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autism ASD ADHD ID

Susan Young, Rafael A González, Hannah Mullens, Laura Mutch, Isabella Malet-Lambert, Gisli H Gudjonsson
The identification and management of inmates with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) has been insufficiently addressed in the literature. We estimated the proportion of cases with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Intellectual disability (ID) in prison, their comorbidity, and associations with disruptive behaviours and with psychiatric symptoms. Further, we examined the role of coexisting ND on psychiatric symptoms and attitudes toward violence. All 390 male inmates underwent an assessment that included the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults 2...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Maryellen Brunson McClain, Amber M Hasty Mills, Laura E Murphy
BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Intellectual Disability (ID) are common co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders; however, limited research exists regarding the presentation and severity of overlapping symptomology, particularly inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, when a child is diagnosed with one of more of these neurodevelopmental disorders. AIMS: As difficulties with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are symptoms frequently associated with these disorders, the current study aims to determine the differences in the severity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in children diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, and co-occurring diagnosis of ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, and ASD/ID...
September 25, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
L Huang, E Y Shum, S H Jones, C-H Lou, J Dumdie, H Kim, A J Roberts, L A Jolly, J L Espinoza, D M Skarbrevik, M H Phan, H Cook-Andersen, N R Swerdlow, J Gecz, M F Wilkinson
Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is a highly conserved and selective RNA degradation pathway that acts on RNAs terminating their reading frames in specific contexts. NMD is regulated in a tissue-specific and developmentally controlled manner, raising the possibility that it influences developmental events. Indeed, loss or depletion of NMD factors have been shown to disrupt developmental events in organisms spanning the phylogenetic scale. In humans, mutations in the NMD factor gene, UPF3B, cause intellectual disability (ID) and are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia (SCZ)...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Edoardo Moretto, Luca Murru, Giuseppe Martano, Jenny Sassone, Maria Passafaro
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a group of diseases whose symptoms arise during childhood or adolescence and that impact several higher cognitive functions such as learning, sociability and mood. Accruing evidence suggests that a shared pathogenic mechanism underlying these diseases is the dysfunction of glutamatergic synapses. We summarize present knowledge on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), Down syndrome (DS), Rett syndrome (RS) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), highlighting the involvement of glutamatergic synapses and receptors in these disorders...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Daniel Seung Kim, Amber A Burt, Jane E Ranchalis, Beth Wilmot, Joshua D Smith, Karynne E Patterson, Bradley P Coe, Yatong K Li, Michael J Bamshad, Molly Nikolas, Evan E Eichler, James M Swanson, Joel T Nigg, Deborah A Nickerson, Gail P Jarvik
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has high heritability; however, studies of common variation account for <5% of ADHD variance. Using data from affected participants without a family history of ADHD, we sought to identify de novo variants that could account for sporadic ADHD. Considering a total of 128 families, two analyses were conducted in parallel: first, in 11 unaffected parent/affected proband trios (or quads with the addition of an unaffected sibling) we completed exome sequencing. Six de novo missense variants at highly conserved bases were identified and validated from four of the 11 families: the brain-expressed genes TBC1D9, DAGLA, QARS, CSMD2, TRPM2, and WDR83...
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Eva Billstedt, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Björn Hofvander
Neurodevelopmental disorders (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), tic disorder, intellectual disability (ID)), in prison populations have received increased attention but the focus has generally been on one single condition leaving out the global picture. This study assessed the prevalence and overlap of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a consecutive cohort (n=270) of young adult male offenders (age 18-25 years), sentenced for "hands-on" violent offences and serving prison time in Swedish prisons...
June 2017: Psychiatry Research
Catherine H Choi, Brian P Schoenfeld, Aaron J Bell, Joseph Hinchey, Cory Rosenfelt, Michael J Gertner, Sean R Campbell, Danielle Emerson, Paul Hinchey, Maria Kollaros, Neal J Ferrick, Daniel B Chambers, Steven Langer, Steven Sust, Aatika Malik, Allison M Terlizzi, David A Liebelt, David Ferreiro, Ali Sharma, Eric Koenigsberg, Richard J Choi, Natalia Louneva, Steven E Arnold, Robert E Featherstone, Steven J Siegel, R Suzanne Zukin, Thomas V McDonald, Francois V Bolduc, Thomas A Jongens, Sean M J McBride
Fragile X is the most common monogenic disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Additionally, many patients are afflicted with executive dysfunction, ADHD, seizure disorder and sleep disturbances. Fragile X is caused by loss of FMRP expression, which is encoded by the FMR1 gene. Both the fly and mouse models of fragile X are also based on having no functional protein expression of their respective FMR1 homologs. The fly model displays well defined cognitive impairments and structural brain defects and the mouse model, although having subtle behavioral defects, has robust electrophysiological phenotypes and provides a tool to do extensive biochemical analysis of select brain regions...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ayse Kilincaslan, Tuba Duzman Mutluer, Basak Pasabeyoglu, Mustafa Deniz Tutkunkardas, Nahit Motavalli Mukaddes
OBJECTIVES: This naturalistic, retrospective study investigated the effects of atomoxetine (ATX) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and intellectual disability (ID). METHODS: Participants (n = 37, age range 6-17 years, mean: 10.16 ± 3.60) were assessed at baseline, 4th and 12th weeks using Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scales, DSM-IV-based ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS), and amended Turkish version of Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC)...
