development. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic inflammatory bladder disease with multiple etiological contributors and risk factors associated with its development, including cigarette smoking. Previously, we determined that cigarette smoking was associated with bladder wall accumulation of platelet activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator that facilitates transendothelial cell migration of inflammatory cells from the circulation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269194/atrioventricular-junction-avj-motion-tracking-a-software-tool-with-itk-vtk-qt
#7
Pengdong Xiao, Shuang Leng, Xiaodan Zhao, Hua Zou, Ru San Tan, Philip Wong, Liang Zhong
The quantitative measurement of the Atrioventricular Junction (AVJ) motion is an important index for ventricular functions of one cardiac cycle including systole and diastole. In this paper, a software tool that can conduct AVJ motion tracking from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented by using Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK), The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and Qt. The software tool is written in C++ by using Visual Studio Community 2013 integrated development environment (IDE) containing both an editor and a Microsoft complier...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266824/cardiovascular-disease-update-bradyarrhythmias
#8
Craig Barstow, Johnathan D McDivitt
Bradyarrhythmia (bradycardia) is a heart rate lower than 60 beats/min. It can be due to sinus, atrial, or junctional bradycardia or to a problem with the conduction system (eg, an atrioventricular block). Asymptomatic bradycardia is common, especially among trained athletes or during sleep. Bradycardia symptoms can include syncope, dizziness, chest pain, dyspnea, or fatigue. It is important to determine during the evaluation if bradycardia is the cause of the patient's symptoms. In the acute setting, symptomatic patients should be treated with atropine...
March 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254885/neuropilin-1-binds-platelet-derived-growth-factor-pdgf-d-and-is-a-co-receptor-in-pdgf-d-pdgf-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling
#9
Lars Muhl, Erika Bergsten Folestad, Hanna Gladh, Yixin Wang, Christine Moessinger, Lars Jakobsson, Ulf Eriksson
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-D is a PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) specific ligand implicated in a number of pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, but its biological function remains incompletely understood.In this study, we demonstrate that PDGF-D binds directly to NRP1, with the requirement of the C-terminal Arg residue of PDGF-D. Stimulation with PDGF-D, but not PDGF-B, induced PDGFRβ/NRP1 complex formation in fibroblasts. Additionally, PDGF-D induced translocation of NRP1 to cell-cell junctions in endothelial cells, independent of PDGFRβ, altering the availability of NRP1 for VEGF-A/VEGF receptor 2 signaling...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227424/atrioventricular-junction-avj-motion-tracking-a-software-tool-with-itk-vtk-qt
#10
Pengdong Xiao, Shuang Leng, Xiaodan Zhao, Hua Zou, Ru San Tan, Philip Wong, Liang Zhong, Pengdong Xiao, Shuang Leng, Xiaodan Zhao, Hua Zou, Ru San Tan, Philip Wong, Liang Zhong, Ru San Tan, Pengdong Xiao, Philip Wong, Hua Zou, Shuang Leng, Liang Zhong, Xiaodan Zhao
The quantitative measurement of the Atrioventricular Junction (AVJ) motion is an important index for ventricular functions of one cardiac cycle including systole and diastole. In this paper, a software tool that can conduct AVJ motion tracking from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented by using Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK), The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and Qt. The software tool is written in C++ by using Visual Studio Community 2013 integrated development environment (IDE) containing both an editor and a Microsoft complier...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190758/intercellular-signalling-cross-talk-to-kill-to-heal-and-to-rejuvenate
#11
REVIEW
Egor Y Plotnikov, Denis N Silachev, Vasily A Popkov, Ljubava D Zorova, Irina B Pevzner, Savva D Zorov, Stanislovas S Jankauskas, Valentina A Babenko, Gennady T Sukhikh, Dmitry B Zorov
Intercellular cross-talk is a fundamental process for spreading cellular signals between neighbouring and distant cells to properly regulate their metabolism, to coordinate homeostasis, adaptation and survival as a functional tissue and organ. In this review, we take a close molecular view of the underpinning molecular mechanisms of such complex intercellular communications. There are several studied forms of cell-to-cell communications considered crucial for the maintenance of multicellular organisms. The most explored is paracrine signalling which is realised through the release of diffusible signalling factors (e...
January 23, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132853/research-opportunities-and-challenges-in-the-era-of-healthy-living-medicine-unlocking-the-potential
#12
REVIEW
Shane A Phillips, Sharon Martino, Ross Arena
Non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, pulmonary disease, and diabetes are a very high global health concern. The health costs of risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension (HTN), is mounting and are unrelenting. As an example, it is estimated that direct and indirect costs due to HTN amounted to $46.4 billion in 2011 and projections of six-fold increases by 2030; the importance of low-cost nonpharmacological interventions involving collaborative teams of health care professionals is at a critical junction...
