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cyclophosphamide pharmaceutic—tecnology

Arin Bhattacharjee, Abhishek Basu, Jaydip Biswas, Tuhinadri Sen, Sudin Bhattacharya
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the widely used anticancer agents; however, it has serious deleterious effects on normal host cells due to its nonspecific action. The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is suggested to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy and currently used in pharmaceutical formulations. Previous report had shown Nano-Se could protect CP-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in normal Swiss albino mice; however, its role in cancer management is still not clear. The aim of present study is to investigate the chemoprotective efficacy of Nano-Se against CP-induced toxicity as well as its chemoenhancing capability when used along with CP in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells...
October 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Roger Kelsey Halbert
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune syndrome that presents with personality changes, autonomic dysfunction, and neurologic deterioration. Most patients with this syndrome progress from psychosis to seizure to catatonia, often associated with abnormal movements, autonomic instability, and hypoventilation. First-line treatment constitutes resection of the associated neoplasm, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange. Second-line treatment includes rituximab and cyclophosphamide...
October 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Shan-Shan Chen, Yan Zhang, Qiu-Li Lu, Zhe Lin, Yuqing Zhao
Although numerous hypotheses have been proposed to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), effective pharmaceuticals have yet to be developed. In our study, the back hairs of C57BL/6 mice were factitiously removed. These mice were then treated with cedrol or minoxidil daily. Mice with early-stage anagen VI hair follicles were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP, 125mg/kg) to induce alopecia. The CYP-damaged hair follicles were observed and quantified by using a digital photomicrograph. The results demonstrated that the minoxidil-treated mice suffered from complete alopecia similar to the model 6days after CYP administration...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Keisuke Kuroda, René Itten, Lubomira Kovalova, Christoph Ort, David G Weissbrodt, Christa S McArdell
A model to predict the mass flows and concentrations of pharmaceuticals predominantly used in hospitals across a large number of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents and river waters was developed at high spatial resolution. It comprised 427 geo-referenced hospitals and 742 STPs serving 98% of the general population in Switzerland. In the modeled base scenario, domestic, pharmaceutical use was geographically distributed according to the population size served by the respective STPs. Distinct hospital scenarios were set up to evaluate how the predicted results were modified when pharmaceutical use in hospitals was allocated differently; for example, in proportion to number of beds or number of treatments in hospitals...
May 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Hamed Al Qarni, Philip Collier, Juliette O'Keeffe, Joseph Akunna
The concentrations of 12 pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, erythromycin, cyclophosphamide, paracetamol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, caffeine, clarithromycin, lidocaine, sulfamethoxazole and N-acetylsulfamethoxazol (NACS)) were investigated in the influents and effluents of two hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. The majority of the target analytes were detected in the influent samples apart from bezafibrate, cyclophosphamide, and erythromycin. Caffeine and paracetamol were detected in the influent at particularly high concentrations up to 75 and 12 ug/L, respectively...
July 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Terry Ng, Sasha Mazzarello, Zhou Wang, Brian Hutton, George Dranitsaris, Lisa Vandermeer, Stephanie Smith, Mark Clemons
Multiple endpoints can be used to evaluate chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). These endpoints reflect the various combinations of vomiting, nausea and rescue antiemetic use in the acute (0-24 h), delayed (>24-120 h) and overall (0-120 h) periods after chemotherapy. As the choice of outcome measure could potentially change the interpretation of clinical trial results, we evaluated CINV rates using different endpoints on a single dataset from a prospective cohort. Data from 177 breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline and cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy was used to calculate CINV control rates using the 15 most commonly reported CINV endpoints...
January 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Adebowale Bernard Saba, Ebunoluwa Racheal Olowu, Racheal Omolola Dada, Akinleye Stephen Akinrinde
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is a widely used anticancer chemotherapeutic agent and its toxicity has been associated with its toxic metabolites phosphormide mustard. Therefore, the ameliorative effect of Gallic acid against neurotoxicity was examined in this study. Sixty rats were grouped into 10 rats per group. Group 1 received saline orally. Group 2 received CPA at 100 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneally on day 1. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with Gallic acid (GA) at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight only for 10 days and also received a single dose of CPA (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on day 1, respectively...
