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Dexmedetomidine in pulmonary hypertension

Badri Prasad Das, Anil Prasad Singh, Ram Badan Singh
INTRODUCTION: Underdevelopment of the lung parenchyma associated with abnormal growth of pulmonary vasculature in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia results in pulmonary hypertension which mandates smooth elective mechanical ventilation in postoperative period, for proper alveolar recruitment and oxygenation, allowing lungs to mature enough for its functional anatomy and physiology. Dexmedetomidine is sympatholytic, reduces pulmonary vascular resistance and exerts sedative and analgesic property to achieve stable hemodynamics during elective ventilation...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Sho Ohno, Yukitoshi Niiyama, Takeshi Murouchi, Michiaki Yamakage
Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is a significant risk factor for anesthetic management in patients undergoing even non-cardiac surgery. A 64-year-old female patient with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension was scheduled to undergo inguinal hernioplasty. Preoperative systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was 115 mmHg. We selected monitored anesthesia care with 0.2-0.5 μg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) dexmedetomidine and ultrasound-guided iliohypogastric block. Thereafter, LiDCOrapid was used to acquire the hemodynamic responses during surgery...
May 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Mark A Burbridge, Jessica Brodt, Richard A Jaffe
A 32-year-old man with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome secondary to congenital ventricular septal defects presented for ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Consultation between surgical and anesthesia teams acknowledged the extreme risk of performing this case, but given ongoing symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure from a large third ventricle colloid cyst, the case was deemed urgent. After a full discussion with the patient, including an explanation of anesthetic expectations and perioperative risks, the case was performed under monitored anesthesia care...
July 15, 2016: A & A Case Reports
Yukihiro Imajo, Nobuyasu Komasawa, Yusuke Kusaka, Haruki Kido, Toshiaki Minami
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a known risk factor of perioperative complications, but the risks for non-cardiac operations have not yet been examined sufficiently. We report a case of a right lower lobectomy in a patient with PAH. A 73-year-old woman with Sjögren's syndrome was scheduled for right lowr lobectomy for primary lung cancer under general anesthesia. She was diagnosed with symptomatic PAH (estimated mean pulmonary arterial pressure, 40 mmHg) and medicated with ambrisentan. After induction of general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl, a pulmonary artery catheter was placed to measure pulmonary artery pressure...
February 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Li Jiang, Sheng Ding, Hongtao Yan, Yunming Li, Liping Zhang, Xue Chen, Xiumei Yin, Shunbi Liu, Xiuying Tang, Jinbao Zhang
We hypothesized that postoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine/fentanyl would be effective in infants and neonates with congenital heart disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Children who were <36 months of age, had congenital heart disease with PAH, and had been treated at our hospital between October 2011 and April 2013 (n = 187) were included in this retrospective study. Either dexmedetomidine/fentanyl (Group Dex) or midazolam/fentanyl (Group Mid) was used for postoperative sedation. The main outcome variables included delirium scores, supplemental sedative/analgesic drugs, ventilator use, and sedation time...
June 2015: Pediatric Cardiology
Robert H Friesen, Christopher S Nichols, Mark D Twite, Kathryn A Cardwell, Zhaoxing Pan, Biagio Pietra, Shelley D Miyamoto, Scott R Auerbach, Jeffrey R Darst, D Dunbar Ivy
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, an α-2 receptor agonist, is widely used in children with cardiac disease. Significant hemodynamic responses, including systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction, have been reported after dexmedetomidine administration. Our primary goal of this prospective, observational study was to quantify the effects of dexmedetomidine initial loading doses on mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in children with and without pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: Subjects were children undergoing cardiac catheterization for either routine surveillance after cardiac transplantation (n = 21) or pulmonary hypertension studies (n = 21)...
