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FAST protocol ultrasound

Flora Margarida Barra Bisinotto, Patrícia Luísa Pansani, Luciano Alves Matias da Silveira, Aline de Araújo Naves, Ana Cristina Abdu Peixoto, Hellen Moreira de Lima, Laura Bisinotto Martins
Objective: Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. Method: A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal...
February 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Atsushi Sorita, Charat Thongprayoon, John T Ratelle, Ruth E Bates, Katie M Rieck, Aditya P Devalapalli, Adil Ahmed, Deanne T Kashiwagi
While many hospitalized patients have orders to fast in preparation for interventions, the extent to which these orders are necessary or adhere to evidence-based durations is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the length, indication, and associated outcomes of nil per os (NPO) orders for general medicine patients at an academic institution in the United States, and compared them to the best available evidence for recommended length of NPO. Of 924 NPO orders assessed, the indicated intervention was not performed for 183 (19...
January 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Ioana Frinc, Petru Ilies, Florin Zaharie, Delia Dima, Alina Tanase, Ljubomir Petrov, Alexandru Irimie, Cristian Berce, Cosmin Lisencu, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Anca Bojan
In the last decade, there is significant progress in clinical hematology with the discovery of targeted molecules and thus the achievement of both hematologic and molecular responses. Nevertheless, chemotherapy remains the treatment of choice for many types of hematological malignancies. Aggressive chemotherapy leads to immunosuppression, accompanied by a high rate of infections and an increased rate of treatment-related mortality. Invasive fungal infections, as well as more common bacterial and viral infections are frequent in immunocompromised patients as they are difficult to diagnose and treat...
January 18, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Oana Carp, Alina Tirsoaga, Ramona Ene, Adelina Ianculescu, Raluca F Negrea, Paul Chesler, Gabriela Ionita, Ruxandra Birjega
Hierarchical flowers-like zinc oxide structures have been successfully obtained by a simple and fast ultrasound-assisted method performed in a ordinary ultrasonic bath using an ammonia solution and zinc acetate, in the absence of any surfactant or template. The composition, structure, crystallinity, morphology and optical properties of the materials obtained at different ultrasound irradiation times were characterized by infrared, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Lars S Bjerregaard, Ulla Hornum, Charlotte Troldborg, Stina Bogoe, Per Bagi, Henrik Kehlet
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based threshold exists for postoperative urinary bladder catheterization. The authors hypothesized that a catheterization threshold of 800 ml was superior to 500 ml in reducing postoperative urinary catheterization and urological complications after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, open-label trial that included patients greater than or equal to 18 yr who underwent THA or TKA in three Danish, fast-track, orthopedic departments...
June 2016: Anesthesiology
Jeffrey I Mechanick, R Mack Harrell, Myriam Z Allende-Vigo, Carlos Alvayero, Onix Arita-Melzer, Pablo Aschner, Pauline M Camacho, Rogelio Zacarias Castillo, Sonia Cerdas, Walmir F Coutinho, Jaime A Davidson, Jeffrey R Garber, W Timothy Garvey, Fernando Javier Lavalle González, Denis O Granados, Osama Hamdy, Yehuda Handelsman, Manuel Francisco Jiménez-Navarrete, Mark A Lupo, Enrique J Mendoza, José G Jiménez-Montero, Farhad Zangeneh
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols...
April 2016: Endocrine Practice
Bert Bond, Craig A Williams, Alan R Barker
BACKGROUND: Impairments in macrovascular, microvascular and autonomic function are present in asymptomatic youths with clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study determines the within-day reliability and between-day reliability of a single protocol to non-invasively assess these outcomes in adolescents. METHODS: Forty 12- to 15-year-old adolescents (20 boys) visited the laboratory in a fasted state on two occasions, approximately 1 week apart. One hour after a standardized cereal breakfast, macrovascular function was determined via flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
March 22, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Javed Anwar, Muhammad Omer Aamir, Sanaullah, Zeeshan ul Hasnain Imdad, Ishrat Parveen, Nasreen Yousaf
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease. Similarly, ultrasound findings of fatty change and renal crystals are commonly seen on ultrasound. In the personal observation of the main author over the past so many years it was noticed that Diabetes Mellitus, Fatty liver and renal crystals all sit well together. This study tries to establish a relationship between diabetes mellitus renal echogenic foci and fatty liver. This study is first of its kind, as nobody has ever before investigated an association between the renal echogenic foci and fatty liver in relation to diabetes mellitus...
