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stress response membrane envelope bacteria

Goizeder Almagro, Alejandro M Viale, Manuel Montero, Francisco José Muñoz, Edurne Baroja-Fernández, Hirotada Mori, Javier Pozueta-Romero
ADP-glucose is the precursor of glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria, and a compound abundant in the starchy plant organs ingested by many mammals. Here we show that the enteric species Escherichia coli is capable of scavenging exogenous ADP-glucose for use as a glycosyl donor in glycogen biosynthesis and feed the adenine nucleotide pool. To unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in this process, we screened the E. coli single-gene deletion mutants of the Keio collection for glycogen content in ADP-glucose-containing culture medium...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Y Galperin
Bacterial signal transduction systems are responsible for sensing environmental cues and adjusting the cellular behaviour and/or metabolism in response to these cues. They also monitor the intracellular conditions and the status of the cell envelope and the cytoplasmic membrane and trigger various stress responses to counteract adverse changes. This surveillance involves several classes of sensor proteins: histidine kinases; chemoreceptors; membrane components of the sugar phosphotransferase system; adenylate, diadenylate and diguanylate cyclases and certain cAMP, c-di-AMP and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases; extracytoplasmic function sigma factors and Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases...
September 5, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Magdalena Szczesny, Christophe Beloin, Jean-Marc Ghigo
Biofilms are often described as protective shelters that preserve bacteria from hostile surroundings. However, biofilm bacteria are also exposed to various stresses and need to adjust to the heterogeneous physicochemical conditions prevailing within biofilms. In Gram-negative bacteria, such adaptations can result in modifications of the lipopolysaccharide, a major component of the outer membrane characterized by a highly dynamic structure responding to environmental changes. We previously showed that Gram-negative biofilm bacteria undergo an increase in lipid A palmitoylation mediated by the PagP enzyme, contributing to increased resistance to host defenses...
August 21, 2018: MBio
Sandrine Auger, Céline Henry, Christine Péchoux, Sneha Suman, Nathalie Lejal, Nicolas Bertho, Thibaut Larcher, Slavica Stankic, Jasmina Vidic
The increasing number of multidrug resistant bacteria raises a serious public-health concern, which is exacerbated by the lack of new antibiotics. Metal oxide nanoparticles are already applied as an antibacterial additive in various products used in everyday life but their modes of action have remained unclear. Moreover, their potential negative effects to human health are still under evaluation. We explored effects of mixed metal oxide Zn0.15 Mg0.85 O on Bacillus subtilis, as a model bacterial organism, and on murine macrophages...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Angela M Mitchell, Tharan Srikumar, Thomas J Silhavy
Gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane (OM) impermeable to many toxic compounds that can be further strengthened during stress. In Enterobacteriaceae , the envelope contains enterobacterial common antigen (ECA), a carbohydrate-derived moiety conserved throughout Enterobacteriaceae , the function of which is poorly understood. Previously, we identified several genes in Escherichia coli K-12 responsible for an RpoS-dependent decrease in envelope permeability during carbon-limited stationary phase. For one of these, yhdP , a gene of unknown function, deletion causes high levels of both vancomycin and detergent sensitivity, independent of growth phase...
August 7, 2018: MBio
Anna I Weaver, Shannon G Murphy, Benjamin D Umans, Srikar Tallavajhala, Ikenna Onyekwere, Stephen Wittels, Jung-Ho Shin, Michael VanNieuwenhze, Matthew K Waldor, Tobias Dörr
Many bacteria are resistant to killing (tolerant) by typically bactericidal antibiotics due to their ability to counteract drug-induced cell damage. Vibrio cholerae , the cholera agent, displays an unusually high tolerance to diverse inhibitors of cell wall synthesis. Exposure to these agents, which in other bacteria leads to lysis and death, results in a breakdown of the cell wall and subsequent sphere formation in V. cholerae Spheres readily recover to rod-shaped cells upon antibiotic removal, but the mechanisms mediating the recovery process are not well characterized...
October 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kathrin S Fröhlich, Susan Gottesman
The ability of bacteria to thrive in diverse habitats and to adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions relies on the rapid and stringent modulation of gene expression. It has become evident in the past decade that small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are central components of networks controlling the bacterial responses to stress. Functioning at the posttranscriptional level, sRNAs base-pair with cognate mRNAs to alter translation, stability, or both to either repress or activate the targeted transcripts; the RNA chaperone Hfq participates in stabilizing sRNAs and in promoting pairing between target and sRNA...
July 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Inês N Silva, Filipa D Pessoa, Marcelo J Ramires, Mário R Santos, Jörg D Becker, Vaughn S Cooper, Leonilde M Moreira
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex grow in different natural and man-made environments and are feared opportunistic pathogens that cause chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Previous studies showed that Burkholderia mucoid clinical isolates grown under stress conditions give rise to nonmucoid variants devoid of the exopolysaccharide cepacian. Here, we determined that a major cause of the nonmucoid morphotype involves nonsynonymous mutations and small indels in the ompR gene encoding a response regulator of a two-component regulatory system...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Soraya Omardien, Jan W Drijfhout, Henk van Veen, Soraya Schachtschabel, Martijn Riool, Leendert W Hamoen, Stanley Brul, Sebastian A J Zaat
BACKGROUND: Three amphipathic cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were characterized by determining their effect on Gram-positive bacteria using Bacillus subtilis strain 168 as a model organism. These peptides were TC19 and TC84, derivatives of thrombocidin-1 (TC-1), the major AMPs of human blood platelets, and Bactericidal Peptide 2 (BP2), a synthetic designer peptide based on human bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI). METHODS: To elucidate the possible mode of action of the AMPs we performed a transcriptomic analysis using microarrays...