October 2013: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Henry A Spiller, Hannah L Hays, Alfred Aleguas
The prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the USA is estimated at approximately 4-9% in children and 4% in adults. It is estimated that prescriptions for ADHD medications are written for more than 2.7 million children per year. In 2010, US poison centers reported 17,000 human exposures to ADHD medications, with 80% occurring in children <19 years old and 20% in adults. The drugs used for the treatment of ADHD are diverse but can be roughly separated into two groups: the stimulants such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, and modafinil; and the non-stimulants such as atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine...
July 2013: CNS Drugs
C Pichot, F Petitjeans, M Ghignone, L Quintin
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with a high mortality linked primarily to co-morbidities (sepsis, cardiac failure, multiple organ failure, etc.). When the lung is the single failing organ, quick resolution of ARDS should skip some complications arising from a prolonged stay in the critical care unit. In severe ARDS (PaO2/FIO2=P/F<100 with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ≥ 5 cm H2O), current recommendations are to intubate the trachea of the patient and use mechanical ventilation, low tidal volume, high PEEP, prone positioning and possibly neuromuscular blockade in association with intravenous sedation...
June 2013: Medical Hypotheses
Joseph D Tobias, Punkaj Gupta, Aymen Naguib, Andrew R Yates
This study aimed to provide a general description of the cardiovascular and hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine and an evidence-based review of the literature regarding its use in infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD). A computerized bibliographic search of the literature on dexmedetomidine use in infants and children with CHD was performed. The cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine have been well studied in animal and adult human models. Adverse cardiovascular effects include occasional episodes of bradycardia, with rare reports of sinus pause or cardiac arrest...
December 2011: Pediatric Cardiology
Hiromi Shinohara, Kiichi Hirota, Masami Sato, Masahiro Kakuyama, Kazuhiro Fukuda
The presence of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a significant risk factor of major perioperative cardiovascular complications in patients undergoing even non-cardiac surgery under anesthetic management. The most important aspect of perioperative care of PAH patients is to avoid pulmonary hypertensive crisis, which can be induced by alveolar hypoxia, hypoxemia, hypercarbia, metabolic acidosis, airway manipulations, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system by noxious stimuli. We report a case of successful monitored anesthesia care supplemented by dexmedetomidine for inguinal hernioplasty of a patient with severe PAH secondary to congenital heart disease...
August 2010: Journal of Anesthesia
Hamish M Munro, Donald E Felix, David G Nykanen
The use of a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine to provide procedural sedation in a 12-year old boy with a diagnosis of idopathic pulmonary hypertension and a behavioral disorder, undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization, is presented. Following a loading dose of ketamine one mg/kg and dexmedetomidine one mcg/kg, an infusion of dexmedetomidine at one mcg/kg/hr was used with the patient breathing spontaneously. Stable hemodynamics were observed throughout the procedure and pulmonary vascular resistance was measured under three conditions...
September 2009: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Laura K Diaz, Lisa Jones
The number of pediatric patients requiring sedation for procedures performed outside the operating room environment continues to grow yearly, as does the number of patients surviving to adulthood with the residua and sequelae of congenital heart disease. Ongoing efforts to develop guidelines to enhance the safety of these pediatric sedative encounters have resulted in great strides in the prevention of adverse events. In addition, the Society for Pediatric Sedation, associated with the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium, provides an important forum for practitioner education and the promotion of safe care for infants and children undergoing sedative experiences...
June 2009: Anesthesiology Clinics
T Sasaki, S Nemoto, H Ozawa, T Katsumata, O Umegaki, Y Doi, M Souen, T Minami
Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (DEX) is a newly developed alpha-2 adrenergic agonist sedative and has been shown to be effective in post-surgical patients, providing not only unique sedation but also stabilization of hemodynamic and respiratory function. We investigated the hemodynamic and respiratory effects and efficacy of DEX in 84 consecutive patients (age <6 months: 18, 6-12 months: 13, 1-3 years: 29, 4-9 years: 18, >10 years: 5, male:female = 44:40) who were sedated by DEX in combination with a small dose of midazolam and morphine...
