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stress response membrane envelope bacteria

Tanja Bosak, Florence Schubotz, Ana de Santiago-Torio, Jennifer V Kuehl, Hans K Carlson, Nicki Watson, Mirna Daye, Roger E Summons, Adam P Arkin, Adam M Deutschbauer
The prevalence of lipids devoid of phosphorus suggests that the availability of phosphorus limits microbial growth and activity in many anoxic, stratified environments. To better understand the response of anaerobic bacteria to phosphate limitation and starvation, this study combines microscopic and lipid analyses with the measurements of fitness of pooled barcoded transposon mutants of the model sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. Phosphate-limited G20 has lower growth rates and replaces more than 90% of its membrane phospholipids by a mixture of monoglycosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), glycuronic acid diacylglycerol (GADG) and ornithine lipids, lacks polyphosphate granules, and synthesizes other cellular inclusions...
2016: PloS One
Riccardo Manganelli, Maria Laura Gennaro
During envelope stress, critical inner-membrane functions are preserved by the phage-shock-protein (Psp) system, a stress response that emerged from work with Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Reciprocal regulatory interactions and multiple effector functions are well documented in these organisms. Searches for the Psp system across phyla reveal conservation of only one protein, PspA. However, examination of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria reveals that PspA orthologs associate with non-orthologous regulatory and effector proteins retaining functions similar to those in Gram-negative counterparts...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Angela M Mitchell, Wei Wang, Thomas J Silhavy
: Gram-negative bacteria have effective methods of excluding toxic compounds, including a largely impermeable outer membrane (OM) and a range of efflux pumps. Furthermore, when cells become nutrient limited, RpoS enacts a global expression change providing cross-protection against many stresses. Here, we utilized sensitivity to an anionic detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to probe changes occurring to the cell's permeability barrier during nutrient limitation. Escherichia coli is resistant to SDS whether cells are actively growing, carbon limited, or nitrogen limited...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Soraya Omardien, Stanley Brul, Sebastian A J Zaat
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as a novel class of antimicrobials that could aid the fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The mode of action of AMPs as acting on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane has often been presented as an enigma and there are doubts whether the membrane is the sole target of AMPs. Progress has been made in clarifying the possible targets of these peptides, which is reported in this review with as focus gram-positive vegetative cells and spores. Numerical estimates are discussed to evaluate the possibility that targets, other than the membrane, could play a role in susceptibility to AMPs...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
J Szewczyk, J-F Collet
Bacterial lipoproteins are a very diverse group of proteins characterized by the presence of an N-terminal lipid moiety that serves as a membrane anchor. Lipoproteins have a wide variety of crucial functions, ranging from envelope biogenesis to stress response. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins can be targeted to various destinations in the cell, including the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic or outer membrane, the cell surface or the external milieu. The sorting mechanisms have been studied in detail in Escherichia coli, but exceptions to the rules established in this model bacterium exist in other bacteria...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Josué Flores-Kim, Andrew J Darwin
: The phage shock protein (Psp) system is a widely conserved cell envelope stress response that is essential for the virulence of some bacteria, including Yersinia enterocolitica Recruitment of PspA by the inner membrane PspB-PspC complex characterizes the activated state of this response. The PspB-PspC complex has been proposed to be a stress-responsive switch, changing from an OFF to an ON state in response to an inducing stimulus. In the OFF state, PspA cannot access its binding site in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of PspC (PspC(CT)), because this site is bound to PspB...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Christian Lorenz, Thomas J Dougherty, Stephen Lory
: In Gram-negative bacteria, a dedicated machinery consisting of LolABCDE components targets lipoproteins to the outer membrane. We used a previously identified small-molecule inhibitor of the LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli to assess the global transcriptional consequences of interference with lipoprotein transport. Exposure of E. coli to the LolCDE inhibitor at concentrations leading to minimal and significant growth inhibition, followed by transcriptome sequencing, identified a small group of genes whose transcript levels were decreased and a larger group whose mRNA levels increased 10- to 100-fold compared to those of untreated cells...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Carla C C R de Carvalho, Martin A Fischer, Sandra Kirsten, Birgit Würz, Lukas Y Wick, Hermann J Heipieper
Mycolata form a group of Gram-positive bacteria with unique cell envelope structures that are known for their high tolerance against antibiotics and both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. An important part of the unique surface structure of the mycolata is the presence of long chain α-alkyl-β-hydroxy fatty acids, the mycolic acids. In order to investigate the adaptive changes in the mycolic acid composition, we investigated the composition of mycolic acids during the response both to osmotic stress caused by NaCl and to 4-chlorophenol in Rhodococcus opacus PWD4...
