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stress response envelope

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316480/inducible-spy-transcription-acts-as-a-sensor-for-envelope-stress-of-salmonella-typhimurium
#1
Seon Mi Jeong, Hwa Jeong Lee, Yoon Mee Park, Jin Seok Kim, Sang Dae Lee, Iel Soo Bang
Salmonella enterica infects a broad range of host animals, and zoonostic infection threatens both public health and the livestock and meat processing industries. Many antimicrobials have been developed to target Salmonella envelope that performs essential bacterial functions; however, there are very few analytical methods that can be used to validate the efficacy of these antimicrobials. In this study, to develop a potential biosensor for Salmonella envelope stress, we examined the transcription of the S. enterica serovar typhimurium spy gene, the ortholog of which in Escherichia coli encodes Spy (spheroplast protein y)...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315278/peeking-into-sigma-1-receptor-functions-through-the-retina
#2
Timur A Mavlyutov, Lian-Wang Guo
This review discusses recent advances towards understanding the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) as an endogenous neuro-protective mechanism in the retina , a favorable experimental model system. The exquisite architecture of the mammalian retina features layered and intricately wired neurons supported by non-neuronal cells. Ganglion neurons, photoreceptors , as well as the retinal pigment epithelium, are susceptible to degeneration that leads to major retinal diseases such as glaucoma , diabetic retinopathy , and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and ultimately, blindness...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274217/disruption-of-rcsb-by-a-duplicated-sequence-in-a-curli-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-results-in-differential-gene-expression-in-relation-to-biofilm-formation-stress-responses-and-metabolism
#3
V K Sharma, D O Bayles, D P Alt, T Looft, B W Brunelle, J A Stasko
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strain 86-24, linked to a 1986 disease outbreak, displays curli- and biofilm-negative phenotypes that are correlated with the lack of Congo red (CR) binding and formation of white colonies (CR(-)) on a CR-containing medium. However, on a CR medium this strain produces red isolates (CR(+)) capable of producing curli fimbriae and biofilms. RESULTS: To identify genes controlling differential expression of curli fimbriae and biofilm formation, the RNA-Seq profile of a CR(+) isolate was compared to the CR(-) parental isolate...
March 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243135/repeated-short-climatic-change-affects-the-epidermal-differentiation-program-and-leads-to-matrix-remodeling-in-a-human-organotypic-skin-model
#4
Laetitia-Barbollat Boutrand, Amélie Thépot, Charlotte Muther, Aurélie Boher, Julie Robic, Christelle Guéré, Katell Vié, Odile Damour, Jérôme Lamartine
Human skin is subject to frequent changes in ambient temperature and humidity and needs to cope with these environmental modifications. To decipher the molecular response of human skin to repeated climatic change, a versatile model of skin equivalent subject to "hot-wet" (40°C, 80% relative humidity [RH]) or "cold-dry" (10°C, 40% RH) climatic stress repeated daily was used. To obtain an exhaustive view of the molecular mechanisms elicited by climatic change, large-scale gene expression DNA microarray analysis was performed and modulated function was determined by bioinformatic annotation...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183185/rational-design-of-selective-and-bioactive-inhibitors-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteasome
#5
Kyle A Totaro, Dominik Barthelme, Peter T Simpson, Xiuju Jiang, Gang Lin, Carl F Nathan, Robert T Sauer, Jason K Sello
The 20S core particle of the proteasome in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a promising, yet unconventional, drug target. This multimeric peptidase is not essential, yet degrades proteins that have become damaged and toxic via reactions with nitric oxide (and/or the associated reactive nitrogen intermediates) produced during the host immune response. Proteasome inhibitors could render Mtb susceptible to the immune system, but they would only be therapeutically viable if they do not inhibit the essential 20S counterpart in humans...