2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Carlos Alexandre Lutterbeck, Marcelo Luís Wilde, Ewelina Baginska, Christoph Leder, Ênio Leandro Machado, Klaus Kümmerer
The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has triggered concern among the general population and received considerable attention from the scientific community in recent years. However, only a few publications have focused on anticancer drugs, a class of pharmaceuticals that can exhibit cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. The present study investigated the photodegradation, biodegradation, bacterial toxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
January 2016: Environmental Pollution
L Soumoy, C Pirlot, C Decoster, P Gillet, J D Hecq
BACKGROUND: "Dose-banding" is a concept of cytotoxic drugs standardization allowing the preparation in advance of standardized rounded doses (SRD covering the most frequently prescribed doses rounded to +/-5%. Standard doses will be prepared in advance by batch in order to increase production capacity and at the same time to regulate pharmacy workflow as well as to reduce patient waiting time. PURPOSE: To identify anticancer drugs suitable for dose banding and to fix standardized doses...
September 2015: Journal de Pharmacie de Belgique
Elias Jabbour, Hagop Kantarjian, Farhad Ravandi, Deborah Thomas, Xuelin Huang, Stefan Faderl, Naveen Pemmaraju, Naval Daver, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Koji Sasaki, Jorge Cortes, Rebecca Garris, C Cameron Yin, Joseph D Khoury, Jeffrey Jorgensen, Zeev Estrov, Zachary Bohannan, Marina Konopleva, Tapan Kadia, Nitin Jain, Courtney DiNardo, William Wierda, Vicky Jeanis, Susan O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Combination of chemotherapy with a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Ponatinib is a more potent BCR-ABL1 inhibitor than all other tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and selectively suppresses the resistant T315I clones. We examined the activity and safety of combining chemotherapy with ponatinib for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in this continuing phase 2 trial...
November 2015: Lancet Oncology
Philip A Provencher, Jennifer A Love
4-(4-Nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) is a colorimetric indicator compound for many types of carcinogenic alkylating agents. Because of the similar reactivity of NBP and guanine in DNA, NBP serves as a DNA model. NBP assays are used in the toxicological screening of pharmaceutical compounds, detection of chemical warfare agents, environmental hygiene technology, preliminary toxicology tests, mutagenicity of medicinal compounds, and other chemical analyses. Nevertheless, the use of NBP as a DNA model suffers from the compound's low water solubility, its lack of reactive oxygen sites, and dissimilar steric encumbrance compared to DNA...
October 2, 2015: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Massimo Martino, Anna Grazia Recchia, Tiziana Moscato, Roberta Fedele, Santo Neri, Massimo Gentile, Caterina Alati, Iolanda Donatella Vincelli, Eugenio Piro, Giuseppa Penna, Caterina Musolino, Francesca Ronco, Stefano Molica, Fortunato Morabito
BACKGROUND AIMS: Filgrastim and lenograstim are the standard granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) agents for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization (PBSC) in patients who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation. METHODS: To assess whether biosimilars are effective, we conducted a single-center, prospective study that included 40 consecutive de novo multiple myeloma patients who received cyclophosphamide 4 g/m(2) per day plus biosimilar filgrastim G-CSF to mobilize PBSC...
October 2015: Cytotherapy
Takashi Azuma, Hirotaka Ishiuchi, Tomomi Inoyama, Yusuke Teranishi, Misato Yamaoka, Takaji Sato, Yoshiki Mino
Pollution status of six anticancer agents in the river water and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Japan was surveyed with comparative analysis of the levels of four microbial and one psychotropic pharmaceuticals widely used for therapeutic medication. The area of survey is located in the Kanzaki-Ai River basin which is a major subcatchment of the Yodo River basin and is centered on a highly populated area that includes the middle and downstream reaches of the Yodo River. Selected cancer agents were bicalutamide, capecitabine, cyclophosphamide, doxifluridine, tamoxifen, and tegafur...
December 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sonya Kleywegt, Vince Pileggi, Yuet Ming Lam, Alan Elises, Aaron Puddicomb, Gurminder Purba, Joanne Di Caro, Tim Fletcher
Concentrations and percent loadings of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and other emerging contaminants released from healthcare facilities (2 hospitals and a long-term care facility) to a sewage treatment plant (STP) in a large urban sewershed were evaluated. An additional hospital outside the sewershed was also monitored. Fourteen of the 24 steroids/hormones and 88 of the 117 PhACs and emerging contaminants were detected at least once. Commonly used substances, including cotinine, caffeine and its metabolite 1,7-dimethylxanthine, ibuprofen and naproxen (analgesics), venlafaxine (antidepressant), and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (insect repellant), were detected in all samples at all sites...