December 2016: AMB Express
Wael Elhenawy, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Ezequiel Valguarnera, M Florencia Haurat, Eytan Wine, Mario F Feldman
UNLABELLED: Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are proposed to mediate multiple functions during pathogenesis and symbiosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for OMV formation remain poorly understood. It has been shown in eukaryotic membranes that lipids with an inverted-cone shape favor the formation of positive membrane curvatures. Based on these studies, we formulated the hypothesis that lipid A deacylation might impose shape modifications that result in the curvature of the outer membrane (OM) and subsequent OMV formation...
2016: MBio
Kelsi M Sandoz, David L Popham, Paul A Beare, Daniel E Sturdevant, Bryan Hansen, Vinod Nair, Robert A Heinzen
A hallmark of Coxiella burnetii, the bacterial cause of human Q fever, is a biphasic developmental cycle that generates biologically, ultrastructurally, and compositionally distinct large cell variant (LCV) and small cell variant (SCV) forms. LCVs are replicating, exponential phase forms while SCVs are non-replicating, stationary phase forms. The SCV has several properties, such as a condensed nucleoid and an unusual cell envelope, suspected of conferring enhanced environmental stability. To identify genetic determinants of the LCV to SCV transition, we profiled the C...
2016: PloS One
Antoine Delhaye, Jean-François Collet, Géraldine Laloux
UNLABELLED: The envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is an essential compartment that constitutes a protective and permeability barrier between the cell and its environment. The envelope also hosts the cell wall, a mesh-like structure made of peptidoglycan (PG) that determines cell shape and provides osmotic protection. Since the PG must grow and divide in a cell-cycle-synchronized manner, its synthesis and remodeling are tightly regulated. Here, we discovered that PG homeostasis is intimately linked to the levels of activation of the Cpx system, an envelope stress response system traditionally viewed as being involved in protein quality control in the envelope...
February 23, 2016: MBio
John D Helmann
Bacillus subtilis provides a model for investigation of the bacterial cell envelope, the first line of defense against environmental threats. Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors activate genes that confer resistance to agents that threaten the integrity of the envelope. Although their individual regulons overlap, σ(W) is most closely associated with membrane-active agents, σ(X) with cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance, and σ(V) with resistance to lysozyme. Here, I highlight the role of the σ(M) regulon, which is strongly induced by conditions that impair peptidoglycan synthesis and includes the core pathways of envelope synthesis and cell division, as well as stress-inducible alternative enzymes...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Pavithra Ramakrishnan, Alisha M Aagesen, John D McKinney, Anna D Tischler
Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires the phosphate-sensing signal transduction system Pst/SenX3-RegX3 to resist host immune responses. A ΔpstA1 mutant lacking a Pst phosphate uptake system component is hypersensitive to diverse stress conditions in vitro and is attenuated in vivo due to constitutive expression of the phosphate starvation-responsive RegX3 regulon. Transcriptional profiling of the ΔpstA1 mutant revealed aberrant expression of certain pe and ppe genes. PE and PPE proteins, defined by conserved N-terminal domains containing Pro-Glu (PE) or Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) motifs, account for a substantial fraction of the M...
