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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332285/immunity-associated-programmed-cell-death-as-a-tool-for-the-identification-of-genes-essential-for-plant-innate-immunity
#1
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
Plants have evolved a sophisticated innate immune system to contend with potential infection by various pathogens. Understanding and manipulation of key molecular mechanisms that plants use to defend against various pathogens are critical for developing novel strategies in plant disease control. In plants, resistance to attempted pathogen infection is often associated with hypersensitive response (HR), a form of rapid programmed cell death (PCD) at the site of attempted pathogen invasion. In this chapter, we describe a method for rapid identification of genes that are essential for plant innate immunity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332284/measurement-of-hypersensitive-cell-death-triggered-by-avirulent-bacterial-pathogens-in-arabidopsis
#2
Zahra Imanifard, Elodie Vandelle, Diana Bellin
The hypersensitive response is one of the most powerful and complex defense reactions to survive to pathogen attacks during an incompatible plant-pathogen interaction. Local programmed cell death accompanies the hypersensitive response at the site of infection to prevent pathogen growth and spread. A precise quantitative assessment of this form of programmed cell death is essential to unravel the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the process. Here, we first describe the optimization of a Trypan Blue staining protocol for quantitatively measuring the HR-cell death in Arabidopsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331944/liver-sampling-a-vital-window-into-hbv-pathogenesis-on-the-path-to-functional-cure
#3
REVIEW
Upkar S Gill, Laura J Pallett, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
In order to optimally refine the multiple emerging drug targets for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it is vital to evaluate virological and immunological changes at the site of infection. Traditionally liver biopsy has been the mainstay of HBV disease assessment, but with the emergence of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, there has been a move away from tissue sampling. Here we argue that liver biopsy remains an important tool, not only for the clinical assessment of HBV but also for research progress and evaluation of novel agents...
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331879/structural-and-quantum-mechanical-computations-to-elucidate-the-altered-binding-mechanism-of-metal-and-drug-with-pyrazinamidase-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-due-to-mutagenicity
#4
Nouman Rasool, Saima Iftikhar, Anam Amir, Waqar Hussain
Pyrazinamide is known to be the most effective treatment against tuberculosis disease and is known to have bacteriostatic action. By targeting the bacterial spores, this drug reduces the chances for the progression of the infection in organisms. In recent years, increased instances of the drug resistance of bacterial strains are reported. Pyrazinamidase, activator for pyrazinamide, leads to resistance against the drug due to mutagenicity across the world. The present study aimed at the quantum mechanistic analysis of mutations in pyrazinamidase to gain insights into the mechanism of this enzyme...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331671/the-molecular-characteristics-of-avian-influenza-viruses-h9n2-derived-from-air-samples-in-live-poultry-markets
#5
Yanheng Wu, Jinsi Lin, Shuhuan Yang, Ying Xie, Man Wang, Xueqin Chen, Yayang Zhu, Le Luo, Wuyang Shi
OBJECTIVE: To study the molecular characteristics of H9N2-subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from air samples collected in live poultry markets (LPMs) and explore their sequence identities with AIVs that caused human infection. METHODS: Weekly surveillance of H9N2-subtype AIVs in the air of LPMs was conducted from 2015 to 2016. H9-positive samples were isolated from chicken embryos. Whole genome sequences of the isolated AIVs were obtained through high-throughput sequencing...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331660/persistent-contamination-of-heater-cooler-units-for-extracorporal-circulation-cured-by-chlorhexidine-alcohol-in-water-tanks
#6
Sara Romano-Bertrand, Marine Evrevin, Chloé Dupont, Jean-Marc Frapier, Jean-Claude Sinquet, Elodie Bousquet, Bernard Albat, Estelle Jumas-Bilak
Recently, surgical site infections due to non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) have been linked to heater-cooler units (HCUs) contamination. ECDC and manufacturers now recommend the use of hydrogen peroxide in filtered water to fill HCU tanks. After implementation of these measures in our hospital, HCUs became heavily contaminated by opportunistic waterborne pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. No NTM were detected but fast-growing resistant bacteria could impair their detection...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331548/effect-of-outpatient-antibiotics-for-urinary-tract-infections-on-antimicrobial-resistance-among-commensal-enterobacteriaceae-a-multinational-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Andrew J Stewardson, Jascha Vervoort, Niels Adriaenssens, Samuel Coenen, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Anna Kowalczyk, Benedikt Huttner, Christine Lammens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Stephan Harbarth
OBJECTIVES: We quantified the impact of antibiotics prescribed in primary care for urinary tract infections (UTIs) on intestinal colonisation by ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-RE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), while accounting for household clustering. METHODS: Prospective cohort study from January 2011 to August 2013 at primary care sites in Belgium, Poland and Switzerland. We recruited outpatients requiring antibiotics for suspected UTIs or asymptomatic bacteriuria (exposed patients), outpatients not requiring antibiotics (non-exposed patients), and 1-3 household contacts for each patient...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331349/effect-of-a-lect2-on-the-immune-response-of-peritoneal-lecukocytes-against-vibrio-anguillarum-in-roughskin-sculpin
#8
Yingmei Chai, Bailin Cong, Shanshan Yu, Yingying Liu, Xin Man, Lujie Wang, Qian Zhu
Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a multi-functional protein that is mainly synthesized by the liver. However, its role in roughskin scalping is less known. Here, we cloned a leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (TfLECT2) genes in the liver of roughskin scalping, Trachidermus fasciatus, and studied its possible role involved in the immune response against Vibrio anguillarum (V. anguillarum) of peritoneal lecukocytes under in vivo conditions. The cDNA sequence of TfLECT2 is 566 bp in size. Its deduced amino acid (aa) sequence comprises 151 residues, of which the first 16 residues form a putative signal peptide and 101 residues compose a typical peptidase M23 domain in the C-terminal region...