November 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Klaus-Peter Lesch
The categorisation of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders by clinical syndromes, rather than by aetiology, continues to obstruct progress in biomarker identification as well as innovative drug development and effective treatment in general. There is a decisive move to think of neurodevelopmental disorders as a spectrum rather than discrete categorical entities. We might call them neurodevelopmental spectrum disorders (NSDs) ranging from intellectual disability (ID) to autism (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Kiser, Rivero, & Lesch, )...
June 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
S Chandler, P Howlin, E Simonoff, J Kennedy, G Baird
BACKGROUND: Formal IQ tests are an important part of the diagnostic and needs-based assessment process for children with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, resources for such assessments are not always available. It has been suggested that parental estimates of their child's developmental age could serve as a proxy IQ when formal measures are unavailable. METHOD: Parental estimates of their child's developmental age were converted to a developmental quotient (DQ) in 197 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 4-9 years, and 108 children with ADHD and intellectual disability (ADHD + ID) aged 7-15 years...
July 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Laura A Schieve, Lin H Tian, Kristin Rankin, Michael D Kogan, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, Susanna Visser, Deborah Rosenberg
PURPOSE: Although previous studies demonstrate associations between adverse perinatal outcomes and developmental disabilities (DDs), study of population impacts is limited. METHODS: We computed relative risks adjusted (aRRs) for sociodemographic factors and component and summary population attributable fractions (PAFs) for associations between very low birth weight (VLBW, all preterm births), moderately low birth weight (MLBW) + Preterm, MLBW at term, and normal birth weight (NBW) + Preterm and seven DDs (cerebral palsy [CP], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], intellectual disability [ID], behavioral-conduct disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], learning disability [LD], and other developmental delay) among children aged 3-17 years in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health...
April 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Michael F Wells, Ralf D Wimmer, L Ian Schmitt, Guoping Feng, Michael M Halassa
Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood...
April 7, 2016: Nature
J McCarthy, E Chaplin, L Underwood, A Forrester, H Hayward, J Sabet, S Young, P Asherson, R Mills, D Murphy
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found high rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) within the criminal justice system (CJS). However, little is understood about prisoners with neurodevelopmental disorders and difficulties (NDD) or their needs. This study aimed to identify prisoners with NDD and compare their characteristics with prisoners without NDD on a range of socio-demographic and social functioning measures...
March 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Kacie N Riley, Lisa M Catalano, John A Bernat, Stacie D Adams, Donna M Martin, Seema R Lalani, Ankita Patel, Rachel D Burnside, Jeffrey W Innis, M Katharine Rudd
Copy number variation (CNV) in the long arm of chromosome 2 has been implicated in developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), congenital anomalies, and psychiatric disorders. Here we describe 14 new subjects with recurrent deletions and duplications of chromosome 2q11.2, 2q13, and 2q11.2-2q13. Though diverse phenotypes are associated with these CNVs, some common features have emerged. Subjects with 2q11.2 deletions often exhibit DD, speech delay, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), whereas those with 2q11...
November 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Christian D Pulcini, James M Perrin, Amy J Houtrow, John Sargent, Amy Shui, Karen Kuhlthau
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence trends and coexisting conditions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and intellectual disability (ID) in the pediatric Supplemental Security Income (SSI) population and general population. METHODS: The Social Security Administration (SSA) provided data on primary and secondary diagnoses of children qualifying for SSI for years 2000 to 2011. We compared SSA data with 2000-2011 National Health Interview Survey data on the prevalence of mental health diagnoses among children in the general population living between 0 and 199% of the federal poverty line...
July 2015: Academic Pediatrics
Thomas Bourgeron
ESSENCE refers to early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examinations. It includes a broad range of early onset neurodevelopmental disorders affecting more than 10% of children before 5 years of age. ESSENCE includes among others attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some degree of disability is the rule rather than the exception. The causes are heterogeneous ranging from extreme social deprivation, pre- and perinatal risk factors, genetic and metabolic diseases, immune and infectious disorders, nutritional factors, physical trauma, and postnatal toxic and environmental factors (and combinations/interactions of some or several of these)...
2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Jie Hu, Malini Sathanoori, Sally Kochmar, Meron Azage, Susan Mann, Suneeta Madan-Khetarpal, Amy Goldstein, Urvashi Surti
A 7-year-old female with developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and seizures was referred to our laboratory for oligomicroarray analysis. The analysis revealed a 540 kb microdeletion in the chromosome 8q24.3 region (143,610,058-144,150,241) encompassing multiple genes. Two siblings of the proband were also analyzed. The proband's older sister with DD, seizures, and ASD has a 438 kb intragenic microdeletion of the GPHN gene in the chromosome 14q23...
August 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Dominik P Kiser, Olga Rivero, Klaus-Peter Lesch
BACKGROUND AND SCOPE: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined by a wide variety of behavioural phenotypes, psychopathology and clinically informed categorical classifications. Diagnostic entities include intellectual disability (ID), the autism spectrum (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aetiopathogenesis of these conditions and disorders involves an interaction between both genetic and environmental risk factors on the developmental trajectory. Despite their remarkable genetic heterogeneity and complexity of pathophysiological mechanisms, NDDs display an overlap in their phenotypic features, a considerable degree of comorbidity as well as sharing of genetic and environmental risk factors...
March 2015: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Reymundo Lozano, Carolina Alba Rosero, Randi J Hagerman
The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45-54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130-250 females and 1 in 250-810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000...
November 2014: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
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