October 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Jared E Duncan, Sharon F Freedman, Mays A El-Dairi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of visual field defects and choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM) in a cohort of pediatric patients with optic nerve head drusen (ONHD). METHODS: The medical records of children with ONHD seen at a single center from January 2012 to July 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who had a dilated fundus examination, fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)/enhanced-depth imaging (EDI) of the optic nerve head (ONH), SITA fast 24-2 Humphrey visual field (HVF) testing, lumbar puncture, and ocular ultrasound...
February 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Catterina Ferreccio, Juan Carlos Roa, Claudia Bambs, Alejandra Vives, Alejandro H Corvalán, Sandra Cortés, Claudia Foerster, Johanna Acevedo, Andrea Huidobro, Alvaro Passi, Pablo Toro, Yerko Covacevich, Rolando de la Cruz, Jill Koshiol, Mauricio Olivares, Juan Francisco Miquel, Francisco Cruz, Raúl Silva, Andrew F Quest, Marcelo J Kogan, Pablo F Castro, Sergio Lavandero
BACKGROUND: Maule Cohort (MAUCO), a Chilean cohort study, seeks to analyze the natural history of chronic diseases in the agricultural county of Molina (40,000 inhabitants) in the Maule Region, Chile. Molina´s population is of particular interest because in the last few decades it changed from being undernourished to suffering excess caloric intake, and it currently has the highest national rates of cardiovascular diseases, stomach cancer and gallbladder cancer. Between 2009 and 2011 Molina´s poverty rate dropped from 24...
2016: BMC Public Health
Alexandra Dăneasă, Cristina Cucolaş, Lavinia Manuela Lenghel, Diana Olteanu, Remus Orăsan, Gabriela A Filip
The objective of our study was to investigate glycemic, oxidative/antioxidative and inflammatory status in letrozole and estradiol valerate induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) models. Sixty adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: L (0.2 mg letrozole/0.5 ml carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), daily for 30 days), the control group CL, EV (one i.m. injection of 5 mg EV/0.5 ml sesame oil) and its corresponding control group CEV. After 30 days, ovarian morphology was assessed through ultrasound, serum free testosterone was determined, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed...
April 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Maria Barsky, Lauren Kushner, Megan Ansbro, Kate Bowman, Michael Sassounian, Kevin Gustafson, Shadi Lahham, Linda Joseph, John C Fox
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections pose a significant health risk in developing nations and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the Republic of Tanzania, the CDC estimates that 51.5% of the population is infected with one or more intestinal parasites. If diagnosed early, the consequences of chronic parasitic infection can potentially be avoided. METHODS: Six first-year medical students were recruited to enroll patients in the study. They underwent ten hours of formal, hands-on, ultrasound which included basic cardiac, hepatobiliary, renal, pulmonary and FAST scan ultrasound...
2015: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
Peiman Nazerian, Camilla Tozzetti, Simone Vanni, Maurizio Bartolucci, Simona Gualtieri, Federica Trausi, Marco Vittorini, Elisabetta Catini, Gian Alfonso Cibinel, Stefano Grifoni
BACKGROUND: Pneumoperitoneum is a rare cause of abdominal pain characterized by a high mortality. Ultrasonography (US) can detect free intraperitoneal air; however, its accuracy remains unclear. The aims of this pilot study were to define the diagnostic performance and the reliability of abdominal US for the diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. Four senior and two junior physicians were shown, in an unpaired randomized order, abdominal US videos from 11 patients with and 11 patients without pneumoperitoneum...
December 2015: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Vicente González-Quintanilla, María Toriello, Enrique Palacio, Miguel A González-Gay, Jesús Castillo, Silvia Montes, Rosa Martínez-Nieto, Jenifer Fernandez, Alvaro Rojo, Silvia Gutiérrez, Enar Pons, Agustín Oterino
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Unlike migraine and migraine with aura, little information exists regarding chronic migraine (CM) as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study we aim to determine whether an association between CM and endothelial dysfunction exists. METHODS: Individuals 18 years and older diagnosed with episodic migraine (EM) and CM according to ICHD criteria were studied. After an overnight fast and abstinence from vasoactive drugs, ultrasound studies were performed and blood samples taken from patients and matched controls according to internationally agreed on protocols...
