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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350170/atypical-lower-motor-neuron-disease-with-enlargement-of-nissl-substance-report-of-an-autopsy-case
#1
Masayuki Shintaku, Daita Kaneda, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi
The patient was an 81-year-old woman diagnosed with atypical motor neuron disease who died after a long clinical course (7.5 years without mechanical assistance of ventilation) characterized by lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. Upper motor neuron signs and cognitive impairment were not apparent. Autopsy demonstrated severe neuronal loss in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and some of the remaining neurons showed enlargement of Nissl substance and apparent thickening of the nuclear envelopes. No Bunina bodies, skein-like inclusions, or structures immunoreactive for phosphorylated transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 were found...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343670/anti-sigma-factor-mediated-cell-surface-stress-responses-in-bacillus-subtilis
#2
Kei Asai
Proteins belonging to the sigma factor family in eubacteria initiate transcription by associating with RNA polymerase. A subfamily, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors, which form a widely distributed bacterial signal transduction system comprising a sigma factor and a cognate membrane-embedded anti-sigma factor, regulates genes in response to stressors that threaten cell envelope integrity including the cell wall and membrane. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis provides a valuable model for investigation of the ECF sigma factors...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311237/evaluation-of-cpxra-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-infections
#3
Lana Dbeibo, Julia J van Rensburg, Sara N Smith, Kate R Fortney, Dharanesh Gangaiah, Hongyu Gao, Juan Marzoa, Yunlong Liu, Harry L T Mobley, Stanley M Spinola
CpxRA is an envelope stress response system found in all species of Enterobacteriaceae; CpxA has kinase activity for CpxR and phosphatase activity for phospho-CpxR, a transcription factor. CpxR also accepts phosphate groups and acetyl phosphate, a glucose metabolite. Activation of CpxR increases transcription of genes encoding for membrane repair and downregulates virulence determinants. We hypothesized that activation of CpxR could serve as an antimicrobial/antivirulence strategy and discovered compounds that activate CpxR in Escherichia coli by inhibiting CpxA phosphatase activity...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288759/the-frequently-occurring-components-of-essential-oils-beta-elemene-and-r-limonene-alter-expression-of-dpre1-and-clgr-genes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37ra
#4
Rafal Sawicki, Elwira Sieniawska, Marta Swatko-Ossor, Joanna Golus, Grazyna Ginalska
In the past few years, there has been a significant increase in detection of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Search for new antimycobacterial drugs brought natural sources with their chemical diversity in focus. Especially essential oils, produced by plants also for toxic effect, are reservoir of potentially antitubercular compounds. In the present work, we exposed M. tuberculosis H37Ra ATCC 25177 strain to some terpenes commonly occurring in essential oils. Gene expression profiling was used to explore possible influence of these compounds on stress sensing and envelope preserving function...
December 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283340/heat-stress-promotes-longevity-in-budding-yeast-by-relaxing-the-confinement-of-age-promoting-factors-in-the-mother-cell
#5
Sandro Baldi, Alessio Bolognesi, Anne Cornelis Meinema, Yves Barral
Although individuals of many species inexorably age, a number of observations established that the rate of ageing is modulated in response to a variety of mild stresses. Here, we investigated how heat stress promotes longevity in yeast. We show that upon growth at higher temperature, yeast cells relax the retention of DNA circles, which act as ageing factors in the mother cell. The enhanced frequency at which circles redistribute to daughter cells was not due to changes of anaphase duration or nuclear shape but solely to the downregulation of the diffusion barrier in the nuclear envelope...
December 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281637/cell-envelope-stress-in-mycobacteria-is-regulated-by-the-novel-signal-transduction-atpase-inir-in-response-to-trehalose
#6
Maikel Boot, Vincent J C van Winden, Marion Sparrius, Robert van de Weerd, Alexander Speer, Roy Ummels, Tige Rustad, David R Sherman, Wilbert Bitter
The cell envelope of mycobacteria is a highly unique and complex structure that is functionally equivalent to that of Gram-negative bacteria to protect the bacterial cell. Defects in the integrity or assembly of this cell envelop must be sensed to allow the induction of stress response systems. The promoter that is specifically and most strongly induced upon exposure to ethambutol and isoniazid, first line drugs that affect cell envelope biogenesis, is the iniBAC promoter. In this study, we set out to identify the regulator of the iniBAC operon in Mycobacterium marinum using an unbiased transposon mutagenesis screen in a constitutively iniBAC-expressing mutant background...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273583/chloroplast-signaling-and-quality-control
#7
REVIEW
Jean-David Rochaix, Silvia Ramundo
Although chloroplasts contain their own genetic system and are semi-autonomous cell organelles, plastid biogenesis and homeostasis are heavily dependent on the nucleo-cytosolic compartment. These two cellular compartments are closely co-ordinated through a complex signaling network comprising both anterograde and retrograde signaling chains. Developmental changes or any perturbation in the chloroplast system induced by a particular stress resulting from changes in environmental conditions such as excess light, elevated temperature, nutrient limitation, pathogen infection, give rise to specific signals...
