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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788206/deletion-of-pbp1a-lpoa-complex-compromises-cell-envelope-integrity-in-shewanella-oneidensis
#1
Jianhua Yin, Jingxiao Cai, Zhe Yuan, Zhewei Wang, Haichun Gao, Juanping Qiu, Zhiliang Yu
High molecular weight penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. In Escherichia coli, PBP1a and PBP1b form multienzyme peptidoglycan-synthesizing complexes with outer-membrane lipoproteins LpoA and LpoB, respectively. The two complexes appear to be largely redundant, although their distinct physiological roles remain unclear. PBP1a/LpoA and PBP1b/LpoB also exist in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, but effects of the two complexes on aerobic growth and β-lactam resistance are quite different...
May 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778844/identification-of-micrornas-with-heat-stress-responsive-and-immune-properties-in-marsupenaeus-japonicus-based-on-next-generation-sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis-essential-regulators-in-the-heat-stress-host-interactions
#2
Jinbin Zheng, Jiawen Cao, Yong Mao, Yongquan Su, Jun Wang
Summer mortality syndrome is one of the most serious issue for Marsupenaeus japonicus aquaculture in China. Since it causes massive economic loss and threatens sustainability of M. japonicus aquaculture industry, thus, there is an urgent desire to reveal the heat stress-host interactions mechanisms that lead to mass mortalities of M. japonicus in hot summer months. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that involved in regulation of diverse biological processes, including stress and immune response, and might serve as potential regulators in the heat stress-host interactions...
May 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717015/regulation-of-flagellum-biosynthesis-in-response-to-cell-envelope-stress-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#3
Imke Spöring, Sebastian Felgner, Matthias Preuße, Denitsa Eckweiler, Manfred Rohde, Susanne Häussler, Siegfried Weiss, Marc Erhardt
Flagellum-driven motility of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium facilitates host colonization. However, the large extracellular flagellum is also a prime target for the immune system. As consequence, expression of flagella is bistable within a population of Salmonella , resulting in flagellated and nonflagellated subpopulations. This allows the bacteria to maximize fitness in hostile environments. The degenerate EAL domain protein RflP (formerly YdiV) is responsible for the bistable expression of flagella by directing the flagellar master regulatory complex FlhD4 C2 with respect to proteolytic degradation...
May 1, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685984/-salmonella-typhimurium-cpxra-two-component-system-contributes-to-gut-colonization-in-salmonella-induced-colitis
#4
Mayuka Fujimoto, Ryosuke Goto, Takeshi Haneda, Nobuhiko Okada, Tsuyoshi Miki
Salmonella enterica , a common cause of diarrhea, has to colonize the gut lumen to elicit the disease. In the gut, the pathogen encounters a vast array of environmental stresses that cause perturbations in the bacterial envelope. The CpxRA two-component system monitors envelope perturbations and responds by altering the bacteria gene expression profile. This allows Salmonella to survive under such harmful conditions. Therefore, CpxRA activation is likely to contribute to Salmonella gut infection. However, the role of CpxRA-mediated envelope stress response in Salmonella -induced diarrhea is unclear...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671721/the-bceabrs-four-component-system-that-is-essential-for-cell-envelope-stress-response-is-involved-in-sensing-and-response-to-host-defence-peptides-and-is-required-for-the-biofilm-formation-and-fitness-of-streptococcus-mutans
#5
Xiao-Lin Tian, Hasan Salim, Gaofeng Dong, Madison Parcells, Yung-Hua Li
PURPOSE: Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic pathogen worldwide. In dental biofilms, S. mutans often faces life-threatening insults, such as killing by antimicrobial compounds from competing species and from the host. How such insults affect the physiology and virulence of S. mutans is poorly understood. In this study, we explored this question by investigating the responses of S. mutans strains to several host defence peptides and bacitracin. METHODOLOGY: S...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622686/vipp1-involved-in-chloroplast-membrane-integrity-has-gtpase-activity-in-vitro
#6
Norikazu Ohnishi, Lingang Zhang, Wataru Sakamoto
VIPP1 is conserved among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and appears to have diverged from the bacterial PspA protein. VIPP1 localizes to the chloroplast envelope and thylakoid membrane, where it forms homo-oligomers of high molecular weight. Although multiple roles of VIPP1 have been inferred, including thylakoid membrane formation, envelope maintenance, membrane fusion, and regulation of photosynthetic activity, its precise role in chloroplast membrane quality control remains unknown. VIPP1 forms an oligomer through its N-terminal domain and triggers membrane fusion in a Mg2+-dependent manner...
