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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926934/public-health-interventions-for-aedes-control-in-the-time-of-zikavirus-a-meta-review-on-effectiveness-of-vector-control-strategies
#1
Maha Bouzid, Julii Brainard, Lee Hooper, Paul R Hunter
BACKGROUND: There is renewed interest in effective measures to control Zika and dengue vectors. A synthesis of published literature with a focus on the quality of evidence is warranted to determine the effectiveness of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a meta-review assessing the effectiveness of any Aedes control measure. We searched Scopus and Medline for relevant reviews through to May 2016. Titles, abstracts and full texts were assessed independently for inclusion by two authors...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926773/associations-of-specific-postoperative-complications-with-outcomes-after-elective-colon-resection-a-procedure-targeted-approach-toward-surgical-quality-improvement
#2
John E Scarborough, Jessica Schumacher, K Craig Kent, Charles P Heise, Caprice C Greenberg
Importance: Numerous quality initiatives have been implemented in an effort to minimize the onus of postoperative complications on clinical and economic outcomes after major surgery. It is unknown which complications have the greatest overall effect on these outcomes. Objective: To quantify the associations of specific postoperative complications with outcomes after elective colon resection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients undergoing elective colon resection between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, who were included in the Colectomy-Targeted American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were assessed for the development of specific types of postoperative complications...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926729/intracellular-allosteric-antagonism-of-the-ccr9-receptor
#3
Christine Oswald, Mathieu Rappas, James Kean, Andrew S Doré, James C Errey, Kirstie Bennett, Francesca Deflorian, John A Christopher, Ali Jazayeri, Jonathan S Mason, Miles Congreve, Robert M Cooke, Fiona H Marshall
Chemokines and their G-protein-coupled receptors play a diverse role in immune defence by controlling the migration, activation and survival of immune cells. They are also involved in viral entry, tumour growth and metastasis and hence are important drug targets in a wide range of diseases. Despite very significant efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs, with over 50 small-molecule drugs directed at the family entering clinical development, only two compounds have reached the market: maraviroc (CCR5) for HIV infection and plerixafor (CXCR4) for stem-cell mobilization...
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926671/of-20-376-lumbar-discectomies-2-6-of-patients-readmitted-within-30-days-surgical-site-infection-pain-and-thromboembolic-events-are-the-most-common-reasons-for-readmission
#4
Matthew L Webb, Stephen J Nelson, Ameya Save, Jonathan Cui, Adam M Lukasiewicz, Andre M Samuel, Pablo J Diaz-Collado, Daniel D Bohl, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Ryan P McLynn, Jonathan N Grauer
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE: As an initial effort to address readmissions after lumbar discectomy, reasons for hospital readmission are identified and discussed. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Lumbar discectomy is a commonly performed procedure. The Affordable Care Act codifies penalties for hospital readmissions. New quality-based reimbursements tied to readmissions call for a better understanding of the causes of readmission after procedures such as lumbar discectomy...
December 6, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926638/determining-optimal-route-of-hysterectomy-for-benign-indications-clinical-decision-tree-algorithm
#5
Jennifer J Schmitt, Daniel A Carranza Leon, John A Occhino, Amy L Weaver, Sean C Dowdy, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez, Kalyan S Pasupathy, John B Gebhart
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate practice change after initiation of a robotic surgery program using a clinical algorithm to determine the optimal surgical approach to benign hysterectomy. METHODS: A retrospective postrobot cohort of benign hysterectomies (2009-2013) was identified and the expected surgical route was determined from an algorithm using vaginal access and uterine size as decision tree branches. We excluded the laparoscopic hysterectomy route. A prerobot cohort (2004-2005) was used to evaluate a practice change after the addition of robotic technology (2007)...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926634/consensus-bundle-on-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-after-major-gynecologic-surgery
#6
Joseph E Pellegrini, Paloma Toledo, David E Soper, William C Bradford, Deborah A Cruz, Barbara S Levy, Lauren A Lemieux
Surgical site infections are the most common complication of surgery in the United States. Of surgeries in women of reproductive age, hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed, second only to cesarean birth. Therefore, prevention of surgical site infections in women undergoing gynecologic surgery is an ideal topic for a patient safety bundle. The primary purpose of this safety bundle is to provide recommendations that can be implemented into any surgical environment in an effort to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926575/prophylactic-negative-pressure-dressing-use-in-closed-laparotomy-wounds-following-abdominal-operations-a-randomized-controlled-open-label-trial-the-p-i-c-o-trial
#7
Donal Peter O'Leary, Colin Peirce, Breffini Anglim, Marguerite Carter, Kevin Hickey, John Calvin Coffey
OBJECTIVE: A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of prophylactic negative pressure dressings on postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) rates in closed laparotomy wounds. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Laparotomy wounds are associated with high rates of SSI. The effect of prophylactic negative pressure dressing of closed incisional wounds on SSI rate is unknown. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, open-label trial was conducted (clinicaltrials...
