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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806765/pka-activity-is-essential-for-relieving-the-suppression-of-hyphal-growth-and-appressorium-formation-by-mosfl1-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#1
Yang Li, Xue Zhang, Shuai Hu, Huiquan Liu, Jin-Rong Xu
In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the cAMP-PKA pathway regulates surface recognition, appressorium turgor generation, and invasive growth. However, deletion of CPKA failed to block appressorium formation and responses to exogenous cAMP. In this study, we generated and characterized the cpk2 and cpkA cpk2 mutants and spontaneous suppressors of cpkA cpk2 in M. oryzae. Our results demonstrate that CPKA and CPK2 have specific and overlapping functions, and PKA activity is essential for appressorium formation and plant infection...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806616/parvovirus-b19-integration-into-human-cd36-erythroid-progenitor-cells
#2
Tyler Janovitz, Susan Wong, Neal S Young, Thiago Oliveira, Erik Falck-Pedersen
The pathogenic autonomous human parvovirus B19 (B19V) productively infects erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional similarities between B19V nonstructural protein (NS1), a DNA binding endonuclease, and the Rep proteins of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) led us to hypothesize that NS1 may facilitate targeted nicking of the human genome and B19 vDNA integration. We adapted an integration capture sequencing protocol (IC-Seq) to screen B19V infected human CD36+ EPCs for viral integrants, and discovered 40,000 unique B19V integration events distributed throughout the human genome...
August 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806494/body-piercing-motivations-and-implications-for-health
#3
REVIEW
Cheri Van Hoover, Carol-Ann Rademayer, Cindy L Farley
Body piercing has evolved from a behavior once considered extreme to an accepted choice among the general population. Earlobe piercing is so common that it is now considered a normative behavior. The motivations for choosing body piercing have changed and are associated with piercing site and number of piercings chosen by the individual. Meanings ascribed to body piercing were traditionally related to enhanced sexual desirability and experience, but now range from the innocuous, such as a fashion statement, to the risk laden, such as nonsuicidal self-injury...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806402/multi-functional-mechanisms-of-immune-evasion-by-the-streptococcal-complement-inhibitor-c5a-peptidase
#4
Nicola N Lynskey, Mark Reglinski, Damien Calay, Matthew K Siggins, Justin C Mason, Marina Botto, Shiranee Sriskandan
The complement cascade is crucial for clearance and control of invading pathogens, and as such is a key target for pathogen mediated host modulation. C3 is the central molecule of the complement cascade, and plays a vital role in opsonization of bacteria and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Streptococcal species have evolved multiple mechanisms to disrupt complement-mediated innate immunity, among which ScpA (C5a peptidase), a C5a inactivating enzyme, is widely conserved. Here we demonstrate for the first time that pyogenic streptococcal species are capable of cleaving C3, and identify C3 and C3a as novel substrates for the streptococcal ScpA, which are functionally inactivated as a result of cleavage 7 amino acids upstream of the natural C3 convertase...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806282/adenovirus-infection-in-children-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-report-from-the-canadian-infection-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-research-group
#5
Samuele Renzi, Salah Ali, Carol Portwine, David Mitchell, David Dix, Victor Lewis, Victoria Price, Michelle Science, Lillian Sung
BACKGROUND: Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of life-threatening bacterial and fungal infection. However, little is known about the prevalence or severity of adenovirus infection in this population. Objective was to describe the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of adenovirus infection in children with newly diagnosed AML. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review based upon two multi-center cohort studies which focused on identifying risk factors for infection in children with AML...