April 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511081/multisystem-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-reveals-kinase-dependent-remodeling-of-the-pathogen-environment-interface
#7
Xavier Carette, John Platig, David C Young, Michaela Helmel, Albert T Young, Zhe Wang, Lakshmi-Prasad Potluri, Cameron Stuver Moody, Jumei Zeng, Sladjana Prisic, Joseph N Paulson, Jan Muntel, Ashoka V R Madduri, Jorge Velarde, Jacob A Mayfield, Christopher Locher, Tiansheng Wang, John Quackenbush, Kyu Y Rhee, D Branch Moody, Hanno Steen, Robert N Husson
Tuberculosis is the leading killer among infectious diseases worldwide. Increasing multidrug resistance has prompted new approaches for tuberculosis drug development, including targeted inhibition of virulence determinants and of signaling cascades that control many downstream pathways. We used a multisystem approach to determine the effects of a potent small-molecule inhibitor of the essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinases PknA and PknB. We observed differential levels of phosphorylation of many proteins and extensive changes in levels of gene expression, protein abundance, cell wall lipids, and intracellular metabolites...
March 6, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488183/variations-on-a-theme-evolution-of-the-phage-shock-protein-system-in-actinobacteria
#8
Janani Ravi, Vivek Anantharaman, L Aravind, Maria Laura Gennaro
The phage shock protein (Psp) stress-response system protects bacteria from envelope stress through a cascade of interactions with other proteins and membrane lipids to stabilize the cell membrane. A key component of this multi-gene system is PspA, an effector protein that is found in diverse bacterial phyla, archaea, cyanobacteria, and chloroplasts. Other members of the Psp system include the cognate partners of PspA that are part of known operons: pspF||pspABC in Proteobacteria, liaIHGFSR in Firmicutes, and clgRpspAMN in Actinobacteria...
May 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473820/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-clpx-mutant-in-bacillus-anthracis-reveals-regulatory-connection-with-the-lrgab-operon
#9
Kevin M Claunch, Madeline Bush, Christopher R Evans, Jacob A Malmquist, Matthew C Hale, Shauna M McGillivray
ClpX functions as either an independent chaperone or a component of the ClpXP protease, a conserved intracellular protease that acts as a global regulator in the bacterial cell by degrading regulatory proteins, stress response proteins and rate-limiting enzymes. Previously, we found that loss of clpX in Bacillus anthracis Sterne leads to increased susceptibility to antimicrobial agents that target the cell envelope. The aim of this study was to identify genes within the regulatory network of clpX that contribute to antimicrobial resistance...
April 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472943/do-galactolipid-synthases-play-a-key-role-in-the-biogenesis-of-chloroplast-membranes-of-higher-plants
#10
REVIEW
Joana Rocha, Milène Nitenberg, Agnès Girard-Egrot, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Maréchal, Maryse A Block, Christelle Breton
A unique feature of chloroplasts is their high content of the galactolipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), which constitute up to 80% of their lipids. These galactolipids are synthesized in the chloroplast envelope membrane through the concerted action of galactosyltransferases, the so-called 'MGDG synthases (MGDs)' and 'DGDG synthases (DGDs),' which use uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose as donor. In Arabidopsis leaves, under standard conditions, the enzymes MGD1 and DGD1 provide the bulk of galactolipids, necessary for the massive expansion of thylakoid membranes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458656/stress-responses-outer-membrane-permeability-control-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae
#11
Sushovan Dam, Jean-Marie Pagès, Muriel Masi
Bacteria have evolved several strategies to survive a myriad of harmful conditions in the environment and in hosts. In Gram-negative bacteria, responses to nutrient limitation, oxidative or nitrosative stress, envelope stress, exposure to antimicrobials and other growth-limiting stresses have been linked to the development of antimicrobial resistance. This results from the activation of protective changes to cell physiology (decreased outer membrane permeability), resistance transporters (drug efflux pumps), resistant lifestyles (biofilms, persistence) and/or resistance mutations (target mutations, production of antibiotic modification/degradation enzymes)...
March 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450619/immediate-response-mechanisms-of-gram-negative-solvent-tolerant-bacteria-to-cope-with-environmental-stress-cis-trans-isomerization-of-unsaturated-fatty-acids-and-outer-membrane-vesicle-secretion
#12
REVIEW
Christian Eberlein, Thomas Baumgarten, Stephan Starke, Hermann J Heipieper
Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and cell growth. However, to survive sudden environmental changes, bacterial short-term responses are essential to keep the cells alive after the occurrence of an environmental stress factor such as heat shock or the presence of toxic organic solvents...