December 6, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926563/truth-in-reporting-how-data-capture-methods-obfuscate-actual-surgical-site-infection-rates-within-a-health-care-network-system
#8
Liliana Bordeianou, Christy E Cauley, Donna Antonelli, Sarah Bird, David Rattner, Matthew Hutter, Sadiqa Mahmood, Deborah Schnipper, Marc Rubin, Ronald Bleday, Pardon Kenney, David Berger
BACKGROUND: Two systems measure surgical site infection rates following colorectal surgeries: the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pay-for-performance initiatives use National Healthcare Safety Network data for hospital comparisons. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare database concordance...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926562/long-term-experience-of-magnetic-anal-sphincter-augmentation-in-patients-with-fecal-incontinence
#9
Jeremy Sugrue, Paul-Antoine Lehur, Robert D Madoff, Shane McNevin, Steen Buntzen, Søren Laurberg, Anders Mellgren
BACKGROUND: Magnetic anal sphincter augmentation is a novel technique for the treatment of patients with fecal incontinence. OBJECTIVE: The current study reports the long-term effectiveness and safety of this new treatment modality. DESIGN: This was a prospective multicenter pilot study. SETTINGS: The study was performed at 4 clinical sites in Europe and the United States. PATIENTS: The cohort included patients with severe fecal incontinence for ≥6 months who had previously failed conservative therapy and were implanted with a magnetic anal sphincter device between 2008 and 2011...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925429/repair-of-groin-hernia-under-local-anaesthesia-in-secondary-health-facility
#10
Julius G Olaogun, Jide M Afolayan, Peter O Areo, Joshua T Ige
BACKGROUND: Repair of groin hernias is the most commonly performed elective procedure by general surgeons worldwide. The techniques of anaesthesia differ among surgeons and vary from one health facility to another. General anaesthesia is much favoured in spite of the lack of anaesthetists in our setting. We aim to determine the feasibility of groin hernia repair under local anaesthesia (LA) with respect to patients' morbidity, acceptability and satisfaction. METHOD: Ninety-seven patients with uncomplicated groin hernias treated between July 2012 and June 2015, at the State Specialist Hospital, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria were recruited for the study...
December 7, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925401/dickeya-dadantii-pectic-enzymes-necessary-for-virulence-are-also-responsible-for-activation-of-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-innate-immune-system
#11
Dominique Expert, Oriane Patrit, Vladimir E Shevchik, Claude Perino, Virginie Boucher, Creze Christophe, Estelle Wenes, Mathilde Fagard
Soft-rot diseases of plants attributed to Dickeya dadantii result from lysis of plant cell wall due to pectic enzymes released by the bacterial cell by a type II secretion system (T2SS). A. thaliana can express several lines of defence against this bacterium. We employed bacterial mutants with defective envelope structures or secreted proteins to examine early plant defence reactions. We focused on the production of AtrbohD-dependent ROS, callose deposition and cell death as indicators of these reactions. We observed a significant reduction in ROS and callose formation with a bacterial mutant where genes encoding five pectate lyases (Pels) were disrupted...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924435/antibiotic-resistance-is-linked-to-carriage-of-papc-and-iuta-virulence-genes-and-phylogenetic-group-d-background-in-commensal-and-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-from-infants-and-young-children
#12
N Karami, A E Wold, I Adlerberth
P fimbriae, enabling adherence to colonic and urinary epithelium, and aerobactin, an iron sequestering system, are both colonization factors in the human colon and virulence factors for urinary tract infection. The colonic microbiota is suggested to be a site suitable for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. We investigated whether phenotypic resistance to antibiotics in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli from infants and young children is associated with carriage of virulence genes and to phylogenetic group origin and, in the case of fecal strains, to persistence in the gut and fecal population levels...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924201/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-importance-of-the-care-bundle
#13
Aynur Atilla, Zahide Doğanay, Hale Kefeli Çelik, Leman Tomak, Özgür Günal, S Sırrı Kılıç
BACKGROUND: The importance and efficacy of a care bundle for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and infectious complications related to placing a central venous catheter (CVC) in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A care bundle was implemented from July 2013 to June 2014 in a medical ICU and surgical ICU. Data were divided into three periods: the prior period (July 2012-June 2013), the intervention period (July 2013-June 2014; first and second periods), and the post-intervention period (July 2014-December 2014; third period)...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924169/hospital-acquired-infections-after-cardiac-surgery-and-current-physician-practices-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Scott O'Keefe, Kenneth Williams, Jean-Francois Legare