March 2016: Infection and Immunity
Hsin-Hui Huang, Yi-Tsung Lin, Wei-Ching Chen, Yi-Wei Huang, Shiang-Jiuun Chen, Tsuey-Ching Yang
CreBC is a highly conserved two-component regulatory system (TCS) in several gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. CreD is a conserved gene that encodes a predicted inner-membrane protein and is located near the creBC loci. Activation of CreBC increases creD expression; therefore, creD expression is generally used as a measure of CreBC activation in E. coli, Aeromonas spp., and P. aeruginosa systems. In this article, we aim to elucidate the expression of creD and further to investigate its functions in S...
2015: PloS One
Truc T Tran, Jose M Munita, Cesar A Arias
Daptomycin (DAP) is a cyclic lipopeptide with in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms. Since its introduction into clinical practice in 2003, DAP has become an important key frontline antibiotic for severe or deep-seated infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. Unfortunately, DAP resistance (DAP-R) has been extensively documented in clinically important organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Studies on the mechanisms of DAP-R in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria indicate that the genetic pathways of DAP-R are diverse and complex...
September 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
L Arnal, G Longo, P Stupar, M F Castez, N Cattelan, R C Salvarezza, O M Yantorno, S Kasas, M E Vela
Bacterial adhesion is the first and a significant step in establishing infection. This adhesion normally occurs in the presence of flow of fluids. Therefore, bacterial adhesins must be able to provide high strength interactions with their target surface in order to maintain the adhered bacteria under hydromechanical stressing conditions. In the case of B. pertussis, a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for pertussis, a highly contagious human respiratory tract infection, an important protein participating in the adhesion process is a 220 kDa adhesin named filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), an outer membrane and also secreted protein that contains recognition domains to adhere to ciliated respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages...
November 7, 2015: Nanoscale
Alexander J Meeske, Lok-To Sham, Harvey Kimsey, Byoung-Mo Koo, Carol A Gross, Thomas G Bernhardt, David Z Rudner
Bacterial surface polysaccharides are synthesized from lipid-linked precursors at the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane before being translocated across the bilayer for envelope assembly. Transport of the cell wall precursor lipid II in Escherichia coli requires the broadly conserved and essential multidrug/oligosaccharidyl-lipid/polysaccharide (MOP) exporter superfamily member MurJ. Here, we show that Bacillus subtilis cells lacking all 10 MOP superfamily members are viable with only minor morphological defects, arguing for the existence of an alternate lipid II flippase...
May 19, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yuan Xue, Jossef Osborn, Anand Panchal, Jay L Mellies
Zinc supplements are an effective clinical treatment for infantile diarrheal disease caused by enteric pathogens. Previous studies demonstrated that zinc acts on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) bacteria directly to suppress several virulence-related genes at a concentration that can be achieved by oral delivery of dietary zinc supplements. Our in vitro studies showed that a micromolar concentration of zinc induced the envelope stress response and suppressed virulence in EPEC, providing a possible mechanistic explanation for zinc's therapeutic action...
June 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Josué Flores-Kim, Andrew J Darwin
The bacterial cytoplasm lies within a multilayered envelope that must be protected from internal and external hazards. This protection is provided by cell envelope stress responses (ESRs), which detect threats and reprogram gene expression to ensure survival. Pathogens frequently need these ESRs to survive inside the host, where their envelopes face dangerous environmental changes and attack from antimicrobial molecules. In addition, some virulence genes have become integrated into ESR regulons. This might be because these genes can protect the cell envelope from damage by host molecules, or it might help ESRs to reduce stress by moderating the assembly of virulence factors within the envelope...
2014: Virulence
Carmen Schwechheimer, Adam Kulp, Meta J Kuehn
BACKGROUND: Vesiculation is a ubiquitous secretion process of Gram-negative bacteria, where outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are small spherical particles on the order of 50 to 250 nm composed of outer membrane (OM) and lumenal periplasmic content. Vesicle functions have been elucidated in some detail, showing their importance in virulence factor secretion, bacterial survival, and biofilm formation in pathogenesis. Furthermore, OMVs serve as an envelope stress response, protecting the secreting bacteria from internal protein misfolding stress, as well as external envelope stressors...
2014: BMC Microbiology
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