August 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806196/the-costs-of-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-ghana-a-longitudinal-multi-site-analysis
#6
Evelinn Mikkelsen, Jan Hontelez, Justice Nonvignon, Sam Amon, Felix A Asante, Moses K Aikins, Julie van de Haterd, Rob Baltussen
OBJECTIVE: To determine cost-functions that describe the dynamics of costs of HIV treatment and care in Ghana by CD4 cell count at treatment initiation and over time on antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: We used detailed longitudinal healthcare utilization data from clinical health records of HIV-infected patients at seven Ghanaian ART clinics to estimate cost-functions of treatment and care by CD4 cell count at treatment initiation and time on ART. METHODS: We developed two linear regression models; one with individual random effects to determine the relationship between CD4 cell count at ART initiation and costs of treatment and care, and one with individual fixed effects to determine the causal effect of time in care on costs of treatment and care...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805485/transcriptional-activity-of-transposable-elements-may-contribute-to-gene-expression-changes-in-the-syncytium-formed-by-cyst-nematode-in-arabidopsis-roots
#7
Sarbottam Piya, Morgan Bennett, Aditi Rambani, Tarek Hewezi
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic materials that constitute a large fraction of plant genomes. Recent experimental evidences indicate that TEs can play key regulatory roles in controlling the expression of adjacent genes during plant development and stress responses. Nevertheless, information about the transcriptional activity of TEs and their impact on proximal genes during plant-nematode interaction remains largely unknown. Here, we identify of differentially expressed TEs and report their possible influence on the expression of nearby genes during the susceptible interaction between the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and Arabidopsis thaliana...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805117/fungal-fatal-attraction-a-mechanistic-review-on-targeting-liposomal-amphotericin-b-ambisome-%C3%A2-to-the-fungal-membrane
#8
Linda Soo Hoo
Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome(®)) is a lipid-based nanotherapeutic that is used successfully worldwide to treat a broad range of life-threatening invasive fungal infections. In subtropical regions, AmBisome is emerging as the treatment of choice for human parasitic protozoan pathogens such as those from the genus Leishmania. The key to the remarkable efficacy of AmBisome is attributed to its liposome based formulation to deliver a potent drug at high dosage with significantly reduced toxicity in patients with immunocompromised systems...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804572/bacterial-infections-post-living-donor-liver-transplantation-in-egyptian-hepatitis-c-virus-cirrhotic-patients-a-single-center-study
#9
Mohamed F Montasser, Nadia A Abdelkader, Sara M Abdelhakam, Hany Dabbous, Iman F Montasser, Yasmine M Massoud, Waleed Abdelmoaty, Shereen A Saleh, Mohamed Bahaa, Hany Said, Mahmoud El-Meteini
AIM: To determine risk factors, causative organisms and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial infections following living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This prospective study included 45 patients with hepatitis C virus-related end-stage liver disease who underwent LDLT at Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplant, Cairo, Egypt from January 2014 to November 2015. Patients were followed-up for the first 3 mo after LDLT for detection of bacterial infections...
July 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804515/mmx-%C3%A2-technology-and-its-applications-in-gastrointestinal-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Nardelli, Laura Francesca Pisani, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Maurizio Vecchi, Luca Pastorelli
The Multimatrix(®) (MMX(®)) preparation MMX(®) is a recently obtained drug formulation developed to facilitate release of high concentrations of active drugs into the colon, with a homogeneous distribution along all colonic segments, particularly the most distal ones; the distal colonic tracts, indeed, are the most difficult to reach in significant amounts when a drug is given orally. The MMX(®) formulation is characterized by a lipophilic matrix dispersed in a hydrophilic structure. Indeed, in the last few years, MMX(®) technology has been widely used in the development of various drugs for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious gastrointestinal diseases localized in the colon...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804486/first-association-of-interleukin-12-receptor-beta-1-deficiency-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#11
Georgios Sogkas, Faranaz Atschekzei, Vivien Schacht, Christian von Falck, Alexandra Jablonka, Roland Jacobs, Matthias Stoll, Torsten Witte, Reinhold E Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin 12 receptor beta 1 (IL12Rβ1) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency resulting mainly in susceptibility to opportunistic infection by non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria and severe infection caused by Salmonella spp. Till now, less than 300 patients with IL12Rβ1 deficiency have been reported. Among them, only three have been described to develop autoimmunity. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 50-year-old male with IL12Rβ1 deficiency due to compound heterozygosity [c...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803981/first-report-of-coelomomyces-santabrancae-sp-nov-blastocladiomycetes-blastocladiales-infecting-mosquito-larvae-diptera-culicidae-in-central-brazil
#12
M E Rueda-Páramo, C Montalva, W Arruda, É K K Fernandes, C Luz, R A Humber
A project from 2013-2017 to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803745/further-development-of-the-mronj-minipig-large-animal-model
#13
Sven Otto, Christoph Pautke, Olga Martin Jurado, Dirk Nehrbass, Martin J Stoddart, Michael Ehrenfeld, Stephan Zeiter