April 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Kazumi Matsumoto, Kazuyo Zaizen, Atsushi Miyamoto, Yumi Wako, Kazufumi Kawasako, Hisao Ishida
The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect liver carcinogens, and this assay could be integrated into general toxicological studies. In this study, in order to assess the performance of the assay, cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CP) was tested in a 14-day RDLMN assay. Based on the results of the 4-day repeated dose-finding study, 10 mg/kg/day of CP was selected as the highest dose and the lower doses were set at 5, 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 mg/kg/day for the 14-day RDLMN assay...
March 2015: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Carlos Alexandre Lutterbeck, Deivid Ismael Kern, Ênio Leandro Machado, Klaus Kümmerer
Anti-cancer drugs are compounds that are of high environmental relevance because of their lack of specific mode of action. They can be extremely harmful to living organisms even at low concentrations. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of four frequently used anti-cancer drugs against plant seedlings, namely Cyclophosphamide (CP), Methotrexate (MTX), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Imatinib (IM). The phytotoxicity experiments were performed with Lactuca sativa seedlings whereas cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity investigations were performed with the well-established Allium cepa assays...
September 2015: Chemosphere
Devon D Sominski, Patricia Rafferty, Kerry Brosnan, Amy Volk, Mindi Walker, Dorie Capaldi, Eva Emmell, Kjell Johnson, Daniel Weinstock
An important component of safety assessment of new pharmaceuticals is evaluation of their potential to increase the risk of developing cancer in humans. The traditional 2-year rodent bioassay often is not feasible or scientifically applicable for evaluation of biotherapeutics. Additionally, it has poor predictive value for non-genotoxic immunosuppressive compounds. Thus, there is a need for alternative testing strategies. A novel 3-stage tumor model in syngeneic C3H/HeN mice was evaluated here to study the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on tumor promotion and progression in vivo...
2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Tadeusz Robak, Huiqiang Huang, Jie Jin, Jun Zhu, Ting Liu, Olga Samoilova, Halyna Pylypenko, Gregor Verhoef, Noppadol Siritanaratkul, Evgenii Osmanov, Julia Alexeeva, Juliana Pereira, Johannes Drach, Jiri Mayer, Xiaonan Hong, Rumiko Okamoto, Lixia Pei, Brendan Rooney, Helgi van de Velde, Franco Cavalli
BACKGROUND: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was initially approved for the treatment of relapsed mantle-cell lymphoma. We investigated whether substituting bortezomib for vincristine in frontline therapy with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) could improve outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed mantle-cell lymphoma. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 487 adults with newly diagnosed mantle-cell lymphoma who were ineligible or not considered for stem-cell transplantation to receive six to eight 21-day cycles of R-CHOP intravenously on day 1 (with prednisone administered orally on days 1 to 5) or VR-CAP (R-CHOP regimen, but replacing vincristine with bortezomib at a dose of 1...
March 5, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Yuanming Xu, Francesca E Duncan, Min Xu, Teresa K Woodruff
Screening of pharmaceutical, chemical and environmental compounds for their effects on reproductive health relies on in vivo studies. More robust and efficient methods to assess these effects are needed. Herein we adapted and validated an organotypic in vitro follicle growth (IVFG) assay to determine the impact of compounds on markers of ovarian function. We isolated mammalian follicles and cultured them in the presence of compounds with: (1) known fertotoxicity (i.e. toxicity to the reproductive system; cyclophosphamide and cisplatin); (2) no known fertotoxicity (nalbuphine); and (3) unknown fertotoxicity (Corexit EC 9500 A; CE, Nalco, Chicago, IL, USA)...
February 18, 2015: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
André Ferraz Goiana Leal, Melyna Chaves Leite, Caroline Sanuzi Quirino Medeiros, Isabella Macário Ferro Cavalcanti, Almir Gonçalves Wanderley, Nereide Stela Santos Magalhães, Rejane Pereira Neves
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical application of a liposomal formulation of itraconazole for the treatment of experimental keratitis with endophthalmitis caused by Aspergillus flavus. The liposomes were obtained by the lipid film hydration method followed by sonication. Adult female Wistar rats (weighing 200-220 g) were immunosuppressed by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide 3 days before infection by exposure to the fungus A. flavus (10(7) spores/ml). Forty-eight hours later, the animals were treated with the liposomal formulation...
April 2015: Mycopathologia
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