BACKGROUND: The management of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) with respect to physician practices remains largely unexplored despite increasing efforts to standardize care. In the present study, we report findings from a 2-month audit of all patients that have undergone cardiac surgery at a large referral center in Atlantic Canada. METHODS: All patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures during May and June 2013 at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center in Halifax, Nova Scotia were identified...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923725/long-term-results-of-secondary-alveolar-bone-grafting-using-a-technique-to-harvest-pure-calvarial-cancellous-bone-evaluation-based-on-plain-radiography-and-computed-tomography
#15
Kihwan Han, Woonhyeok Jeong, Hyeonjung Yeo, Jaehoon Choi, Junhyung Kim, Daegu Son, Sangho Oh, Changhyun Kim
BACKGROUND: We introduce a method to extract the maximum amount of cancellous bone from the calvarium and analyze the outcomes using plain radiography and computed tomography. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafts using a maximal harvesting technique for calvarial cancellous bone. Bone survival was determined based on Enemark's grading system using plain radiographs. Alveolar thickness and height were analyzed by computed tomography and compared with radiographic measurements...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923601/understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-nets-and-their-role-in-antiviral-innate-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Juan Manuel Agraz-Cibrian, Diana M Giraldo, Fafutis-Morris Mary, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant cells in the context of innate immunity; they are one of the first cells to arrive at the site of viral infection constituting the first line of defense in response to invading pathogens. Indeed, neutrophils are provided with several defense mechanisms including release of cytokines, cytotoxic granules and the last recently described neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The main components of NETs are DNA, granular antimicrobial peptides, and nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, that together play an important role in the innate immune response...
December 3, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923598/the-use-of-routine-postoperative-microscopy-and-culture-screening-following-elective-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-an-unnecessary-cost-with-no-effect-on-clinical-management
#17
Mark A Kemp, Ka Martina, Claire L Collins, Lucy J Salmon, Benjamin R Gooden, Matthew C Lyons
BACKGROUND: The use of microscopy and culture screening to detect pathogenic microorganisms followed by a decolonization protocol is a widely performed practice prior to elective hip and knee arthroplasty. In our center, the routine care of hip and knee arthroplasty also involves postoperative screening including direct culture of the surgical site. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of pathogen detection following these tests and to determine whether routine postoperative screening, with particular reference to postoperative surgical site culture, led to any change in clinical management of these patients...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923534/rapid-prototyped-patient-specific-guiding-implants-in-critical-mandibular-reconstruction
#18
Patricia Stoor, Anni Suomalainen, Karri Mesimäki, Risto Kontio
Large tumours of the mandible need immediate reconstruction to provide continuity of the mandible, satisfactory function of the jaw, as well as an acceptable aesthetic outcome. In this prospective study we described the immediate reconstruction of the mandible using computer aided design and 15 rapid prototyped patient specific implants (PSI) in 14 patients suffering from benign or malignant tumours demanding continuity resection of the mandible. The scaffold PSI was filled with β-tricalcium phosphate granules and autologous bone...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923216/efficacy-of-a-cellular-bone-allograft-for-foot-and-ankle-arthrodesis-and-revision-nonunion-procedures
#19
Travis J Dekker, Peter White, Samuel B Adams
BACKGROUND: Bone graft substitutes are often required in patients at risk for nonunion, and therefore, an allograft that most closely mimics an autograft is highly sought after. This study explored the utility and efficacy of a cellular bone allograft used for foot and ankle arthrodesis and revision nonunion procedures in a patient population at risk for nonunion. METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent arthrodesis and revision nonunion procedures with a cellular bone allograft was performed at a single academic institution...
October 23, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923215/timing-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-preventing-surgical-site-infections-in-foot-and-ankle-surgery
#20
Direk Tantigate, Eugene Jang, Mani Seetharaman, Peter C Noback, A M Heijne, Justin K Greisberg, J Turner Vosseller
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most troublesome complications after foot and ankle surgery. Previous literature has emphasized the significance of appropriate timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, the optimal timing of antibiotic prophylaxis for SSI prevention is still inconclusive. Our study aimed to investigate the optimal timing of antibiotic administration and to elucidate the risk factors for SSIs in foot and ankle surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1933 foot and ankle procedures in 1632 patients from January 1, 2011, through August 31, 2015, was performed...
October 23, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
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