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a rare but serious and potentially severe side effect of antiresorptive therapy with bisphosphonates or denosumab. Recently, a large animal minipig MRONJ model was introduced which led to early necrotic lesions in the majority of extraction sites after bisphosphonate administration. The aim of this project was to modify the preoperative cumulative bisphosphonate dose (zoledronate) and hereby firstly to demonstrate the reliability and reproducibility of the established model...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803566/the-pyogenic-potential-of-the-different-streptococcus-anginosus-group-bacterial-species-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
O Kobo, S Nikola, Y Geffen, M Paul
Streptococcus anginosus Group (SAG) bacteria are common causes of pyogenic infections (PIs). We examined the association between SAG species and the presence of a PI through a retrospective, observational, cohort study, between the years 2009 and 2015. All adults with clinically significant SAG infections in one hospital in Israel were assessed for association between SAG species and the presence of a PI defined as an abscess, empyema, or deep/organ space surgical site infection. Risk factors for PI were assessed using multivariate backward stepwise logistic regression analysis...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803563/association-between-wetland-presence-and-incidence-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-javiana-infections-in-selected-us-sites-2005-2011
#15
J Y Huang, M E Patrick, J Manners, A R Sapkota, K J Scherzinger, M Tobin-D'Angelo, O L Henao, D J Cole, A R Vieira
Salmonella causes an estimated 1·2 million illnesses annually in the USA. Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana (serotype Javiana) is the fourth most common serotype isolated from humans, with the majority of illnesses occurring in southeastern states. The percentage of wetland cover by wetland type and the average incidence rates of serotype Javiana infection in selected counties of the Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were examined. This analysis explored the relationship between wetland environments and incidence in order to assess whether regional differences in environmental habitats may be associated with observed variations in incidence...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803442/neutrophils-nets-netosis-old-or-new-factors-in-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#16
Małgorzata Lipinska-Gediga
Neutrophils are an key part of the innate immune system in the host's defences against pathogens. Circulating neutrophils are recruited at the sites of infection or sterile inflammation in response to pathogen and host-derived inflammatory mediators. In addition to phagocytosis and degranulation, neutrophils display the release of NETs in order to restrain infection. NETs are able to entrap and kill microbes, and display proinflammatory and prothrombotic properties.
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803413/neovascularization-during-leafy-gall-formation-on-arabidopsis-thaliana-upon-rhodococcus-fascians-infection
#17
Alicja Dolzblasz, Alicja Banasiak, Danny Vereecke
Extensive de novo vascularization of leafy galls emerging upon Rhodococcus fascians infection is achieved by fascicular/interfascicular cambium activity and transdifferentiation of parenchyma cells correlated with increased auxin signaling. A leafy gall consisting of fully developed yet growth-inhibited shoots, induced by the actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians, differs in structure compared to the callus-like galls induced by other bacteria. To get insight into the vascular development accompanying the emergence of the leafy gall, the anatomy of infected axillary regions of the inflorescence stem of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 plants and the auxin response in pDR5:GUS-tagged plants were followed in time...
August 12, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803409/comparative-16srdna-gene-based-microbiota-profiles-of-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-and-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis-from-a-shellfish-farm-ligurian-sea-italy
#18
Luigi Vezzulli, L Stagnaro, C Grande, G Tassistro, L Canesi, C Pruzzo
The pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are two widely farmed bivalve species which show contrasting behaviour in relation to microbial diseases, with C. gigas being more susceptible and M. galloprovincialis being generally resistant. In a recent study, we showed that different susceptibility to infection exhibited by these two bivalve species may depend on their different capability to kill invading pathogens (e.g., Vibrio spp.) through the action of haemolymph components...
August 12, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802796/antibacterial-prophylaxis-for-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-infections-in-cranial-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Pranav Abraham, Nayan Lamba, Michael Acosta, Joanna Gholmie, Hassan Y Dawood, Matthew Vestal, Kevin Huang, Maher Hulou, Morteza Asgarzadeh, Hasan Zaidi, Rania A Mekary, Timothy R Smith
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis against gram positive and gram negative infections is considered standard of care in the perioperative management of patients undergoing cranial surgery. The antibiotic regimen which best reduces the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs) remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the effect of various prophylactic antibiotics on infection incidence among patients undergoing cranial surgeries...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802762/clinical-application-of-autogenous-partially-demineralized-dentin-matrix-prepared-immediately-after-extraction-for-alveolar-bone-regeneration-in-implant-dentistry-a-pilot-study
#20
T Minamizato, T Koga, Takashi I, Y Nakatani, M Umebayashi, Y Sumita, T Ikeda, I Asahina
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of autogenous partially demineralized dentin matrix (APDDM) prepared onsite, for clinical application in bone regeneration procedures related to implant dentistry, including socket preservation, alveolar ridge augmentation, and maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In this study, 16 patients underwent dental implant placement using APDDM transplantation. There were no systemic or local complications (including surgical site infection) in any of the cases, and oral rehabilitation using dental implants was successful in all cases for at least 2 years after attachment of the suprastructure...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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