March 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444416/structural-changes-in-the-cell-envelope-of-yarrowia-lipolytica-yeast-under-stress-conditions
#13
Anna Yu Arinbasarova, Andrey V Machulin, Elena N Biryukova, Vladimir V Sorokin, Alexander G Medentsev, Natalya E Suzina
Ultrastructural changes in the cell envelope of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as a stress response were examined using electron microscopy. The formation of new cellular surface structures, including membrane vesicles, pore channels, and wall surface globules, were shown for the first time under conditions of oxidative (endogenous and exogenous) or thermal stress. This demonstrates once again that under stress conditions the microorganisms reveal properties previously unknown for them. Particularly noteworthy is the accumulation of silicon in the surface globules, which was revealed by X-ray microanalysis of the elemental composition of thin sections of cells...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414707/analyzing-thermal-stability-of-cell-membrane-of-salmonella-using-time-multiplexed-impedance-sensing
#14
Aida Ebrahimi, Laszlo N Csonka, Muhammad A Alam
Heat treatment is one of the most widely used methods for inactivation of bacteria in food products. Heat-induced loss of bacterial viability has been variously attributed to protein denaturation, oxidative stress, or membrane leakage; indeed, it is likely to involve a combination of these processes. We examine the effect of mild heat stress (50-55°C for ≤12 min) on cell permeability by directly measuring the electrical conductance of samples of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to answer a fundamental biophysical question, namely, how bacteria die under mild heat stress...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378887/survival-of-anaerobic-fe-2-stress-requires-the-clpxp-protease
#15
Brittany D Bennett, Kaitlyn E Redford, Jeffrey A Gralnick
Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a versatile bacterium capable of respiring extracellular, insoluble ferric oxide minerals under anaerobic conditions. The respiration of iron minerals results in the production of soluble ferrous ions, which at high concentrations are toxic to living organisms. It is not fully understood how Fe2+ is toxic to cells anaerobically, nor is it fully understood how S. oneidensis is able to resist high levels of Fe2+ Here we describe the results of a transposon mutant screen and subsequent deletion of the genes clpX and clpP in S...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362232/stress-induced-reorganization-of-the-mycobacterial-membrane-domain
#16
Jennifer M Hayashi, Kirill Richardson, Emily S Melzer, Steven J Sandler, Bree B Aldridge, M Sloan Siegrist, Yasu S Morita
Cell elongation occurs primarily at the mycobacterial cell poles, but the molecular mechanisms governing this spatial regulation remain elusive. We recently reported the presence of an intracellular membrane domain (IMD) that was spatially segregated from the conventional plasma membrane in Mycobacterium smegmatis The IMD is enriched in the polar region of actively elongating cells and houses many essential enzymes involved in envelope biosynthesis, suggesting its role in spatially restricted elongation at the cell poles...
January 23, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350170/atypical-lower-motor-neuron-disease-with-enlargement-of-nissl-substance-report-of-an-autopsy-case
#17
Masayuki Shintaku, Daita Kaneda, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi
The patient was an 81-year-old woman diagnosed with atypical motor neuron disease who died after a long clinical course (7.5 years without mechanical assistance of ventilation) characterized by lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. Upper motor neuron signs and cognitive impairment were not apparent. Autopsy demonstrated severe neuronal loss in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and some of the remaining neurons showed enlargement of Nissl substance and apparent thickening of the nuclear envelopes. No Bunina bodies, skein-like inclusions, or structures immunoreactive for phosphorylated transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 were found...
March 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343670/anti-sigma-factor-mediated-cell-surface-stress-responses-in-bacillus-subtilis
#18
Kei Asai
Proteins belonging to the sigma factor family in eubacteria initiate transcription by associating with RNA polymerase. A subfamily, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors, which form a widely distributed bacterial signal transduction system comprising a sigma factor and a cognate membrane-embedded anti-sigma factor, regulates genes in response to stressors that threaten cell envelope integrity including the cell wall and membrane. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis provides a valuable model for investigation of the ECF sigma factors...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311237/evaluation-of-cpxra-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-infections
#19
Lana Dbeibo, Julia J van Rensburg, Sara N Smith, Kate R Fortney, Dharanesh Gangaiah, Hongyu Gao, Juan Marzoa, Yunlong Liu, Harry L T Mobley, Stanley M Spinola
CpxRA is an envelope stress response system found in all members of the family Enterobacteriaceae ; CpxA has kinase activity for CpxR and phosphatase activity for phospho-CpxR, a transcription factor. CpxR also accepts phosphate groups from acetyl phosphate, a glucose metabolite. Activation of CpxR increases the transcription of genes encoding membrane repair and downregulates virulence determinants. We hypothesized that activation of CpxR could serve as an antimicrobial/antivirulence strategy and discovered compounds that activate CpxR in Escherichia coli by inhibiting CpxA phosphatase activity...
March 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288759/the-frequently-occurring-components-of-essential-oils-beta-elemene-and-r-limonene-alter-expression-of-dpre1-and-clgr-genes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37ra
#20
Rafal Sawicki, Elwira Sieniawska, Marta Swatko-Ossor, Joanna Golus, Grazyna Ginalska
In the past few years, there has been a significant increase in detection of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Search for new antimycobacterial drugs brought natural sources with their chemical diversity in focus. Especially essential oils, produced by plants also for toxic effect, are reservoir of potentially antitubercular compounds. In the present work, we exposed M. tuberculosis H37Ra ATCC 25177 strain to some terpenes commonly occurring in essential oils. Gene expression profiling was used to explore possible influence of these compounds on stress sensing and envelope preserving function...
February 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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