February 10, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161514/biosorption-behavior-and-proteomic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-p4-under-cadmium-stress
#6
Zaman Khan, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Saima Zafar, Inga Zerr
Bacteria develop a variety of adaptations at transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic levels in order to survive potentially damaging environmental perturbations. Present study is exploring the fluctuations in proteome of E. coli P4 to knob Cd(+2)-induced cytotoxicity. An attempt was also made to integrate all these approaches to gain comprehensive insight of Cd(+2) stress response in E. coli P4. This study is exposing the altered behavior of various proteins and their underlying metabolic pathways which have previously not been reported with reference to Cd(+2) stress such as sulfoquinovose biosynthesis and degradation pathway...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065260/biochemical-characterization-of-function-and-structure-of-rsep-an-escherichia-coli-s2p-protease
#7
Y Hizukuri, K Akiyama, Y Akiyama
Intramembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs) are a group of membrane-associated proteases with a unique feature: they are believed to cleave their substrate within the hydrophobic lipid bilayer, even though peptide bond hydrolysis requires a water molecule. Escherichia coli RseP, which belongs to the S2P zinc metalloprotease family of I-CLiPs, plays an essential role in activation of a cell envelope stress response through cleavage of anti-σ(E) protein RseA, a single-span transmembrane protein. A recent study showed that it also cleaves remnant signal peptides generated upon membrane translocation of secretory proteins...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049830/characterization-of-cytopathic-factors-through-genome-wide-analysis-of-the-zika-viral-proteins-in-fission-yeast
#8
Ge Li, Melissa Poulsen, Csaba Fenyvuesvolgyi, Yoko Yashiroda, Minoru Yoshida, J Marc Simard, Robert C Gallo, Richard Y Zhao
The Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Little is known about how ZIKV causes these conditions or which ZIKV viral protein(s) is responsible for the associated ZIKV-induced cytopathic effects, including cell hypertrophy, growth restriction, cell-cycle dysregulation, and cell death. We used fission yeast for the rapid, global functional analysis of the ZIKV genome. All 14 proteins or small peptides were produced under an inducible promoter, and we measured the intracellular localization and the specific effects on ZIKV-associated cytopathic activities of each protein...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035693/identification-of-a-u-zn-cu-responsive-global-regulatory-two-component-system-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#9
Dan M Park, K Wesley Overton, Megan J Liou, Yongqin Jiao
Despite the well-known toxicity of uranium (U) to bacteria, little is known about how cells sense and respond to U. The recent finding of a U-specific stress response in Caulobacter crescentus has provided a foundation for studying the mechanisms of U- perception in bacteria. To gain insight into this process, we used a forward genetic screen to identify the regulatory components governing expression of the urcA promoter (PurcA ) that is strongly induced by U. This approach unearthed a previously uncharacterized two-component system, named UzcRS, which is responsible for U-dependent activation of PurcA ...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030630/system-wide-adaptations-of-desulfovibrio-alaskensis-g20-to-phosphate-limited-conditions
#10
Tanja Bosak, Florence Schubotz, Ana de Santiago-Torio, Jennifer V Kuehl, Hans K Carlson, Nicki Watson, Mirna Daye, Roger E Summons, Adam P Arkin, Adam M Deutschbauer
The prevalence of lipids devoid of phosphorus suggests that the availability of phosphorus limits microbial growth and activity in many anoxic, stratified environments. To better understand the response of anaerobic bacteria to phosphate limitation and starvation, this study combines microscopic and lipid analyses with the measurements of fitness of pooled barcoded transposon mutants of the model sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. Phosphate-limited G20 has lower growth rates and replaces more than 90% of its membrane phospholipids by a mixture of monoglycosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), glycuronic acid diacylglycerol (GADG) and ornithine lipids, lacks polyphosphate granules, and synthesizes other cellular inclusions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010816/expression-of-hsp70-genes-in-skin-of-zebu-tharparkar-and-crossbred-karan-fries-cattle-during-different-seasons-under-tropical-climatic-conditions
#11
Uttarani Maibam, O K Hooda, P S Sharma, A K Mohanty, S V Singh, R C Upadhyay
Skin is most important environmental interface providing a protective envelope to animals. It's always under the influence of both internal and external stressors. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are highly conserved stress proteins which play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and thermal adaptation. Present study was planned to observe the relative mRNA expression of inducible (HSP70.1 and HSP70.2) and constitutive (HSP70.8) HSP in skin of zebu (Tharparkar) and crossbred (Karan Fries) cattle during different seasons...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873249/application-of-a-bacillus-subtilis-whole-cell-biosensor-pliai-lux-for-the-identification-of-cell-wall-active-antibacterial-compounds
#12
Carolin Martina Kobras, Thorsten Mascher, Susanne Gebhard
Whole-cell biosensors, based on the visualization of a reporter strain's response to a particular stimulus, are a robust and cost-effective means to monitor defined environmental conditions or the presence of chemical compounds. One specific field in which such biosensors are frequently applied is drug discovery, i.e., the screening of large numbers of bacterial or fungal strains for the production of antimicrobial compounds. We here describe the application of a luminescence-based Bacillus subtilis biosensor for the discovery of cell wall active substances...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865622/protecting-from-envelope-stress-variations-on-the-phage-shock-protein-theme
#13
REVIEW
Riccardo Manganelli, Maria Laura Gennaro
During envelope stress, critical inner-membrane functions are preserved by the phage-shock-protein (Psp) system, a stress response that emerged from work with Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Reciprocal regulatory interactions and multiple effector functions are well documented in these organisms. Searches for the Psp system across phyla reveal conservation of only one protein, PspA. However, examination of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria reveals that PspA orthologs associate with non-orthologous regulatory and effector proteins retaining functions similar to those in Gram-negative counterparts...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862269/arp2-3-complex-and-mps3-are-required-for-regulation-of-ribosome-biosynthesis-in-the-secretory-stress-response
#14
Yukari Yabuki, Masako Katayama, Yushi Kodama, Akiko Sakamoto, Ayumi Yatsuhashi, Kouichi Funato, Keiko Mizuta
Secretory defects cause transcriptional repression of ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the molecular mechanism underlying secretory defect-induced transcriptional repression of ribosome biogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the Arp2/3 complex was required for reduction of ribosome protein gene expression in response to defective secretion by addition of tunicamycin. Two cmd1 mutants, cmd1-228 and cmd1-239 that cause mislocalization of calmodulin and defective mitotic spindle formation, respectively, fail to interact with Arc35, a component of the Arp2/3 complex...