December 21, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259598/the-essential-upp-phosphatase-pair-bcrc-and-uppp-connects-cell-wall-homeostasis-during-growth-and-sporulation-with-cell-envelope-stress-response-in-bacillus-subtilis
#8
Jara Radeck, Nina Lautenschläger, Thorsten Mascher
The bacterial cell wall separates the cell from its surrounding and protects it from environmental stressors. Its integrity is maintained by a highly regulated process of cell wall biosynthesis. The membrane-located lipid II cycle provides cell wall building blocks that are assembled inside the cytoplasm to the outside for incorporation. Its carrier molecule, undecaprenyl phosphate (UP), is then recycled by dephosphorylation from undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP). In Bacillus subtilis, this indispensable reaction is catalyzed by the UPP phosphatases BcrC and UppP...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214685/exploring-relationships-between-first-line-nurse-manager-s-safety-attitudes-and-safety-factors-in-henan-china
#9
Feng Zhang, Li Tian, Xiaoping Shang, Xiang Li, Rui Xue, Shuhua Cheng, Changying Chen
AIM: To examine first-line nurse managers' perceptions of safety culture and explore relationships between their safety attitudes and safety factors in Henan Province, China. BACKGROUND: Health providers' perceptions of patient safety culture have been studied widely, but little is known about first-line nurse managers' safety attitudes. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 823 first-line nurse managers in 216 hospitals across Henan Province, China...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211019/dual-regulation-of-the-small-rna-micc-and-the-quiescent-porin-ompn-in-response-to-antibiotic-stress-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Sushovan Dam, Jean-Marie Pagès, Muriel Masi
Antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a serious threat for public health. The permeation of antibiotics through their outer membrane is largely dependent on porin, changes in which cause reduced drug uptake and efficacy. Escherichia coli produces two major porins, OmpF and OmpC. MicF and MicC are small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate the expression of OmpF and OmpC, respectively. In this work, we investigated factors that lead to increased production of MicC. micC promoter region was fused to lacZ, and the reporter plasmid was transformed into E...
December 6, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210003/abscisic-acid-insensitive-4-transcription-factor-is-an-important-player-in-the-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-to-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-feeding
#11
Anna Barczak-Brzyżek, Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz, Magdalena Górecka, Karol Kot, Barbara Karpińska, Marcin Filipecki
Plants growing in constantly changeable environmental conditions are compelled to evolve regulatory mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Effective defence to invaders is largely connected with phytohormone regulation, resulting in the production of numerous defensive proteins and specialized metabolites. In our work, we elucidated the role of the Abscisic Acid Insensitive 4 (ABI4) transcription factor in the plant response to the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM). This polyphagous mite is one of the most destructive herbivores, which sucks mesophyll cells of numerous crop and wild plants...
December 5, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205552/the-role-of-the-cror-response-regulator-in-resistance-of-enterococcus-faecalis-to-d-cycloserine-is-defined-using-an-inducible-receiver-domain
#12
Cécile Muller, Sébastien Massier, Yoann Le Breton, Alain Rincé
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic multidrug-resistant human pathogen causing severe nosocomial infections. Previous investigations revealed that the CroRS two-component regulatory pathway likely displays a pleiotropic role in E. faecalis, involved in virulence, macrophage survival, oxidative stress response as well as antibiotic resistance. Therefore, CroRS represents an attractive potential new target for antibiotherapy. In this report, we further explored CroRS cellular functions by characterizing the CroR regulon: the "domain swapping" method was applied and a CroR chimera protein was generated by fusing the receiver domain from NisR to the output domain from CroR...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178393/what-makes-a-good-head-positioner-for-preventing-occipital-pressure-ulcers
#13
Rona Katzengold, Amit Gefen
Patients who are stationary endure prolonged soft tissue distortions and deformations at contact areas between their body and the support surface, which may lead to the onset of pressure ulcers (PUs) over time. A novel technology for patient positioning employs innovation in materials science, specifically viscoelastic materials with shape memory properties that compose the Z-Flo™ head positioner (Mölnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden). Head positioners are generally known to reduce the occurrence of PUs in scalp tissues and the ears, but quantitative assessments of their biomechanical efficacy are missing in the literature...