January 26, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130419/the-retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptor-%C3%AE-positively-regulates-tight-junction-protein-claudin-domain-containing-1-mrna-expression-in-human-brain-endothelial-cells
#13
Hiroshi Matsuoka, Akiho Shima, Arisa Uda, Hirotaka Ezaki, Akihiro Michihara
Members of the claudin family play important roles in the formation of tight junctions (TJs) in several tissues. Claudin domain containing 1 (CLDND1) is homologous to this family and localizes to TJs and the cytoplasm when exogenously expressed in cultured epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, serum antibody levels of CLDND1-derived peptides are elevated in patients with cerebral infection, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes mellitus as compared to healthy controls. However, CLDND1 transcriptional regulation remains poorly analyzed and most regional transcription factor binding sites remain to be defined...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108330/pleiotropic-responses-to-methionine-restriction
#14
Gene P Ables, Jay E Johnson
Methionine restriction (MR) extends lifespan across different species. The main responses of rodent models to MR are well-documented in adipose tissue (AT) and liver, which have reduced mass and improved insulin sensitivity, respectively. Recently, molecular mechanisms that improve healthspan have been identified in both organs during MR. In fat, MR induced a futile lipid cycle concomitant with beige AT accumulation, producing elevated energy expenditure. In liver, MR upregulated fibroblast growth factor 21 and improved glucose metabolism in aged mice and in response to a high-fat diet...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108160/exposure-to-endosulfan-increases-endothelial-permeability-by-transcellular-and-paracellular-pathways-in-relation-to-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
Dan Xu, Tong Liu, Limei Lin, Shuai Li, Xiaoming Hang, Yeqing Sun
Exposure to environmental pollutants results in out-of-balance of vascular homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction leads to a disruption of the endothelial permeability characteristics, associated with cardiovascular diseases. We previously reported that endosulfan could cause endothelial dysfunction, but the role of endosulfan in permeability of endothelial cells has been unexplored. To elucidate molecular mechanism of endosulfan-induced changes in endothelial permeability, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to endosulfan, followed by endothelial permeability analysis...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094152/use-of-3d-printer-technology-to-facilitate-surgical-correction-of-a-complex-vascular-anomaly-with-esophageal-entrapment-in-a-dog
#16
A Dundie, G Hayes, P Scrivani, L Campoy, D Fletcher, K Ash, E Oxford, N S Moïse
A 10 week old female intact Staffordshire terrier was presented with a total of five congenital cardio-thoracic vascular anomalies consisting of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with an aneurysmic dilation, pulmonic stenosis, persistent right aortic arch, aberrant left subclavian artery and persistent left cranial vena cava. These abnormalities were identified with a combination of echocardiogram and computed tomography angiography (CTA). The abnormalities were associated with esophageal entrapment, regurgitation, and volume overload of the left heart with left atrial and ventricular enlargement...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087602/novel-application-of-3d-contrast-enhanced-cmr-to-define-fibrotic-structure-of-the-human-sinoatrial-node-in-vivo
#17
Thomas A Csepe, Jichao Zhao, Lidiya V Sul, Yufeng Wang, Brian J Hansen, Ning Li, Anthony J Ignozzi, Anna Bratasz, Kimerly A Powell, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, John D Hummel, Orlando P Simonetti, Vadim V Fedorov
AIMS: The adult human sinoatrial node (SAN) has a specialized fibrotic intramural structure (35-55% fibrotic tissue) that provides mechanical and electrical protection from the surrounding atria. We hypothesize that late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) can be applied to define the fibrotic human SAN structure in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: LGE-CMR atrial scans of healthy volunteers (n olu, 23-52 y.o.) using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system with a spatial resolution of 1...
January 13, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087519/sympathetic-modulation-of-electrical-activation-in-normal-and-infarcted-myocardium-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis
#18
Olujimi A Ajijola, Robert L Lux, Anadjeet Khahera, OhJin Kwon, Eric Aliotta, Daniel B Ennis, Michael C Fishbein, Jeffrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
The influence of cardiac sympathetic innervation on electrical activation in normal and chronically infarcted ventricular myocardium is not understood. Yorkshire pigs with normal hearts (NL, n = 12) or anterior myocardial infarction (MI, n = 9) underwent high-resolution mapping of the anteroapical left ventricle at baseline and during left and right stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS and RSGS, respectively). Conduction velocity (CV), activation times (ATs), and directionality of propagation were measured. Myocardial fiber orientation was determined using diffusion tensor imaging and histology...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057793/protein-interactions-at-endothelial-junctions-and-signaling-mechanisms-regulating-endothelial-permeability
#19
REVIEW
Yulia A Komarova, Kevin Kruse, Dolly Mehta, Asrar B Malik
The monolayer of endothelial cells lining the vessel wall forms a semipermeable barrier (in all tissue except the relatively impermeable blood-brain and inner retinal barriers) that regulates tissue-fluid homeostasis, transport of nutrients, and migration of blood cells across the barrier. Permeability of the endothelial barrier is primarily regulated by a protein complex called adherens junctions. Adherens junctions are not static structures; they are continuously remodeled in response to mechanical and chemical cues in both physiological and pathological settings...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038374/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-connected-with-schiff-base-linkers-experimental-and-theoretical-photophysical-characterization-and-electrochemical-properties
#20
Danuta Sęk, Mariola Siwy, Jan Grzegorz Małecki, Sonia Kotowicz, Sylwia Golba, Elżbieta M Nowak, Jerzy Sanetra, Ewa Schab-Balcerzak
A series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons with anthracene, phenanthrene and pyrene units connected with Schiff base junctions were synthesized via condensation of p-phenylenediamine and hydrazine with selected aldehydes. The effect of both hydrocarbon structures and presence of N-N- or phenyl- linked diimines on properties of the prepared azines and azomethines was analyzed. The obtained compounds were soluble in common organic solvents and melted in the range of 226-317°C. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were investigated by UV-vis, photoluminescence spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively...
March 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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