January 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331326/cryptorchidism-in-sweden-a-nationwide-study-of-prevalence-operative-management-and-complications
#9
Susanna Bergbrant, Erik Omling, Jonas Björk, Lars Hagander
OBJECTIVES: To review the cumulative prevalence, operative management, and complications of treatment for cryptorchidism in Sweden. STUDY DESIGN: A nationwide observational study from longitudinal register data of all Swedish-born boys 0-18 years of age, diagnosed with cryptorchidism from 2001 to 2014. Primary outcomes were occurrence and age at primary surgery. Secondary outcomes included type of procedure and surgical site infection. RESULTS: Of 20 375 boys diagnosed with cryptorchidism in 2001-2014, 12 766 were surgically treated...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330346/underestimation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-mssa-carriage-associated-with-standard-culturing-techniques-one-third-of-carriers-missed
#10
S T J Tsang, M P McHugh, D Guerendiain, P J Gwynne, J Boyd, A H R W Simpson, T S Walsh, I F Laurenson, K E Templeton
OBJECTIVES: Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (MRSA and MSSA) have an increased risk for healthcare-associated infections. There are currently limited national screening policies for the detection of S. aureus despite the World Health Organization's recommendations. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of molecular and culture techniques in S. aureus screening, determine the cause of any discrepancy between the diagnostic techniques, and model the potential effect of different diagnostic techniques on S...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329952/molecular-characterization-and-expression-of-complement-factor-i-in-pelteobagrus-vachellii-during-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#11
Chuanjie Qin, Quan Gong, Zhengyong Wen, Dengyue Yuan
Complement factor I (CFI) is a novel regulatory serine protease that plays an important role in resistance to pathogen infection. In this study, the CFI gene of Pelteobagrus vachellii (Pv-CFI) was sequenced and characterized. The full-length cDNA of 2320 bp includes a 155 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 164 bp 3'-UTR, and a 2001 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 667 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment revealed five highly conserved domains with a typical modular architecture and identical active sites in vertebrates, indicating a conserved function...
January 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329922/a-multistate-investigation-of-health-care-associated-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-related-to-liquid-docusate-sodium-contamination-january-october-2016
#12
Janet Glowicz, Matthew Crist, Carolyn Gould, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Judith Noble-Wang, Tom J B de Man, K Allison Perry, Zachary Miller, William C Yang, Stephen Langille, Jessica Ross, Bobbiejean Garcia, Janice Kim, Erin Epson, Stephanie Black, Massimo Pacilli, John J LiPuma, Ryan Fagan
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have been associated with medical devices and water-based products. Water is the most common raw ingredient in nonsterile liquid drugs, and the significance of organisms recovered from microbiologic testing during manufacturing is assessed using a risk-based approach. This incident demonstrates that lapses in manufacturing practices and quality control of nonsterile liquid drugs can have serious unintended consequences...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329918/trends-in-incidence-of-long-term-care-facility-onset-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-10-us-geographic-locations-during-2011-2015
#13
Alice Y Guh, Yi Mu, James Baggs, Lisa G Winston, Wendy Bamberg, Carol Lyons, Monica M Farley, Lucy E Wilson, Stacy M Holzbauer, Erin C Phipps, Zintars G Beldavs, Marion A Kainer, Maria Karlsson, Dale N Gerding, Ghinwa Dumyati
During 2011-2015, the adjusted long-term-care facility onset Clostridium difficile infection incidence rate in persons aged ≥65 years decreased annually by 17.45% (95% confidence interval, 14.53%-20.43%) across 10 US sites. A concomitant decline in inpatient fluoroquinolone use and the C difficile epidemic strain NAP1/027 among persons aged ≥65 years may have contributed to the decrease in long-term-care facility-onset C difficile infection incidence rate.