November 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes
Imke Spöring, Sebastian Felgner, Matthias Preuße, Denitsa Eckweiler, Manfred Rohde, Susanne Häussler, Siegfried Weiss, Marc Erhardt
Flagellum-driven motility of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium facilitates host colonization. However, the large extracellular flagellum is also a prime target for the immune system. As consequence, expression of flagella is bistable within a population of Salmonella , resulting in flagellated and nonflagellated subpopulations. This allows the bacteria to maximize fitness in hostile environments. The degenerate EAL domain protein RflP (formerly YdiV) is responsible for the bistable expression of flagella by directing the flagellar master regulatory complex FlhD4 C2 with respect to proteolytic degradation...
May 1, 2018: MBio
Janani Ravi, Vivek Anantharaman, L Aravind, Maria Laura Gennaro
The phage shock protein (Psp) stress-response system protects bacteria from envelope stress through a cascade of interactions with other proteins and membrane lipids to stabilize the cell membrane. A key component of this multi-gene system is PspA, an effector protein that is found in diverse bacterial phyla, archaea, cyanobacteria, and chloroplasts. Other members of the Psp system include the cognate partners of PspA that are part of known operons: pspF||pspABC in Proteobacteria, liaIHGFSR in Firmicutes, and clgRpspAMN in Actinobacteria...
May 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Sushovan Dam, Jean-Marie Pagès, Muriel Masi
Bacteria have evolved several strategies to survive a myriad of harmful conditions in the environment and in hosts. In Gram-negative bacteria, responses to nutrient limitation, oxidative or nitrosative stress, envelope stress, exposure to antimicrobials and other growth-limiting stresses have been linked to the development of antimicrobial resistance. This results from the activation of protective changes to cell physiology (decreased outer membrane permeability), resistance transporters (drug efflux pumps), resistant lifestyles (biofilms, persistence) and/or resistance mutations (target mutations, production of antibiotic modification/degradation enzymes)...
March 2018: Microbiology
Christian Eberlein, Thomas Baumgarten, Stephan Starke, Hermann J Heipieper
Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and cell growth. However, to survive sudden environmental changes, bacterial short-term responses are essential to keep the cells alive after the occurrence of an environmental stress factor such as heat shock or the presence of toxic organic solvents...
March 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Aida Ebrahimi, Laszlo N Csonka, Muhammad A Alam
Heat treatment is one of the most widely used methods for inactivation of bacteria in food products. Heat-induced loss of bacterial viability has been variously attributed to protein denaturation, oxidative stress, or membrane leakage; indeed, it is likely to involve a combination of these processes. We examine the effect of mild heat stress (50-55°C for ≤12 min) on cell permeability by directly measuring the electrical conductance of samples of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to answer a fundamental biophysical question, namely, how bacteria die under mild heat stress...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Sushovan Dam, Jean-Marie Pagès, Muriel Masi
Antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a serious threat for public health. The permeation of antibiotics through their outer membrane is largely dependent on porin, changes in which cause reduced drug uptake and efficacy. Escherichia coli produces two major porins, OmpF and OmpC. MicF and MicC are small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate the expression of OmpF and OmpC, respectively. In this work, we investigated factors that lead to increased production of MicC. micC promoter region was fused to lacZ , and the reporter plasmid was transformed into E...
December 6, 2017: Antibiotics
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Viviana Teresa Orlandi, Fabrizio Bolognese, Eleonora Martegani, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Claudio Medana, Paola Barbieri
Clinicians often have to deal with infections that are difficult to control because they are caused by superbugs resistant to many antibiotics. Alternatives to antibiotic treatment include antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The photodynamic process causes bacterial death, inducing oxidative stress through the photoactivation of photosensitizer molecules in the presence of oxygen. No PDT-resistant bacteria have been selected to date, thus the response to photo-oxidative stress in non-phototrophic bacteria needs further investigation...
October 12, 2017: Microbiology
Flavia Squeglia, Alessia Ruggiero, Rita Berisio
The cell wall envelope of mycobacteria is structurally distinct from that of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this cell wall has unique structural features and plays a crucial role in drug resistance and macrophage survival under stress conditions. Peptidoglycan is the major constituent of this cell wall, with an important structural role, giving structural strength, and counteracting the osmotic pressure of the cytoplasm. Synthesis of this complex polymer takes place in three stages that occur at three different locations in the cell, from the cytoplasm to the external side of the cell membrane, where polymerization occurs...
February 21, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Britta Kleine, Ava Chattopadhyay, Tino Polen, Daniela Pinto, Thorsten Mascher, Michael Bott, Melanie Brocker, Roland Freudl
When the cell envelope integrity is compromised, bacteria trigger signaling cascades resulting in the production of proteins that counteract these extracytoplasmic stresses. Here, we show that the two-component system EsrSR regulates a cell envelope stress response in the Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. The sensor kinase EsrS possesses an amino-terminal phage shock protein C (PspC) domain, a property that sets EsrSR apart from all other two-component systems characterized so far. An integral membrane protein, EsrI, whose gene is divergently transcribed to the esrSR gene locus and which interestingly also possesses a PspC domain, acts as an inhibitor of EsrSR under non-stress conditions...
December 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Ying Liang, Li Zhu, Minjie Gao, Zhiyong Zheng, Jianrong Wu, Xiaobei Zhan
In order to explore the mechanism by which Tween-80 enhances the production of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp., the effects of Tween-80 on the production and structure of curdlan and Agrobacterium sp. were evaluated. Maximum curdlan production (51.94g/L) was achieved when 16g/L Tween-80 was added at the beginning of the cell growth stage. The addition of Tween-80 at higher concentration inhibited cell growth. However, the addition of 16g/L Tween-80 enhanced the production of curdlan with a looser ultrastructure, significantly weakened the envelopment of curdlan on Agrobacterium sp...
January 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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