February 2009: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
H Toyama, T Wagatsuma, Y Ejima, M Matsubara, S Kurosawa
Primary pulmonary hypertension is a fatal disease that frequently becomes evident in pregnancy. The management of pregnant women with primary pulmonary hypertension poses a number of difficult problems, especially where regional anesthesia is considered to be contraindicated. A 30-year-old woman who developed primary pulmonary hypertension at 23 weeks of pregnancy was transferred to our hospital. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were markedly elevated. Nitric oxide inhalation and prostacyclin prevented the progression of cardiac failure and reduced both plasma brain natriuretic peptide and pulmonary artery pressure...
July 2009: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Motoi Kumagai, Takashi Horiguchi, Toshiaki Nishikawa, Yoko Masaki, Yoshitugu Tobe
BACKGROUND: Intracisternal dexmedetomidine (Dex) attenuates cardiac dysfunction in rats with intracranial hypertension (ICH). However, the effects of IV Dex on cardiac function and lung permeability during ICH have not been evaluated. We tested the hypothesis that IV Dex attenuates hemodynamic changes and decreases lung permeability induced by ICH in rats. METHODS: Halothane-anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats were divided into four groups. In two groups, a subdural balloon catheter was inflated for 60 s to produce ICH...
August 2008: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Aruna T Nathan, Bradley S Marino, Brian Hanna, Susan C Nicolson
The presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a significant predictor of major perioperative cardiovascular complications in patients undergoing cardiac diagnostic or interventional procedure or non cardiac surgery under sedation and/or anesthesia. Factors that precipitate a pulmonary hypertensive crisis include hypoxia, hypercarbia, acidosis, hypothermia, pain and airway manipulations. Pain management is challenging in patients with significant PAH. We report the use of dexmedetomidine for sedation and analgesia in a 16 year old patient with significant pulmonary hypertension, pneumonia and impending cardiorespiratory failure...
August 2008: Paediatric Anaesthesia
A K But, U Ozgul, F Erdil, N Gulhas, H I Toprak, M Durmus, M O Ersoy
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-operative dexmedetomidine infusion on hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. METHODS: Patients were randomly divided into placebo (group P, n= 16) and dexmedetomidine (group D, n= 16) groups. In group D, a 1 microg/kg bolus dose of dexmedetomidine was administered 10 min before the induction of anesthesia, followed by a 0.4 microg/kg/h infusion until the surgical incision...
November 2006: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Sabine B R Kästner, Susanne Kull, Annette P N Kutter, Jolanda Boller, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Mirja K Huhtinen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether inhaled nitric oxide (NO) prevents pulmonary hypertension and improves oxygenation after i.v. administration of a bolus of dexmedetomidine in anesthetized sheep. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult sheep. PROCEDURE: In a crossover study, sevoflurane-anesthetized sheep received dexmedetomidine (2 microg/kg, i.v.) without NO (DEX treatment) or with inhaled NO (DEX-NO treatment). Cardiopulmonary variables, including respiratory mechanics, were measured before and for 120 minutes after bolus injection of dexmedetomidine...
September 2005: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Joseph D Tobias
Various clinical situations may arise in the PICU that necessitate the use of sedation, analgesia, or both. Although there is a large clinical experience with midazolam in the PICU population and it remains the most commonly used benzodiazepine in this setting, lorazepam may provide an effective alternative, with a longer half-life and more predictable pharmacokinetics without the concern of active metabolites. However, there are limited reports regarding its use in the PICU population, and concerns exist regarding the potential for toxicity related to its diluent, propylene glycol...
August 2005: Pediatric Annals
Avery Tung
Advances in anesthesia involve refinements in understanding, technique, and technology. These refinements have led to better control of the anesthetic state, effective anesthesia for a wider variety of situations, and the ability to bring sicker patients to the operating room. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the general anesthetic state are unknown, evidence suggests a specific, receptor-based effect. This concept has allowed anesthesiologists to treat anesthetic end points of immobility, lack of awareness, and autonomic control separately...
February 2005: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
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