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329815/exploring-molecular-insights-into-the-interaction-mechanism-of-cholesterol-derivatives-with-the-mce4a-a-combined-spectroscopic-and-molecular-dynamic-simulation-studies
#14
Shagufta Khan, Faez Iqbal Khan, Taj Mohammad, Parvez Khan, Gulam Mustafa Hasan, Kevin A Lobb, Asimul Islam, Faizan Ahmad, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
Mammalian cell entry protein (Mce4A) is a member of MCE-family, and is being considered as a potential drug target of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection because it is required for invasion and latent survival of pathogen by utilizing host's cholesterol. In the present study, we performed molecular docking followed by 100 ns MD simulation studies to understand the mechanism of interaction of Mce4A to the cholesterol derivatives and probucol. The selected ligands, cholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 5-cholesten-3β-ol-7-one and probucol bind to the predicted active site cavity of Mce4A, and complexes remain stable during entire simulation of 100 ns...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329512/landscape-and-rodent-community-composition-are-associated-with-risk-of-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome-in-two-cities-in-china-2006-2013
#15
Hong Xiao, Xin Tong, Ru Huang, Lidong Gao, Shixiong Hu, Yapin Li, Hongwei Gao, Pai Zheng, Huisuo Yang, Zheng Y X Huang, Hua Tan, Huaiyu Tian
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by hantaviruses. Landscape can influence the risk of hantavirus infection for humans, mainly through its effect on rodent community composition and distribution. It is important to understand how landscapes influence population dynamics for different rodent species and the subsequent effect on HFRS risk. METHODS: To determine how rodent community composition influenced human hantavirus infection, we monitored rodent communities in the prefecture-level cities of Loudi and Shaoyang, China, from 2006 to 2013...
January 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329455/serologic-evidence-of-ebolavirus-infection-in-a-population-with-no-history-of-outbreaks-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#16
Sabue Mulangu, Vivian H Alfonso, Nicole A Hoff, Reena H Doshi, Prime Mulembakani, Neville K Kisalu, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Benoit Ilunga Kebela, Hadar Marcus, Joseph Shiloach, Je Nie Phue, Linda L Wright, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Nancy J Sullivan, Anne W Rimoin
Background: Previous studies suggest that cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) may go unreported because they are asymptomatic or unrecognized, but evidence is limited by study designs and sample size. Methods: A large population-based survey was conducted (n = 3415) to assess animal exposures and behaviors associated with Ebolavirus antibody prevalence in rural Kasai Oriental province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Fourteen villages were randomly selected and all healthy individuals ≥1 year of age were eligible...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329442/conventional-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-vs-pulsed-radiofrequency-neuromodulation-of-ganglion-impar-in-chronic-perineal-pain-of-nononcological-origin
#17
Hammad Usmani, G P Dureja, Roshan Andleeb, Nazia Tauheed, Naiyer Asif
Background: Chronic nononcological perineal pain has been effectively managed by ganglion Impar block. Chemical neurolysis, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ablation have been the accepted methods of blockade. Recently, pulsed radiofrequency, a novel variant of conventional radiofrequency, has been used for this purpose. Study Design: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Setting: Two different interventional pain management centers in India...
January 10, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329301/estimated-mortality-on-hiv-treatment-among-active-patients-and-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-4-provinces-of-zambia-findings-from-a-multistage-sampling-based-survey
#18
Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kombatende Sikombe, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nancy Czaicki, Laura K Beres, Njekwa Mukamba, Sandra Simbeza, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Cardinal Hantuba, Peter Mwaba, Caroline Phiri, Nancy Padian, David V Glidden, Elvin Geng
BACKGROUND: Survival represents the single most important indicator of successful HIV treatment. Routine monitoring fails to capture most deaths. As a result, both regional assessments of the impact of HIV services and identification of hotspots for improvement efforts are limited. We sought to assess true mortality on treatment, characterize the extent under-reporting of mortality in routine health information systems in Zambia, and identify drivers of mortality across sites and over time using a multistage, regionally representative sampling approach...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328762/patients-experiences-with-at-home-preoperative-skin-disinfection-before-elective-hip-replacement-surgery
#19
Maria Qvistgaard, Sofia Almerud Österberg, Kristiina Heikkilä, Ann-Britt Thorén, Jenny Lovebo
The aim of the study was to describe patients' experiences with preoperative skin disinfection carried out in their home before elective hip replacement surgery with the aim of lowering the microbial burden and avoiding surgical site infections. The literature was reviewed for relevant studies. Optimal preparations before surgery depend on patients being able to assimilate preoperative information and instructions. The study was based on 14 interviews with patients who had undergone elective hip replacement surgery...
July 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328540/case-of-late-onset-relapsing-surgical-site-infection-related-to-a-venous-coupler-placed-during-free-flap-reconstruction-for-major-head-and-neck-cancer
#20
Yin Ren, Daniel G Deschler, Dipti Sajed, Marlene L Durand
BACKGROUND: Venous coupling devices are widely used during reconstructive surgery involving microvascular anastomosis but have not served as foreign bodies in head and neck surgical site infections. METHODS: We conducted a case report. RESULTS: A patient underwent resection and free flap reconstruction for recurrent tongue squamous cell carcinoma. She developed a neck abscess due to Streptococcus intermedius 7 weeks postoperatively, days after starting chemoradiotherapy...
January 12, 2018: Head & Neck
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