November 27, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162892/silencing-of-osgrxs17-in-rice-improves-drought-stress-tolerance-by-modulating-ros-accumulation-and-stomatal-closure
#14
Ying Hu, Qingyu Wu, Zhao Peng, Stuart A Sprague, Wei Wang, Jungeun Park, Eduard Akhunov, Krishna S V Jagadish, Paul A Nakata, Ninghui Cheng, Kendal D Hirschi, Frank F White, Sunghun Park
Glutaredoxins (GRXs) modulate redox-dependent signaling pathways and have emerged as key mediators in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Here we report that RNAi-mediated suppression of Oryza sativa GRXS17 (OsGRXS17) improved drought tolerance in rice. Gene expression studies showed that OsGRXS17 was present throughout the plant and that transcript abundance increased in response to drought stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Localization studies, utilizing GFP-OsGRXS17 fusion proteins, indicated that OsGRXS17 resides in both the cytoplasm and the nuclear envelope...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158240/novel-genes-and-regulators-that-influence-production-of-cell-surface-exopolysaccharides-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#15
Melanie J Barnett, Sharon R Long
Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil-dwelling α-proteobacterium that engages in a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis with leguminous plants. Cell surface polysaccharides are important for both adapting to stresses in the soil and development of an effective symbiotic interaction. Among the polysaccharides characterized to date, the acidic exopolysaccharides EPS-I (succinoglycan) and EPS-II (galactoglucan) are particularly important for protection from abiotic stresses, biofilm formation, root colonization, and infection of plant roots...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101308/impact-of-bacterial-srnas-in-stress-responses
#16
REVIEW
Erik Holmqvist, E Gerhart H Wagner
Bacterial life is harsh and involves numerous environmental and internal challenges that are perceived as stresses. Consequently, adequate responses to survive, cope with, and counteract stress conditions have evolved. In the last few decades, a class of small, non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) has been shown to be involved as key players in stress responses. This review will discuss - primarily from an enterobacterial perspective - selected stress response pathways that involve antisense-type sRNAs. These include themes of how bacteria deal with severe envelope stress, threats of DNA damage, problems with poisoning due to toxic sugar intermediates, issues of iron homeostasis, and nutrient limitation/starvation...
December 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098331/essential-two-component-systems-regulating-cell-envelope-functions-opportunities-for-novel-antibiotic-therapies
#17
Silvia T Cardona, Matthew Choy, Andrew M Hogan
Novel therapies are urgently needed to alleviate the current crisis of multiple drug-resistant infections. The bacterial signal transduction mechanisms, known as two-component systems (TCSs), are ideal targets of novel inhibitory molecules. Highly restricted to the bacterial world, TCSs control a diverse set of cellular functions, namely virulence, response to cell envelope stress, and drug efflux. Impaired regulation of any of these aspects could affect the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics, which highlights the potential of TCS as targets of antibiotic adjuvant therapies...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043249/interactions-between-bacteria-and-bile-salts-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-hepatobiliary-tracts
#18
REVIEW
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022867/response-to-photo-oxidative-stress-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-mutants-impaired-in-different-functions
#19
Viviana Teresa Orlandi, Fabrizio Bolognese, Eleonora Martegani, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Claudio Medana, Paola Barbieri
Clinicians often have to deal with infections that are difficult to control because they are caused by superbugs resistant to many antibiotics. Alternatives to antibiotic treatment include antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The photodynamic process causes bacterial death, inducing oxidative stress through the photoactivation of photosensitizer molecules in the presence of oxygen. No PDT-resistant bacteria have been selected to date, thus the response to photo-oxidative stress in non-phototrophic bacteria needs further investigation...
October 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020117/a-putative-vibrio-cholerae-two-component-system-controls-a-conserved-periplasmic-protein-in-response-to-the-antimicrobial-peptide-polymyxin-b
#20
Jyl S Matson, Jonathan Livny, Victor J DiRita
The epidemic pathogen Vibrio cholerae senses and responds to different external stresses it encounters in the aquatic environment and in the human host. One stress that V. cholerae encounters in the host is exposure to antimicrobial peptides on mucosal surfaces. We used massively parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to quantitatively identify the transcriptome of V. cholerae grown in the presence and absence of sub-lethal concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. We evaluated the transcriptome of both wild type V...
2017: PloS One
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