May 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Dirk Stengel, Grit Rademacher, Axel Ekkernkamp, Claas Güthoff, Sven Mutze
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (performed by means of a four-quadrant, focused assessment of sonography for trauma (FAST)) is regarded as a key instrument for the initial assessment of patients with suspected blunt abdominal and thoraco-abdominal trauma in the emergency department setting. FAST has a high specificity but low sensitivity in detecting and excluding visceral injuries. Proponents of FAST argue that ultrasound-based clinical pathways enhance the speed of primary trauma assessment, reduce the number of unnecessary multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans, and enable quicker triage to surgical and non-surgical care...
September 14, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gordon N Stevenson, Sally L Collins, Jane Ding, Lawrence Impey, J Alison Noble
Volumetric segmentation of the placenta using 3-D ultrasound is currently performed clinically to investigate correlation between organ volume and fetal outcome or pathology. Previously, interpolative or semi-automatic contour-based methodologies were used to provide volumetric results. We describe the validation of an original random walker (RW)-based algorithm against manual segmentation and an existing semi-automated method, virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL), using initialization time, inter- and intra-observer variability of volumetric measurements and quantification accuracy (with respect to manual segmentation) as metrics of success...
December 2015: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Mei Wang, Hillary Z Kimbrell, Andrew B Sholl, David B Tulman, Katherine N Elfer, Tyler C Schlichenmeyer, Benjamin R Lee, Michelle Lacey, J Quincy Brown
Rapid assessment of prostate core biopsy pathology at the point-of-procedure could provide benefit in a variety of clinical situations. Even with advanced transrectal ultrasound guidance and saturation biopsy protocols, prostate cancer can be missed in up to half of all initial biopsy procedures. In addition, collection of tumor specimens for downstream histologic, molecular, and genetic analysis is hindered by low tumor yield due to inability to identify prostate cancer grossly. However, current point-of-procedure pathology protocols, such as frozen section analysis (FSA), are destructive and too time- and labor-intensive to be practical or economical...
October 1, 2015: Cancer Research
Claudio Vergari, Guillaume Dubois, Raphael Vialle, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Mickael Tanter, Jean Dubousset, Philippe Rouch, Wafa Skalli
OBJECTIVES: Intervertebral disc (IVD) is key to spine biomechanics, and it is often involved in the cascade leading to spinal deformities such as idiopathic scoliosis, especially during the growth spurt. Recent progress in elastography techniques allows access to non-invasive measurement of cervical IVD in adults; the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and reliability of shear wave elastography in healthy children lumbar IVD. METHODS: Elastography measurements were performed in 31 healthy children (6-17 years old), in the annulus fibrosus and in the transverse plane of L5-S1 or L4-L5 IVD...
April 2016: European Radiology
Julian Garcia-Duitama, Boris Chayer, Aiguo Han, Damien Garcia, Michael L Oelze, Guy Cloutier
Ultrasound ultrafast imaging (UI) allows acquisition of thousands of frames per second with a sustained image quality at any depth in the field of view. Therefore, it would be ideally suited to obtain good statistical sampling of fast-moving tissues using spectral-based techniques to derive the backscatter coefficient (BSC) and associated quantitative parameters. In UI, an image is formed by insonifying the medium with plane waves steered at different angles, beamforming them and compounding the resulting radiofrequency images...
September 2015: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Sae Hee Ko, Dennis F Bandyk, Kelley D Hodgkiss-Harlow, Andrew Barleben, John Lane
OBJECTIVE: This study validated duplex ultrasound measurement of brachial artery volume flow (VF) as predictor of dialysis access flow maturation and successful hemodialysis. METHODS: Duplex ultrasound was used to image upper extremity dialysis access anatomy and estimate access VF within 1 to 2 weeks of the procedure. Correlation of brachial artery VF with dialysis access conduit VF was performed using a standardized duplex testing protocol in 75 patients. The hemodynamic data were used to develop brachial artery flow velocity criteria (peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity) predictive of three VF categories: low (<600 mL/min), acceptable (600-800 mL/min), or high (>800 mL/min)...
June 2015: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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