November 10, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829584/fe-3-dependent-epistasis-between-the-cpxr-activated-loci-and-the-pmra-activated-lps-modification-loci-in-salmonella-enterica
#15
Akinori Kato, Nami Higashino, Ryutaro Utsumi
Bacteria utilize varying combinations of two-component regulatory systems, many of which respond and adapt closely to stress conditions, thus expanding their niche steadily. While mechanisms of recognition and avoidance of the specific Fe(3+) signal by the PmrA/PmrB system is well understood, those of the CpxR/CpxA system are more complex because they can be induced by various stress conditions, which, in turn, expresses a variety of phenotypes. Here, we highlight another aspect of the CpxR/CpxA system; mutations in degP and yqjA genes, which are under the control of the system, exhibit an iron sensitive phenotype in the mutant background defective in the PmrA-dependent gene products that alter the pyrophosphate status of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide in Salmonella enterica...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821607/novel-rpos-dependent-mechanisms-strengthen-the-envelope-permeability-barrier-during-stationary-phase
#16
Angela M Mitchell, Wei Wang, Thomas J Silhavy
Gram-negative bacteria have effective methods of excluding toxic compounds, including a largely impermeable outer membrane (OM) and a range of efflux pumps. Furthermore, when cells become nutrient limited, RpoS enacts a global expression change providing cross-protection against many stresses. Here, we utilized sensitivity to an anionic detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to probe changes occurring to the cell's permeability barrier during nutrient limitation. Escherichia coli is resistant to SDS whether cells are actively growing, carbon limited, or nitrogen limited...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816520/inherently-variable-responses-to-glucocorticoid-stress-among-endogenous-retroviruses-isolated-from-23-mouse-strains
#17
Karen Hsu, Young-Kwan Lee, Alex Chew, Sophia Chiu, Debora Lim, David G Greenhalgh, Kiho Cho
Active participation of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in disease processes has been exemplified by the finding that the HERV (human ERV)-W envelope protein is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease. We also demonstrated that injury-elicited stressors alter the expression of murine ERVs (MuERVs), both murine leukemia virus-type and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-type (MMTV-MuERV). In this study, to evaluate MMTV-MuERVs' responses to stress (e.g., injury, infection)-elicited systemic glucocorticoid (GC) levels, we examined the GC-stress response of 64 MMTV-MuERV promoters isolated from the genomes of 23 mouse strains...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796471/deletion-of-degq-gene-enhances-outer-membrane-vesicle-production-of-shewanella-oneidensis-cells
#18
Yoshihiro Ojima, Thivagaran Mohanadas, Kosei Kitamura, Shota Nunogami, Reiki Yajima, Masahito Taya
Shewanella oneidensis is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that can use a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. In this study, S. oneidensis degQ gene, encoding a putative periplasmic serine protease, was cloned and expressed. The activity of purified DegQ was inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, a typical serine protease-specific inhibitor, indicating that DegQ is a serine protease. In-frame deletion and subsequent complementation of the degQ were carried out to examine the effect of envelope stress on the production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)...
October 31, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790614/antimicrobial-activity-of-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-against-gram-positives-current-progress-made-in-understanding-the-mode-of-action-and-the-response-of-bacteria
#19
REVIEW
Soraya Omardien, Stanley Brul, Sebastian A J Zaat
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as a novel class of antimicrobials that could aid the fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The mode of action of AMPs as acting on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane has often been presented as an enigma and there are doubts whether the membrane is the sole target of AMPs. Progress has been made in clarifying the possible targets of these peptides, which is reported in this review with as focus gram-positive vegetative cells and spores. Numerical estimates are discussed to evaluate the possibility that targets, other than the membrane, could play a role in susceptibility to AMPs...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784136/the-role-of-apolipoprotein-n-acyl-transferase-lnt-in-the-lipidation-of-factor-h-binding-protein-of-neisseria-meningitidis-strain-mc58-and-its-potential-as-a-drug-target
#20
R A G da Silva, C P Churchward, A V Karlyshev, O Eleftheriadou, A K Snabaitis, M R Longman, A Ryan, R Griffin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The level of cell surface expression of the meningococcal vaccine antigen, Factor H binding protein (FHbp) varies between and within strains and this limits the breadth of strains that can be targeted by FHbp-based vaccines. The molecular pathway controlling expression of FHbp at the cell surface, including its lipidation, sorting to the outer membrane and export, and the potential regulation of this pathway have not been investigated until now. This knowledge will aid our evaluation of FHbp vaccines...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
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